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  • 1. Bertilsson, Jan
    et al.
    Barr, U.K.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Borch, E
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Normann, A
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nielsen, T
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lindbom, Ingela
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lundh, Åse
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Åström, annika
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för mjölkproduktion och framställning av konsumtionsmjölk och lagrad ost.2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Canali, Massimo
    et al.
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Amani, Pegah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Aramyan, Lusine
    LEI, The Netherlands.
    Gheoldus, Manuela
    Deloitte Développement Durable, France.
    Moates, Graham
    Institute of Food Research, UK.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Silvennoinen, Kirsi
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Finland.
    Waldron, Keith
    Institute of Food Research, UK.
    Vittuari, Matteo
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Food Waste Drivers in Europe, from Identification to Possible Interventions2017Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, artikel-id 37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing volumes of food globally lost or wasted and implications for food security and sustainability have raised the concern of researchers, governments, international organizations and grass-root movements. Much research and experiences investigating food waste causes and drivers focus on one specific segment of the food supply chain and limit the analysis to the situation of one or few countries, while the few studies of wider geographical scope also target other relevant and diversified objectives (e.g., food waste definition, quantification, environmental and economic impacts, and recommendations for interventions). This study, carried out by a network of European institutions involved in research and initiatives against food waste, focuses on the analysis of a broad area, Europe, through a wide and systematic literature review and consultation with stakeholders in international focus groups. The food supply chain was divided into seven segments and three main contexts were defined for the examination of food waste sources: Technological, Institutional (related to organisational factors, i.e., business management, economy, legislation, and policy), and Social (related to consumers’ behaviours and lifestyles). Results suggest a wide and multifaceted problem, interconnected across all stages of the food supply chain, from primary production, to final consumption. Within each context, the identified drivers have been grouped according to the possibilities and the type of interventions for food waste reduction. A final cross-contextual prioritization distinguished food waste sources related to (A) inherent characteristics of food; (B) social and economic factors; (C) individual non-readily changeable behaviours; (D) other priorities targeted by private and public stakeholders; (E) diversified factors, such as mismanagement, inefficient legislation, lack of awareness or information; and sub-optimal use of available technologies, which could be more promptly changed. Such diversification of causes calls for specific monitoring systems, targeted policy measures, and actions of individual stakeholders at each stage of the food supply chain.

  • 3.
    Corrado, Sara
    et al.
    European Commission, Italy.
    Caldeira, Carla
    European Commission, Italy.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Hanssen, Ola
    Ostfold Research, Norway.
    Hauser, Hans
    European Commission, Luxemburg.
    van Holsteijn, Freija
    VHK BV, Netherlands.
    Liu, Gang
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Lund University, Sweden.
    Parry, Andrew
    WRAP, UK.
    Secondi, Luca
    University of Tuscia, Italy.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Sala, Serenella
    European Commission, Italy.
    Food waste accounting methodologies: Challenges, opportunities, and further advancements2019Ingår i: Global Food Security, ISSN 2211-9124, Vol. 20, s. 93-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    About one third of the food produced globally is wasted along the food chain, representing a burden for the environment and an inefficiency of the food system. Tackling food waste is a priority on the global political agenda to guarantee food security. Defining a methodology for food waste quantification is key to monitoring progress towards the achievement of reduction targets. This paper summarises the outcomes of a workshop on food waste accounting co-organised by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre and Directorate-General on Health and Food Safety with the aim of stimulating harmonisation of methodologies, identifying challenges, opportunities, and further advancement for food waste accounting. The paper presents methodological aspects, e.g. system boundaries, reliability of data, accounting of water flows, to ensure better support to food waste policy design and interventions. It addresses all the actors of the food supply chain, governments, and research institutions. © 2019 The Authors

  • 4.
    Davis, Jennifer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    De Menna, Fabio
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Unger, Nicole
    BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Loubiere, Marion
    Deloitte Sustainability, USA.
    Vittuari, Matteo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Generic strategy LCA and LCC: Guidance for LCA and LCC focused on prevention, valorisation and treatment of side flows from the food supply chain2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Urged by the importance of resource efficiency and circular economy agenda of EU and national policy makers, many stakeholders are seeking alternatives for current surplus food or side flows within the food supply chain. Any new valorisation route for side flows (i.e. not the main product) will be associated with impacts (monetary and environmental). To allow informed decision making at all levels, from individual stakeholder to policy level, robust, consistent and science based approaches are required. The EU H2020 funded project REFRESH (Resource Efficient Food and dRink for the Entire Supply cHain) aims to contribute to food waste reduction throughout the food supply chain, and evaluate the environmental impacts and life cycle costs.

