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  • 1.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Data från byggakustiska fältmätningar och enkätundersökningar i flerfamiljshus. AkuLite Rapport 8: Bilaga. Enkätsvar 8 Limnologen2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Data från byggakustiska fältmätningar och enkätundersökningar i flerfamiljshus. AkuLite Rapport 8: Bilaga. Mätrapport 8 Limnologen2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Vibrationsmätningar i träbyggnader2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Johansson, Marie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Ylmen, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Fruhwald Hansson,, Eva
    Lund Universtiy, Sweden.
    Serrano, Erik
    Lund Universtiy, Sweden.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Renewinn, Sweden.
    Framtidens biobaserade byggande och boende: Slutrapport2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim

    of the project "Biobased building and living for the future" was to create conditions for increased use of bio-based products and services in the construction sector in Sweden and Europe and to increase the competitiveness of the Swedish timber manufacturing industry. The project has shown ways to develop E-commerce, parts of the production where increased digitalization leads to increased capacity and quality, as well as solutions for development of floor systems, external walls and tall timber buildings. The project has shown development opportunities to increase the use of bio-based products that implemented will increase competitiveness.

    The project has been divided into eleven sub-projects to study the various aspects of external factors, market conditions and business models, process development and product development. Within each sub-project, several workshops have been carried out to jointly evaluate results and decide the next step in the sub-project. Through joint workshops, the partners have also been able to meet and share results across the sub-projects and spread knowledge and create networks within the industry. The last part is perceived as very valuable by both the companies and the academy / institute.

    For the joinery value chain, a current situation analysis has been carried out and shown how the development of E-commerce platforms must be combined with process development in order to have a large effect. The results will be utilized in the companies' strategy work ahead. For the timber building value chain, demonstrators have shown development opportunities for both process and product development. The next step for the companies is to evaluate the various solutions linked to their own production conditions.

  • 5.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    A simulation based study of low frequency transient sound radiation from floors - A concrete vs. a hybrid floor2017Ingår i: 24th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2017, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Timber is a renewable and human friendly construction material and thereby a potential solution to achieve life cycle sustainable buildings. However, it is clear that impact sound and vibrations wit hin the low frequency range still are challenges for wooden joist floors. Another challenge is the, mostly, larger building heights of wooden or hybrid floors compared to the heights of concrete floors. Using timber as the structural joist floor material could imply fewer stories due to maximum allowed building heights, which renders in less income in a building project. Accurate simulations of impact sound may decrease the need for prototypes; thus saving money and time in the timber building industry. Here, a hybrid joist floor consisting of wood, sand and steel is compared to a concrete floor in terms of radiated impact sound into a rectangular cavity. The hybrid floor is designed such that its mass distribution and globa l stiffness are close to the same properties of the concrete floor. Finite element models are used for simulations of the radiated transient sound induced by impact forces having the characteristics of human walking. The simulations indicate that similar surface mass and bending stiffness of a floor intersection give similar impact sound transmission properties around the first bending mode, while it is not necessary so at higher frequencies.

  • 6.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE, Sweden; Linneaus Universtiy, Sweden.
    Low Frequency Impact Sound in Timber Buildings: Simulations and Measurements2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased share of construction with timber is one possible way of achieving more sustainable and energy-efficient life cycles of buildings. The main reason is that wood is a renewable material and buildings require a large amount of resources. Timber buildings taller than two storeys were prohibited in Europe until the 1990s due to fire regulations. In 1994, this prohibition was removed in Sweden.

        Some of the early multi-storey timber buildings were associated with more complaints due to impact sound than concrete buildings with the same measured impact sound class rating. Research in later years has shown that the frequency range used for rating has not been sufficiently low in order to include all the sound characteristics that are important for subjective perception of impact sound in light weight timber buildings. The AkuLite project showed that the frequency range has to be extended down to 20 Hz in order to give a good quality of the rating. This low frequency range of interest requires a need for knowledge of the sound field distribution, how to best measure the sound, how to predict the sound transmission levels and how to correlate numerical predictions with measurements.

