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  • 1.
    Appel, Glenn
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Fixed fire fighting systems impact on fire spread between vehicles in road tunnel2014Ingår i: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , s. 113-122Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Appel, Glenn
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lyckade försök i Törnskogstunneln i Stockholm2012Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 47, s. 12-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Claesson, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lindström, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Kumm, Mia
    Laboratory fire experiments with a 1/3 train carriage mockup2012Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China; Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Ji, Jie
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Sun, Jin Hua
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study of sidewall effect on flame characteristics of heptane pool fires with different aspect ratios and orientations in a channel2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, ISSN 1540-7489, E-ISSN 1873-2704, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 3121-3129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of small scale tests was conducted to investigate the influence of sidewall on flame characteristics of heptane pool fires in a channel, considering pool shape (aspect ratio: 1, 2, 4 and 8) and pool orientation relative to sidewall. Distance between fire and sidewall was changed systematically. Both transverse flame development (along the direction of channel width) and longitudinal flame development (along the direction of channel length) were recorded by digital video. Results show that for a fixed fire location, the heat release rate increases with the increasing pool aspect ratio (namely a larger pool perimeter), which indicates more air entrainment and more intense combustion. In wall fire cases, when the long pool rim is perpendicular with channel sidewall, the flame can obtain more air entrainment with a weaker boundary restriction from the sidewall, compared to the case with the long pool rim being parallel with sidewall. Comparison of some previously established correlations based on various experimental conditions with our test results is made. Due to the fact without considering sidewall effect and fuel shape on the air entrainment of fire plume, the classic correlations need to be further improved. Therefore, an integral flame length model considering both sidewall effect and fuel shape is developed, which correlates well with all the data from cases with various pool positions, orientations and aspect ratios. © 2016 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 5.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    et al.
    Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Effect of tunnel cross section on gas temperatures and heat fluxes in case of large heat release rate2016Ingår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 93, s. 405-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests with liquid and solid fuels in model tunnels (1:20) were performed and analysed in order to study the effect of tunnel cross section (width and height) together with ventilation velocity on ceiling gas temperatures and heat fluxes. The model tunnel was 10m long with varying width (0.3m, 0.45m and 0.6m) and height (0.25m and 0.4m). Test results show that the maximum temperature under the ceiling is a weak function of heat release rate (HRR) and ventilation velocity for cases with HRR more than 100MW at full scale. It clearly varies with the tunnel height and is a weak function of the tunnel width. With a lower tunnel height, the ceiling is closer to the base of continuous flame zone and the temperatures become higher. Overall, the gas temperature beneath the ceiling decreases with the increasing tunnel dimensions, and increases with the increasing longitudinal ventilation velocity. The HRR is also an important factor that influences the decay rate of excess gas temperature, and a dimensionless HRR integrating HRR and other two key parameters, tunnel cross-sectional area and distance between fuel centre and tunnel ceiling, was introduced to account for the effect. An equation for the decay rate of excess gas temperature, considering both the tunnel dimensions and HRR, was developed. Moreover, a larger tunnel cross-sectional area will lead to a smaller heat flux.

  • 6.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Tianjin Fire Research Institute of MEM, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Yan, Zhigou
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Study on spilled liquid from a continuous leakage in sloped tunnels2022Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 120, artikel-id 104290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the behaviors of spilled liquid from a continuously leaked tank in sloped tunnels. Spillage width and area, which impact the potential heat release rates in case of fire, are investigated under different tunnel slopes and leakage flow rates by numerical simulations using interFoam based on the VOF method in the OpenFOAM toolbox following the validation. The simulation results show that the spillage width initially decreases rapidly and then slowly as the tunnel slope increases. Other parameters, including road surface roughness, physical properties of liquid and leakage source height, are also considered. Empirical models for predicting the spillage width and area are established considering both tunnel slope and leakage flow rate. The results may provide guidance for tunnel safety design and drainage system design affiliated with a tank leakage inside a tunnel. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 7.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    Taiyuan University of Science and Technology China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, Cina.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Numerical study on thermally driven smoke flow characteristics in long tunnels under natural ventilation2023Ingår i: International journal of thermal sciences, ISSN 1290-0729, E-ISSN 1778-4166, Vol. 192, artikel-id 108379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on the flow structures and mass flow rates of thermally driven smoke flows induced by fires in long transportation tunnels under natural ventilation. The important influencing factors including heat release rate (HRR), tunnel width and height, are taken into consideration. The mechanism of the smoke flow movement is explored. The results show that for a fire in a long naturally ventilated transportation tunnel, there exists a critical point which is dependent on HRR and tunnel geometry. This critical point is defined as the location where the smoke layer thickness and the outgoing mass flow rate increase towards it and decrease after it. Further, it is found that the critical point moves farther away from the fire source in a wider or higher tunnel, while it lies closer to the fire source for a higher HRR. A correlation is proposed to estimate the location of the critical point. The outgoing mass flow rates along the tunnel are calculated using the two-layer flow model and well-mixed flow model of thermally driven flows, and the results indicate that these models produce satisfactory predictions of the mass flow rates if the vertical temperature profile is known. © 2023 The Authors