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) are well documented and generic approaches for assessing the environmental and cost dimensions of a system. Both LCA and LCC are characterised by allowing for a large flexibility in system scoping. To allow for comparison between different options consistent approaches are required. Furthermore, there is a need to bridge the gap between assessors who might have a deep knowledge of the systems they are assessing, but are not in depth method experts on LCA or LCC. Highlighting challenging methodological aspects and encouraging the practitioner to ask the most relevant questions contributes to a better scoping practice of LCA and LCCs.

    The objective of this study was to develop a consistent approach, combining LCA and LCA specifically to assess impacts of prevention of resource inefficiencies, valorisation routes and waste handling in the food supply chain. The recommendations build on existing standards and state-of-the-art LCA/LCC research, and provide guidance on how to overcome specific methodological challenges. They focus particularly on the goal and scope stage of an LCA and Environmental LCC and on side flows from the food supply chain.

    To categorise systems in order to be assessed, the concept of “REFRESH situations” (RS) has been developed (De Mena et al., 2016; Unger et al., 2016). The four REFRESH situations (RS) are: Prevention of side flow (RS 1), side flow valorisation (RS 2), valorisation as part of waste management (RS 3), and end-of-life treatment (RS 4). The REFRESH situations can take place at any point/process in the life cycle, within the remit of any stakeholder (including consumers) and are independent of the perspective taken, i.e. of the producer of side stream or the receiver. For each REFRESH situation, specific recommendations on setting of system boundary, functional unit(s) and handling of multi-functionality in relation to the stated problem are provided (beside some other aspects). The importance to differentiate between attributional and consequential approaches is discussed in detail. This consistent approach contributes towards more harmonised use of LCA and LCC for informed decision for handling side flows in the food supply chain.

    The focus of the specific recommendations given in this report is primarily on change-oriented studies on interventions for side flows since foot print studies are to a higher degree covered in existing frameworks such as the ILCD-handbook and the PEF framework under development.

  • 5.
    Davis, Jennifer
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Development of an LCA methodology to assess the environmental impacts of process changes: two case studies in Sweden2007Ingår i: Food Manufacturing Efficiency, ISSN 1750-2683, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 1-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Davis, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Development of an LCA methodology to assess the environmental impacts of process changes: two case studies in Sweden.2007Ingår i: Food Manufacturing Efficiency, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 42017-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7. Henningsson, M.
    et al.
    Regner, M.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tragardh, C.
    Dejmek, P.
    CFD simulation and ERT visualization of the displacement of yoghurt by water on industrial scale2007Ingår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 80, nr 1, s. 166-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rinsing step, in which yoghurt is displaced by water, was monitored in a dairy plant using electrical resistance tomography (ERT), with a new hygienic design of the ERT sensors. The same displacement situation was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and showed good agreement with the ERT measurements. CFD was also used to study how different properties, such as flow velocity, wall slip and the rheological properties of the yoghurt, could change the effectiveness of rinsing. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8. Henningsson, M.
    et al.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Dejmek, P.
    Plug flow of yoghurt in piping as determined by cross-correlated dual-plane electrical resistance tomography2006Ingår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 76, nr 2, s. 163-168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-correlation of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to determine the velocity profile of yoghurt in a pipe of industrial dimensions. In viscometry, at shear rates higher than 10 s-1, the yoghurt followed the power law model with a K-value of 3.7 Pa sn and an n-value of 0.37. In pipe flow, however, within the tested mean velocity range of 0.05-0.25 m s-1, the yoghurt appeared to flow as a plug. The local velocity was constant from the centreline to within 3 mm of the tube wall, which corresponds to the resolution of the ERT method. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9. Henningsson, M.
    et al.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Dejmek, P.
    The electrical conductivity of milk: The effect of dilution and temperature2005Ingår i: International journal of food properties, ISSN 1094-2912, E-ISSN 1532-2386, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 15-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrical conductivity of milk at various dilutions was measured at different temperatures from 2 to 70°C. The results showed that dilution has only a small influence on the temperature dependence of conductivity. A simple power-law model predicts that the conductivity is proportional to the milk concentration to the power of 0.84 and a two-term model describes the temperature dependency. The overall model has a standard deviation of 0.0067 mS cm-1, which corresponds approximately to 0.1% milk at 2°C and 0.07% milk at 70°C. It was further shown that for less than about 25% milk in water Kohlrausch's law and the Debye-Hückel-Onsager theory can be used to describe the relationship between the concentration, temperature, and conductivity using a representative limiting molar conductivity of milk ions of 75 mS cm2 mol-1. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Inc.