        Here, the goal is to improve the knowledge and methodology concerning measurements and predictions of low frequency impact sound in light weight timber buildings. Impact sound fields are determined by grid measurements in rooms within timber buildings with different designs of their joist floors. The measurements are used to increase the understanding of impact sound and to benchmark different field measurement methods. By estimating transfer functions, from impact forces to vibrations and then sound pressures in receiving rooms, from vibrational test data, improved possibilities to correlate the experimental results to numerical simulations are achieved. A number of excitation devices are compared experimentally to evaluate different characteristics of the test data achieved. Further, comparisons between a timber based hybrid joist floor and a modern concrete floor are made using FE-models to evaluate how stiffness and surface mass parameters affect the impact sound transfer and the radiation.

        The measurements of sound fields show that light weight timber floors in small rooms tend to have their highest sound levels in the low frequency region, where the modes are well separated, and that the highest levels even can occur below the frequency of the first room mode of the air. In rooms with excitation from the floor above, the highest levels tend to occur at the floor levels and in the floor corners, if the excitation is made in the middle of the room above. Due to nonlinearities, the excitation levels may affect the transfer function in low frequencies which was shown in an experimental study. Surface mass and bending stiffness of floor systems are shown, by simulations, to be important for the amount of sound radiated.

        By applying a transfer function methodology, measuring the excitation forces as well as the responses, improvements of correlation analyses between measurements and simulations can be achieved.

  • 7.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Model calibration of wooden structure assemblies - Using EMA and FEA2014Ingår i: WCTE 2014 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, Proceedings: Renaissance of Timber Construction, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Andresen, Geir
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Akustik (Eta).
    Akustik i träbyggnader2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Linderholt, A.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Measurements of low frequency impact sound transfer functions of light weight timber floors, utilizing the IsO rubber ball2018Ingår i: 25th International Congress on Sound and Vibration 2018, ICSV 2018: Hiroshima Calling, International Institute of Acoustics and Vibration, IIAV , 2018, s. 476-483Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Impact sound below 100 Hz is an important issue for light weight timber buildings. It is also well known that finite element model simulations are more beneficial in the low frequency range than in higher frequencies due to the longer wavelengths allowing the element meshes to be coarser. Utilizing transfer functions to describe impact sound would imply simplifications to correlate data stemming from measurements and low frequency finite element models. If the impact force is known, the simulations become easier since there would not be any need for the modelling of the impact mechanisms, just calculations of the transfer functions which are then combined with the force spectrum to give the resulting sound pressure. The impact ball has shown to be in close resemblance with a human's excitation in the low frequency range which makes it a suitable excitation device. However, when its force spectrum is needed, it may be hard in practice to achieve that during a regular measurement since the ball is not easily equipped with a force gauge. Here, two different methods are investigated. An investigation of the repeatability of the force spectrum of the rubber ball in the low frequency range for floors having different mobilities is made. To enable this, an equipment for field measurements of impact force spectrum and potentially point mobilities using an ISO ball, is designed, manufactured and evaluated. Impact force measurements are made on lightweight timber as well as concrete floors, with different properties for comparisons. Within the lowest frequencies it is potentially possible to use one given force spectrum from the ISO ball together with impact sound measurements for the creation of impact force to sound transfer functions on different floors.

  • 10.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Force to sound pressure frequency response measurements using a modified tapping machine on timber floor structures2019Ingår i: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 196, artikel-id 109343Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, research has shown that the lower frequency portion of impact sound, down to 20 Hz, is of significant importance to residents’ perception in buildings that have lightweight timber floors. At low frequencies, the finite element method is a useful tool for predictive analysis. Impact sound frequency response functions, which are easily calculated using finite element software, are useful as they offer a common ground for studies of correlations between measurements and analyzes. On the measurement side, the tapping machine is well defined and has become the standard excitation device for building acoustics. When using a tapping machine, the excitation force spectrum generated – necessary to achieving experimental frequency force to sound response functions – is unknown. Different equipment may be used for excitation and force measurements and if a structure behaves linearly, the use of any excitation devices should result in the same frequency response functions. Here, an ISO tapping machine hammer is fitted with an accelerometer, enabling estimates of input force spectra. In combination with measurements of the sound in the receiver room, frequency response functions are then achieved using an ISO tapping machine. Various excitation devices have been used on a floor partition in a timber building and on a cross-laminated timber (CLT) lab. floor in order to compare the resulting frequency response functions. Structural nonlinearities are evident, implying that for accurate frequency response measurements in acoustically low frequencies, excitation magnitudes and characteristics that are similar to these which stem from human excitations, should preferably be used.