  • 8.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Tongji University, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Theoretical and numerical study on mass flow rates of smoke exhausted from short vertical shafts in naturally ventilated urban road tunnel fires2021Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, artikel-id 103782Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the mass flow rate of the buoyancy-driven gases exhausted from the shaft in naturally ventilated urban road tunnel fires. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are performed. The model to predict the mass flow rate of the incoming smoke exhausted by the nearest shaft is developed by considering that the smoke is exhausted along the four sides of the shaft separately. Based on the heat balance between the incoming smoke exhausted and the total gas flow exhausted, the model to estimate the total mass flow rate exhausted from the shaft (both smoke and entrained air) is also established. Meanwhile, a series of numerical simulation in a naturally ventilated tunnel considering the heat release rate (HRR), the shaft height, shaft length and width, shaft location was carried out. The simulation results show that the shaft height has a limited contribution to the mass flow rate of the incoming smoke exhausted while a larger shaft cross-sectional area shows a favorable performance in exhausting the smoke. Further, the air entrainment into the shaft increases with both the shaft height and shaft cross-sectional area. Comparisons of the mass flow rates of the incoming smoke and the total mass flow rates exhausted between simple calculations and simulations are made, showing that the simple models perform well. Further, it is found that there exist two regimes for the total mass flow rate corresponding to different smoke modes in the shaft (complete plug-holing, plug-holing and without plug-holing), which is caused by the different driven forces in the shaft. The outcomes of this work could provide some guidance for the design of vertical shaft and smoke control in naturally ventilated tunnel in urban area.

  • 9.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Tongji University, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Theoretical studies on buoyancy-driven ceiling jets of tunnel fires with natural ventilation2020Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 119, artikel-id 103228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a theoretical study on the ceiling jets induced by small fires in tunnels. The ceiling jet thickness, temperature rise and velocity are analyzed theoretically with Non-Boussinesq approximation. The study focuses on the radial and one-dimensional ceiling jets. Numerical solutions in the radial region and one-dimensional shooting region are obtained and new analytical solutions in the critical flow region are achieved. Analytical solutions indicate that the ceiling jet thickness increases with distance away from the fire source, which largely differs from the existing models implying that the ceiling jet thickness in the one-dimensional critical flow remains constant. Additionally, impacts of the air entrainment, friction and heat transfer on the ceiling jet are analyzed. It is found that in the radial and one-dimensional shooting flow regions, the air entrainment has a much more significant effect than the friction and heat transfer. However, in the one-dimensional critical flow region, the impact of air entrainment seems to be negligible and the flow is dominated by the friction and heat transfer. Further, validation of the present theory is made by comparing with previous theories, semi-empirical models, and experiments. The results show that the present theory provides a good prediction of the ceiling jet properties with natural ventilation for a small fire. © 2020 The Authors