  • 10. Henningsson, M.
    et al.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sundberg, R.
    Dejmek, P.
    Sensor fusion as a tool to monitor dynamic dairy processes2006Ingår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 76, nr 2, s. 154-162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A system for monitoring milk and fat concentration in a dynamic milk/water system by fusing information from several sensors was investigated. Standard instrumentation for food production was used, the sensors were a conductivity meter, a density meter and an optical instrument used to measure backscattered light. The system was applied to a dynamic mixing situation. Prediction error did not exceed 2% in the milk concentration and 0.1% fat in the total fat concentration. The applicability of the sensor fusion approach in field conditions was demonstrated by mounting the sensors in a dairy plant and monitoring the start-up of a pasteurizer. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Krewer, Christoffer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Holtz, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Early phase design tool for non-LCA experts: Integrating environmental assessment in the development of novel processing technology in food industry2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Life Cycle Assessment methodology often applies a product perspective but can be used to assess novel production technologies by comparing novel products with a baseline product, as long as the functional unit of the product is considered to be the same. There is increasing environmental concerns in society and pressures on industry to take into account their impact on the environment. Tools are available for this, but not tools adapted to specific industry needs. The reasons to use LCA are foremost to guide the development towards the most sustainable solutions and to evaluate the market potential from an environmental perspective. Challenges arise when applying LCA in early development stages, e.g. getting access to recent development data, to increase commitment and incentives to take early LCA results into consideration, to present results in an attractive way etc. LCA calculations must also keep up with the sometimes rapid development. In order to meet these challenges interactive report software have been introduced to industrial partners (non-LCA experts) in an EU project called FutureFood (Grant agreement no: 635759). The project goal is to develop a new processing technology for foods (CO2 drying). In order to meet the LCA related challenges a platform has been used that is developed by PRé Consultants (Pre, 2016?), called Share and Collect. It allows LCA experts to develop tools for non-experts so that users are able to alter parameters in the LCA model and assess the result of the changes. It is done by providing the industrial partners with an intuitive web based graphical user interface (GUI). When a user changes input data in the GUI, parameter values also change in the model, an LCA calculation engine runs the model and the GUI presents the corresponding results. In the project a tool for assessing the processing technology has been developed and the industrial partners  are provided rights to access the tools and create ‘what if’ scenarios. Examples of changes are change of electricity production, transport distances, transport types or modes, raw material source, packaging, production resource or energy efficiency etc. The tool has been evaluated by the non-LCA expert industrial partners, and the first review results show that it is user friendly, visually appealing and interesting in its interactive way because of the instant feedback of results. Tailored models such as the ones developed in the project have the potential to support knowledge based decisions in innovation projects in companies.