  • 11.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Impact evaluation of a thin hybrid wood based joist floor2016Ingår i: Proceedings of ISMA 2016: International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering, 2016, s. 589-602Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to develop a numericalanalysis procedure, by combining FRFs from FE-models with analyticalformulas for sound emission and transmission from the ceiling anddownwards within a room with four walls. The aim is to, by applying thisapproach; accomplish a tool which calculates the relative impact soundbetween different joist floors, in the low frequency range. The second aim is tobenchmark a thin hybrid wooden based joist floor with similar thickness,surface weight and global bending stiffness as a concrete hollow core floorstructure. What will be the difference in sound transmission? The question isrelevant since it may be necessary to make thinner wood based joist floors inhigh rise buildings, if wood should stay competitive against concrete. Theresults show that the direct transmissions of impact sound are very similararound the first bending mode. As the frequency increases, the modes in thestructures differ significantly. Below 100 Hz, the concrete floor has 4 modes,while the hybrid joist floor has 9 modes. As the frequency increases the soundradiation characteristics differs. The results show that it is possible to havesimilar sound transmission properties around the first bending modes for ahybrid based joist floor and a hollow core concrete floor structure with similar thicknesses. At the first modes of the structure, the information about thesurface weight and global bending stiffness are useful for prediction of soundtransmission properties but for higher modes, they are not sufficient.

  • 12.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Low Frequency Force to Sound Pressure Transfer Function Measurements Using a Modified Tapping Machine on a Light Weight Wooden Joist Floor2016Ingår i: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, s. 2888-2895Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years research has shown that low frequency impact sound is of significant importance for inhabitants´ perception of impact sound in buildings with light weight wooden joist floors. The tapping machine is well defined as an excitation device and is a standard tool for building acoustics. However, the excitation force spectrum generated for each individual floor is unknown when using a tapping machine. In order to increase the possibilities to compare simulations to impact sound measurements, there is a need for improvement of impact sound measurement methods. By measuring the input force spectrum by a modified tapping machine and the sound in the receiver room, transfer functions can be achieved.In the light weight wooden building used for the evaluation test of the proposed method, structural nonlinearities are evident in the frequency response functions stemming from different excitation levels. This implies that for accurate FRF-measurements in low frequencies, excitation magnitudes that are similar to these stemming from human excitations should preferably be used.

  • 13.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Low-frequency impact sound pressure fields in small rooms within lightweight timber buildings — Suggestions for simplified measurement procedures2018Ingår i: Noise Control Engineering Journal, ISSN 0736-2501, E-ISSN 2168-8710, Vol. 66, nr 4, s. 324-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-frequency impact sound insulation, down to 20 Hz, has a significant effect on humans' dissatisfaction due to noise in timber buildings. Today, the low-frequency procedure of the ISO 16283-2:2015 impact sound measurement standard covers the frequency range down to 50 Hz for the use of an ISO tapping machine, but does not yet cover the use of an ISO rubber ball. Here, microphone grid measurements were made in two small rooms that were excited by an ISO rubber ball from the rooms above. In each grid, 936 microphone positions were used to capture data representing the full spatial fields of impact sound pressures from 10 to 500 Hz for one excitation location for each room. The data show that the positions at the radiating ceiling surfaces have low maximum sound pressure levels compared to the pressure levels at the floors, especially in the floor corners. First, a measurement procedure to predict the maximum exposure of low-frequency sound in a room is proposed It is suggested that the maximum values for each frequency band in the corners opposite to the partition being excited (i.e., the floor corners) be used. Second, a procedure to predict the room average sound pressure level and the prediction's normal distribution is suggested. Iterative measurements with random microphone locations and random excitation locations are used. The advantage of this method is that the required precision and information about the sensitivity due to different excitation points are obtained.