  • 10.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Shi, Zhicheng
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Yang, Hui
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Zhang, Heping
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study on flame characteristics of double fires in a naturally ventilated tunnel: Flame merging, flame tilt angle and flame height2021Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 114, artikel-id 103912Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of fire tests was carried out to investigate the diffusion flame characteristics of double fires generated from separated burners in a naturally ventilated tunnel, considering different heat release rates and fire separation distances. The results show that the flame tilt angle, as well as the horizontal projected flame length, first increases with fire separation distance and then remains constant, but the vertical flame length first decreases and then remains constant, which is different from two fires in free spaces where flames do not tilt when the separation distance is relatively long. This difference is caused by the non-dimensional fire induced air flow velocity in the tunnel, which is mainly related to the tunnel cross-section dimensions and burner radius. Three regions can be identified, i.e. flame vertical merging, plume vertical merging and non-merging with flame tilted. The critical flame merging separation distance, estimated by the flame merging probability, is greater than that of two fires in an open environment due to the fire-induced air flows. The merging flame height is lower than that of a single fire with a same heat release rate. A correlation was proposed to estimate flame height of two fires in a tunnel by the modified non-dimensional heat release rate using an air entrainment perimeter as the characteristic length. This work enhances the understanding of diffusion flame behaviors of double fires in naturally ventilated tunnels.

  • 11.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation2023Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 133, artikel-id 104967Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from a series of fire tests in a 1:15 scale tunnel. Further, a simple theoretical model for gas temperature in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed and used in analysis of the experimental data. The results showed that, for objects (wood piles) placed at a same separating distance downstream of the fire, the fire spread occurred faster and faster along the tunnel. Validation of the simplified temperature model for multiple fire sources was made against both model and full-scale tunnel fire tests. The model was further used to predict the critical conditions for fire spread to the second and third objects. Comparisons with the test data showed that average excess temperature of 465 K (or an equivalent incident heat flux of 18.7 kW/m2) could be used as the criterion for fire spread, and this was verified further by other model-scale tests and full-scale tests. The results showed that the critical fire spread distance monotonously increases with the heat release rate, and decreases with the tunnel perimeter. For multiple fire sources with equivalent heat release rates, as the separation distance between the first two fire sources increases, the critical fire spread distance from the second fire source to the third fire source decreases, but the total fire spread distance from the first fire source to the third one increases. If the total heat release rate at the site of a downstream fire source is greater than that at the former fire source, the critical fire spread distance becomes longer.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Shi, Long
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study on the maximum ceiling gas temperature driven by double fires in a tunnel with natural ventilation2024Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 144, artikel-id 105550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is an important parameter for tunnel safety. The present study analyzed the characteristics of the maximum excess ceiling gas temperature driven by double fire sources in a naturally ventilated tunnel. A series of small-scale tunnel fire experiments were carried out with different fire separation distances and heat release rates. Theoretical analysis based on the equivalent virtual origin was also performed. The results showed that there exists only one peak gas temperature when the two fire plumes are merged before reaching the ceiling, while two peak gas temperatures can be observed when the two fire plumes are completely separated. The maximum excess gas temperature below the tunnel ceiling gradually decreases with an increasing fire separation distance in the plume merging region (S < Scp). When the fire separation distance increases further (S > Scp), the effect of the fire separation distance on the maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is very limited. Furthermore, a model using an equivalent fire source was proposed to predict the maximum excess gas temperature below the ceiling, considering different plume merging states. The present study contributes to the understanding of the maximum excess gas temperature characteristics of the smoke flow driven by double fires with an equal heat release rate in naturally ventilated tunnels. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

    In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

    The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

    The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
  • 14.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Nyman, Hans
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Development of a test method for fire detection in road tunnels2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Appel, Glenn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nyman, Hans
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Modig, Henric
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Test Method and Performance of Fire Detection Systems in Tunnels2016Ingår i: Proceedings from the 7th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, 2016, s. 485-496Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a study carried out for the Swedish Transport Administration on fire detection in road tunnels is presented. Laboratory tests and numerous large-scale tests were carried out in order to verify a proposal for a test method for fire detection systems. The main aim was to investigate possible fire detector systems and to see if they could fulfil the requirement given by the Swedish Transport Administration to detect the fire within 90 seconds. The tests are presented as well as a recommendation for testing detection systems in Swedish road tunnels. In order to perform the fire test, pans of different sizes were tested in order to obtain a reasonable fire size. The method proposed requires the use of three 0.6 m diameter standard pans, each containing eight litres of 95 octane gasoline, and air flow velocities of 2 m/s and 6 m/s. It was found out that using only one 0.6 m pan is sufficient if early warning is required without identifying the position for the fire-fighting system.