  • 12. Melin, Martin
    et al.
    Rydberg, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sundström, Barbro
    Östergren, Karin
    Lean för konkurrenskraftig och klimateffektiv mjölkproduktion2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 13. Nilsson, M.
    et al.
    Lipnizki, F.
    Tragardh, G.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Performance, energy and cost evaluation of a nanofiltration plant operated at elevated temperatures2008Ingår i: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 36-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of temperature on cost and energy consumption during nanofiltration has been evaluated. The effect of temperature on pressure drop, fouling, concentration polarisation and changes in the membrane performance were evaluated experimentally and theoretically. Nanofiltration experiments using pure solutions and wastewater from the meat industry were performed at 25 and 55 °C with an Alfa Laval NFT-50 nanofiltration membrane. The results showed that the flux was slightly higher during wastewater concentration at 55 than at 25 °C. The difference was smaller than expected and is explained by both fouling and changes in the membrane performance due to the combined effects of pH and temperature. The concentration polarisation was found to be less at the higher temperature, as predicted by theory. However, this effect was small in comparison to the effect of temperature on fouling and the membrane performance. The influence of cleaning procedure on flux and retention was very dependent on the processing temperature due to time- and temperature-dependent changes in the membrane performance. Nanofiltration plants designed to run at 25 and 55 °C were dimensioned based on the results of the pilot study. Nanofiltration at 55 °C was found to be slightly better with respect to the investment cost. The energy required for pumping was lower at 55 °C. However, the energy required for heating is high and processing at 55 °C is only advantageous if the feed is already warm, if there is excess heat in the factory, or if the heat can be recycled. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14. Nilsson, M.
    et al.
    Tragardh, G.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of temperature and cleaning on aromatic and semi-aromatic polyamide thin-film composite NF and RO membranes2008Ingår i: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 717-726Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although cleaning removes fouling, it may change the properties of membranes and consequently influence their performance. We have evaluated the combined effect of acidic/alkaline cleaning and temperature on the performance of two aromatic membranes, one a reverse osmosis membrane (HR98PP) and the other a nanofiltration membrane (NF90), two semi-aromatic polypiperazine membranes (NF200, NFT-50) and a Desal-5DK nanofiltration membrane. At the retention minimum of each membrane, the KCl retention and the water permeability were in the order: NFT-50 < NF200 < Desal-5DK < NF90 < HR98PP and HR98PP < NF90 < NF200 < Desal-5DK < NFT-50, respectively. After nanofiltration at elevated temperatures acidic and alkaline cleaning increased the water permeability and decreased the retention of the Desal-5DK membrane. Similar behaviour was observed after acidic cleaning of the aromatic polyamide membranes and with alkaline cleaning of the semi-aromatic polyamide (polypiperazine) membranes. Increased hysteresis was seen in the membrane performance with increasing temperature. The hysteresis behaviour was dependent on the cleaning procedure and could be related to swelling and shrinkage of the active polyamide layer. At 40 °C the reverse osmosis membrane (HR98PP) showed the same performance as the NF90 nanofiltration membrane at 20 °C. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15. Nilsson, M.
    et al.
    Tragardh, G.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Salt and temperature dependent permeability changes of a NF membrane2006Ingår i: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 199, nr 42007, s. 39-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16. Nilsson, M.
    et al.
    Tragardh, G.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The influence of different kinds of pre-treatment on the performance of a polyamide nanofiltration membrane2006Ingår i: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 195, nr 42007, s. 160-168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although pre-treatment of membranes is often used to ensure the reliability of experimental data, it also has the potential to improve many aspects of membrane performance. This study investigates the influence of chemical pre-treatment and wetting on membrane flux and retention. The results show that chemical pre-treatment, with either a phosphate buffer or alkaline cleaning agents, enhances the flux and lowers the retention. Wetting at 40°C after membrane cleaning increased the flux and retention, whereas wetting at 50°C decreased the flux and increased the retention. No effect of pre-treatment with NaOH, at pH 9.8 or 10.4, was observed. The influence of NaCl on flux and surface contact angle was also evaluated, and pre-treatment with 0.20 M NaCl(aq) was shown to increase the flux but to have no effect on surface contact angle. The origin of the positive effect of chemical pre-treatment on membrane flux appears to lie in the ion-membrane interactions within the membrane, where time and temperature are of importance. This would explain our finding that some of the positive effects of cleaning agents and NaCl on membrane flux are quickly lost after increasing the processing temperature during pure water flux measurements. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 17. Nilsson, M.
    et al.