  • 14.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Low frequency sound pressure fields in small rooms in wooden buildings with dense and sparse joist floor spacings2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2015 - 44th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering: Implementing Noise Control Technology, 2015, Vol. 1, s. 652-663Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using wood as the main construction material is a potential solution to achieve sustainable buildings. Previous research has shown that frequencies below 50 Hz are of significant importance for the perception of impact sound by residents living in multi-story buildings having light weight wooden frameworks. The standards used for impact sound measurements today are developed for diffuse fields above 50 Hz. For instance due to requirements concerning wall reflections, these methods are not applicable for low frequencies within small rooms. To improve measurement methods, it is important to know the nature of the full sound distribution in small rooms having wooden joist floors. Here, impact sound measurements with microphone arrays are made in two small office rooms having the same dimensions. The rooms represent two extremes in design of joist floors; one with closely spaced wood joists and the other with widely spaced joists. An impact ball is used for excitation the room being measured from the room above. The results show that there are significant variations in the sound pressure, especially in the vertical direction. Here, measurement techniques of impact sound in the low frequency range in small rooms in wooden buildings are evaluated and potential improvements are proposed.

  • 15. Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Low frequency measurements of impact sound performance in light weight timber frame office buildings2012Ingår i: Proceedings of EURONOISE 2012, European Acoustics Association, European Acoustics Association (EAA), 2012, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is little data available of low frequency impact sound response of light weight woodenbuildings. The ISO 140-7, 717-2 standards normally used of impact sound is limited down to 50Hz. The response in low frequency area is of interest for human comfort. In the present work lowfrequencyimpact sound measurements were carried out in two modern office buildings withlightweight timber frame. The purpose was to assess the levels of impact sound transmissionbelow 50 Hz in these construction types. The low frequency impact sound levels are compared tothe higher. Both the tapping machine and the impact ball are used for excitation. It is seen that thepresent constructions have their highest levels below or close to 50 Hz when excited by the impactball. From the office rooms sharing joist floor with corridor there is seen increased levels of lowfrequency impact sound. Up to 10-15 dB higher impact sound was detected compared to roomwith joist floor separated from corridor.

  • 16.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Low frequency measurements of impact sound performance in light weight timber frame office buildings2012Ingår i: Proceedings of EURONOISE 2012, European Acoustics Association , 2012, , s. 6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Papperstillverkning och förpackningar.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hållfasthetsbestämning av virke med en NIR-kamera2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    SP, Innventia och Luleås Tekniska Universitet har genomfört en förstudie där man undersökte om nära-infrarött (NIR) data kan bidra till säkrare hållfasthetsbestämning av virke. För att göra det behövdes förutom NIR-data, dels data som konventionellt används i sågverk för att göra hållfasthets-uppskattningar, dels referensdata från mekanisk provning.

    Följande data samlades in från 100 granplankor med dimensionen 3600*150*45 mm3:

    1. mått, vikt, och därmed densitet,

    2. egenfrekvenser via dynamisk excitering,

    3. högupplösta NIR-bilder på 2 flatsidor av varje planka,

    4. RGB och fibervinkeldata från flat- och kantsidorna,

    5. röntgentomografibilder,

    6. förstörande böjtestdata, med bestämning av lokal och global E-modul, och

    7. kvalitativ inventering av brottyp och kvistposition.

     

    Databasen är i sig en värdefull resurs och en god grund för fortsatt forskning och utveckling mot kun-skap och tillämpningar baserat på information som hittills inte utvärderats och nyttjats.

    Virkesegenskaper som påverkar hållfasthet, såsom tjurved, kunde identifieras och visualiseras. Andra egenskaper som är viktiga hållfasthetsindikatorer, såsom egenfrekvens och densitet, kunde predikteras med multivariata modeller baserade på NIR-spektraldata. Inledande modellförsök visar att det går att prediktera global E-modul med multivariata modeller baserade på NIR-spektraldata med ungefärlig samma precision som industriell hållfasthetsbedömning med dynamisk excitering. De NIR-data som användes i modelleringen var dock bara medelvärden över hela plankan. Därför finns det god potential för bättre prediktion med mer riktade variabler, som speglar de spatiala variationerna i varje planka, t.ex. runt kvistar, vilket blir ämnet för ett eventuellt fortsättningsprojekt.

    Projektet finansierades av Norrskogs Forskningsstiftelse, Stiftelsen Åforsk, Träcentrum Norr, och Södra Skogsägarnas Stiftelse för Forskning, Utveckling och Utbildning. Individer som medverkade i projektet inkluderar Gerhard Scheepers, Jörgen Olsson, Anders Lycken, Sven-Olof Lundqvist och Thomas Grahn (RISE Bioekonomi); och Olle Hagman (LTU). RemaSawco och JGA i Linneryd hjälpte också med insamlingen av fibervinkeldata.

     

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