    Tragardh, G.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The influence of pH, salt and temperature on nanofiltration performance2008Ingår i: Journal of Membrane Science, ISSN 0376-7388, E-ISSN 1873-3123, Vol. 312, nr 42006, s. 97-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pH, KCl and temperature on the performance of an Alfa Laval NFT-50 nanofiltration membrane was evaluated by glucose and KCl retention measurements at constant flux. It was found that at constant temperature an increase in pH in the absence of KCl reduced the water permeability, and this was correlated to the electroviscous effect. The selectivity decreased with increasing KCl concentration and the decrease became more evident with increasing pH. The decrease in selectivity could be related to membrane swelling, and it appears that pH had no effect on swelling other than enhancing the effect of KCl. The influence of KCl and pH on membrane performance was evaluated as a function of temperature after reaching steady state at 50 °C. The degree of swelling was higher at 50 °C than at 20 °C, due to an increase in polymer flexibility with increasing temperature. The decrease in selectivity with increasing temperature was less for KCl than for glucose, showing that the charge effect was influenced less by temperature than diffusion through the membrane. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 18. Nilsson, M.
    et al.
    Tragardh, G.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The influence of sodium chloride on mass transfer in a polyamide nanofiltration membrane at elevated temperatures2006Ingår i: Journal of Membrane Science, ISSN 0376-7388, E-ISSN 1873-3123, Vol. 280, nr 42006, s. 928-936Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of temperature (20-50 °C) and NaCl on mass transfer of pure water and glucose solution (0.0055 M) using an Alfa Laval NFT-50 nanofiltration membrane has been investigated. Addition of 0.017 M NaCl(aq) increased the membrane permeability in comparison to measurements with pure water. Performing cyclic temperature variations using a membrane pre-treated with 0.20 M NaCl(aq) caused the membrane permeability to decrease for each time a new maximum temperature was reached. After NaCl pre-treatment, the relative flux decline measured over 4 h was found to be greater for glucose than for water, and the rate of the flux decline for both water and glucose increased with temperature (20-50 °C). The permeability was found to be unaffected by the pressure if the membrane had previously been rinsed at a lower pressure but at a higher temperature. Changes in permeability due to the presence of NaCl could be related to interactions in the active polymer layer of the membrane. MgCl2 pre-treatment influenced the membrane permeability less that NaCl pre-treatment. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 19. Regner, M.
    et al.
    Henningsson, M.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tragardh, C.
    Predicting the displacement of Yoghurt by water in a pipe using CFD2007Ingår i: Chemical Engineering & Technology, ISSN 0930-7516, E-ISSN 1521-4125, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 844-853Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical scheme based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method for predicting the displacement of one liquid by another has been verified versus electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) measurements for the displacement of yoghurt by water. The scheme using the VOF method predicts the skewed phase distribution as measured using ERT and the global structure of the velocity profile as measured using UVP. The phase distribution using the VOF method was compared with the results using the species transport model which allows for mixing between the phases. The species transport model was found to be less suitable for predicting the displacement of yoghurt by water since the turbulence model was unable to accurately predict the turbulent viscosity in the mixing zone between yoghurt and water, which resulted in a too high rate of mixing. © 2007 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 20. Regner, M.
    et al.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tragardh, C.
    An improved numerical method of calculating the striation thinning in static mixers2005Ingår i: Computers and Chemical Engineering, ISSN 0098-1354, E-ISSN 1873-4375, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 376-380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved method of calculating the rate of striation thinning for laminar flow in a static mixer has been developed. The shapes of the objects studied are reconstructed using elliptic Fourier descriptors, allowing discrimination between true changes in shape and noise due to discretization errors. The method also allows one to choose the level of complexity in the objects to be reconstructed which faciliates optimization of the computations without loss of information. The evaluation of the rate of striation thinning is based on local velocities giving a result closely related to the volumetric flow in different regions of the static mixer. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 21. Regner, M.
    et al.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tragardh, C.
    Effects of geometry and flow rate on secondary flow and the mixing process in static mixers-a numerical study2006Ingår i: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 61, nr 18, s. 6133-6141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the characterization of static mixers using the Z factor, helicity and the rate of striation thinning is presented. These measures were found to be well-suited for the characterization of static mixers as they reflect the pressure drop, the formation of secondary flow, i.e. vortices, and their effect on the mixing process. Two commercial static mixers, the Kenics KM and Lightnin Series 45, have been characterized. In the mixers investigated, secondary flow is formed in the flow at the element intersections and due to the curvature of the mixer elements. The intensity of the vortices is higher in the Lightnin than the Kenics mixer due to edges in the middle of the Lightnin mixer elements. The formation of vortices affects the Z factor by an increase in the power requirement, and the rate of striation thinning by an increase in the stretching of the striations. The formation of vortices was observed at a Reynolds number of 10 in both mixers with aspect ratios of 1.5. However, the intensity of the vortices was greater in the Lightnin than the Kenics mixer, which was observed in not only the magnitude of the helicity, but also the Z factor, rate of striation thinning and the distribution of striation thickness. The distribution in striation thickness is shifted towards thin striations as the flow rate is increased from below to above the Reynolds numbers of which vortices were first observed, but some striations still pass the mixer elements almost unaffected, which can be seen in the skewness of the distribution of the striation thickness, which shifts from being negative to positive. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22. Regner, M.
    et al.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tragardh, C.
    Influence of viscosity ratio on the mixing process in a static mixer: Numerical study2008Ingår i: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 3030-3036Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mixing process in a Lightnin Series 45 static mixer, 40 mm in diameter, has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics and the volume of fluid (VOF) method, a method developed for immiscible fluids but here used for miscible. The mixing process was investigated for two liquids that had viscosities ranging from 0.003 to 51.2 Pa s, and the volumetric flow rate proportion between the liquids was varied between 1/1 and 4/1. The flow rate was 0.1 m/s, and two Reynolds numbers, 1 and 70, were investigated. The mixer performance was evaluated using the rate of striation thinning, and it was found that the greater the difference in viscosity the worse the mixer performance. This effect is due to the difference in elongation rate between the liquids, which exists until equilibrium in shear stress has been reached at the interface between the liquids. For higher Re numbers close to a point when secondary motions start to have significance for the rate of striation thinning, a lower viscosity of the added liquid results in an increase in mixing performance. It was further found that the VOF method can be used to model the mixing of dissimilar liquids in static mixers, but since the thickness of the striations decreases rapidly with the number of mixer elements, the VOF method is most suitable when investigating mixing processes over a small number of mixer elements. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  • 23.
    Rydberg, Anna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Melin, Martin
    Sundström, Barbro
    Östergren, Karin
    Konkurrenskraftigare grisföretagare med Lean: Metodik för hur Lean kan introduceras på slaktgrisgårdar2011Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Sonesson, Ulf Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Annica
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Barr, Ulla-Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Bertilsson, Jan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Brunius, Carl
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Margareta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Göransson, Leif
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hessle, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kumm, Karl-Ivar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundh, Åse
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stenberg, Bo
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Wall, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Paths to a sustainable food sector: integrated design and LCA of future food supply chains: the case of pork production in Sweden2016Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 664-676Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. Changing a supply chain inevitably means that various attributes of the product and its system will change. This project assumed this challenge and delivered detailed descriptions, life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluations, and consequence assessments of the supply chains of six commodities, i.e., milk, cheese, beef, pork, chicken, and bread, from a Swedish region. This paper presents results for the pork supply chain. Methods: In the project setup, experts on production along supply chains designed three scenarios for environmentally improved systems. These scenarios, i.e., the ecosystem, plant nutrients, and climate scenarios, were intended to address different clusters of environmental goals. The next step was to challenge these scenarios by considering their possible consequences for products and systems from the food safety, sensory quality, animal welfare, consumer appreciation, and (for primary production only) cost perspectives. This led to changes in production system design to prevent negative consequences. The final supply chains were quantified using LCA and were again assessed from the three perspectives. Results and discussion: The scenario design approach worked well, thoroughly and credibly describing the production systems. Assessment of consequences bolstered the credibility and quality of the systems and results. The LCA of pig production and smoked ham identified large potentials for improvement by implementing available knowledge: global warming potential (GWP) could be reduced 21–54 % and marine eutrophication by 14–45 %. The main reason for these improvements was improved productivity (approaching the best producers’ current performance), though dedicated measures were also important, resulting in increased nitrogen efficiency, more varied crop rotations for crop production and better production management, and improved animal health and manure management for animal production. Reduced post-farm wastage contributed as did reduced emissions from fertilizer production. Conclusions: The working approach applied was successful in integrating LCA research with food system production expertise to deliver results relevant to supply chain decision-makers. The consequence assessments brought considerable value to the project, giving its results greater credibility. By introducing constraints in the form of “no negative consequences and no increased costs,” the work was “guided” so that the scenario design avoided being hampered by too many opportunities.

  • 25.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Underlag till Färdplan för en väsentligt mer hållbar livsmedelskedja2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att skapa ett underlag för mer operativa, eller konkreta, hållbarhetsmål för aktörerna i livsmedelskedjan. Dessa mål ska i möjligaste mån vara kopplade till kvantifieringar av en hållbar nivå för resursförbrukning och miljöpåverkan globalt.

    Rapporten beskriver en process som startar med att identifiera de relevanta hållbarhetsaspekterna för livsmedelsystemet och baserat på litteratur kvantifiera dessa på global nivå, nedbrutet till en globalt hållbar nivå per capita. Som ett komplement till det globala användes också nationella källor för de miljömål som är av mer regional karaktär. Livsmedelssektorns hållbarhetsprestanda är en kombination av konsumtionsmönster och hur effektiva och hållbara produktionssystemen är. Då rapporten syftade till att ge underlag för konkreta mål för alla aktörer i systemet skapades två typer av mål, en typ som berör konsumtionsmönster och en typ som berör produktionskedjornas hållbarhetsprestanda. För att de totala hållbarhetsmålen ska nås måste både konsumtionen och produktionen förändras, och med hjälp av dessa två mål kan båda aspekterna hanteras i samma ramverk. Om produktionssystemen inte förbättrar sin hållbarhetsprestanda krävs större förändringar i konsumtionen och vice versa.

    De mål som sätts för försäljning/tillhandahållning till konsument i rapporten är avsedda att användas av aktörer som säljer eller på annat sätt har möjlighet att påverka konsumtionsmönster, som exempelvis handel, food service och den offentliga måltidssektorn. Dessa mål ger en bild av faktisk slutkonsumtion. De mål som sätts för produktionen, alltså produktionens värdekedjor, är avsedda att användas av aktörer som producerar livsmedel, alltså lantbruk och livsmedelsindustri.

    Det var inte möjligt att sätta kvantitativa mål för alla relevanta hållbarhetsaspekter, för vissa aspekter finns inga vetenskapliga uppskattningar av den hållbara nivån för påverkan. Brist på metodik och data är ett annat allvarligt hinder för att sätta operativa mål. I rapporten har dessa kunskapsluckor identifierats och alternativa mål har föreslagits för att alla aspekter ska kunna hanteras konkret. Med alternativa mål menas mål som kan bygga på indirekta mått på hållbarhet som exempelvis energibesparingsmål istället för ett mål om hur stor den totala energianvändningen kan vara, då detta inte finns kvantifierat.

  • 26.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Pénicaud, Caroline
    University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sustainability checklist in support of the design of food processing2018Ingår i: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, E-ISSN 1614-2373, Vol. 16, s. 110-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To source food ingredients produced by best practice, reducing food loss in the processing line and implementation of new technologies are some examples of changes in the management in the food and drink sector that may offer advantages from a sustainability perspective. There are several tools and methods for evaluating sustainability for a food processing technology but often specific methodological knowledge is essential and many companies may not be able to carry out such a study due to time constraints and lack of data. The aim of this paper is to provide a tool with the format of a qualitative sustainability checklist, based on existing Life Cycle Assessment theory. The checklist is devoted to the design and adaptation of processing in the food industry to clarify the potential hot spots in new process design and is focused on environmental sustainability, although other aspects were conferred as well to demonstrate its potential. To identify the potential of this kind of checklist, it was tested by four food companies. The participant feedback was in general positive. The companies highlighted the benefits of creating awareness of sustainability issues within the company and providing a good overview without data collection. From a scientific point of view, the approach can help to overcome several challenges in sustainability assessment in the agri-food sector, especially some modeling issues and spatio-temporal resolution. © 2018 The Authors

  • 27.
    Xue, Li
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Liu, Gang
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Parfitt, Julian
    Anthesis Group, UK.
    Liu, Xiaojie
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Van Herpen, Erica
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    O'Connor, Clementine
    World Resources Institute, USA.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Cheng, Shengkui
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Missing Food, Missing Data?: A Critical Review of Global Food Losses and Food Waste Data2017Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, nr 12, s. 6618-6633Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Food losses and food waste (FLW) have become a global concern in recent years and emerge as a priority in the global and national political agenda (e.g., with Target 12.3 in the new United Nations Sustainable Development Goals). A good understanding of the availability and quality of global FLW data is a prerequisite for tracking progress on reduction targets, analyzing environmental impacts, and exploring mitigation strategies for FLW. There has been a growing body of literature on FLW quantification in the past years; however, significant challenges remain, such as data inconsistency and a narrow temporal, geographical, and food supply chain coverage. In this paper, we examined 202 publications which reported FLW data for 84 countries and 52 individual years from 1933 to 2014. We found that most existing publications are conducted for a few industrialized countries (e.g., the United Kingdom and the United States), and over half of them are based only on secondary data, which signals high uncertainties in the existing global FLW database. Despite these uncertainties, existing data indicate that per-capita food waste in the household increases with an increase of per-capita GDP. We believe that more consistent, in-depth, and primary-data-based studies, especially for emerging economies, are badly needed to better inform relevant policy on FLW reduction and environmental impacts mitigation.

  • 28.
    Xue, Li
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Prass, Neele
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Gollnow, Sebastian
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Scherhaufer, Silvia
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Cheng, Shengkui
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Liu, Gang
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Efficiency and Carbon Footprint of the German Meat Supply Chain2019Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 9, s. 5133-5142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat production and consumption contribute significantly to environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These emissions can be reduced via various strategies ranging from production efficiency improvement to process optimization, food waste reduction, trade pattern change, and diet structure change. On the basis of a material flow analysis approach, we mapped the dry matter mass and energy balance of the meat (including beef, pork, and poultry) supply chain in Germany and discussed the emission reduction potential of different mitigation strategies in an integrated and mass-balance consistent framework. Our results reaffirmed the low energy conversion efficiency of the meat supply chain (among which beef was the least efficient) and the high GHG emissions at the meat production stage. While diet structure change (either reducing the meat consumption or substituting meat by edible offal) showed the highest emissions reduction potential, eliminating meat waste in retailing and consumption and byproducts generation in slaughtering and processing were found to have profound effect on emissions reduction as well. The rendering of meat byproducts and waste treatment were modeled in detail, adding up to a net environmental benefit of about 5% of the entire supply chain GHG emissions. The combined effects based on assumed high levels of changes of important mitigation strategies, in a rank order considering the level of difficulty of implementation, showed that the total emission could be reduced by 43% comparing to the current level, implying a tremendous opportunity for sustainably feeding the planet by 2050.

  • 29.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Productivity - the food industry challenge2010Ingår i: Food and Beverage International, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 36-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    REELIV-redskap för effektiv och resurssnål livsmedelsproduktion2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Säker och miljöeffektiv livsmedelslogistik2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Östergren, Karin
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sundström, B
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Berlin, J
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lorentzon, K
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Johansson, B
    REELIV - Redskap för effektiv och resurssnål livsmedelsproduktion.2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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