  • 16.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Large scale fire tests with fixed fire fighting system in Runehamar tunnel2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Lundström, Ulf
    Becker, Conny
    Large scale fire tests with a Fixed Fire Fighting System (FFFS)2014Ingår i: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , s. 83-92Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Bobert, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Fullskaliga försök med brandbekämpningssystem i tunnlar2016Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 55, s. 4-6Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Kumm, Mia
    Nilsson, D
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Claesson, Alexander
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Fridolf, Karl
    Åkerstedt, Rolf
    Nyman, Hans
    Dittmer, Torkel
    Forsén, Rickard
    Janzon, Bo
    Meyer, G
    Bryntse, A
    Carlberg, Tobias
    Newlove, Lindy
    Palm, Anders
    The METRO Project - Final Report2012Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    A New Methodology of Design Fires for Train Carriages Based on Exponential Curve Method2016Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1449-1464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design fires have great influences on the fire safety concepts and safety measures, and are the basis for any assessment and calculation in tunnel fire safety design. A new methodology of design fires for individual train carriages is proposed based on the exponential design fire curve method and state-of-the-art fire research. The three key parameters required for construction of a design fire are the maximum heat release rate, time to maximum heat release rate, and energy content. An overview of the full scale train carriage fire tests is given and the results show that the maximum heat release rate is in a range of 7 MW to 77 MW and the time to reach the maximum heat release rate varies from 7 min to 118 min. The method could be employed to one single train carriage or several carriages, and alternatively one carriage could be divided into several individual sections. To illustrate the use of the methodology, several engineering applications are presented, including design fires for a metro train carriage with a maximum heat release rate of 77 MW, a double-deck railway train carriage with a maximum heat release rate of 60 MW and a tram carriage with a maximum heat release rate of 28 MW. The main objective is to provide practicing engineers with a flexible and reliable methodology to make design fires for individual train carriages in performance-based tunnel fire safety design.

  • 21.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Beräkning av taktemperatur i tunnlar2010Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 43, s. 32-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Brandgastemperatur i tak i tunnlar2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 23.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Calculating ceiling temperatures in tunnels2011Ingår i: EURAILmag Business & Technology, nr 24, s. 126-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Calculation of ceiling temperatures in tunnels2011Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 43, s. 32-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 25.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Erratum: The maximum ceiling gas temperature in a large tunnel fire (Fire Safety Journal (2012) 48 (38-48))2012Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 50, s. 63-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Large scale tunnel fire tests with different types of large droplet fixed fire fighting systems2019Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, s. 29-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presented the main results of large-scale fire tests with different types of fixed firefighting systems (FFFS) conducted in the Runehamar tunnel in June 2016. The background to the tests, the performance of the different systems, and conclusions regarding the efficiency of the systems were presented. The fire load consisted of 420 standardised wooden pallets and a target of 21 wooden pallets. Five of the tests were carried out with a 30 m long deluge zone delivering varying water densities using three different types of side-wall nozzles with an interval distance of 5 m. One test with 93 °C glass-bulb automatic sprinklers in the same zone was also conducted. In the five deluge tests, the detection system was simulated using thermocouples in the tunnel ceiling. The alarm was registered when the ceiling gas temperature reached 141 °C, and the system was activated manually after a delay of 4 min. The protection goal of the system was to prevent fire spread to a target positioned 5 m from the rear of the main fuel area, and to ensure that the fire did not exceed 30 MW in size. The system setups tested were found to meet these goals.

  • 27.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Model Scale Tunnel Fire Tests- Point extraction ventilation2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical and experimental results from a series of tests in a model scale tunnel (1:23) with point extraction ventilation systems are presented. The point extraction ventilation system was tested under different fire and flow conditions using either forced longitudinal ventilation or natural ventilation. The study focuses on single and two point extraction systems. Wood crib piles were used to simulate the fire source, which was designed to correspond to a HGV (Heavy Goods Vehicle) fire load in large scale. The parameters tested were the number of wood cribs, the longitudinal ventilation velocity and the arrangement of the extraction vent openings and the exhaust capacity. The fire spread between wood cribs with a free distance corresponding to 15 m in large scale was tested. The maximum heat release rate, fire growth rate, maximum temperature rise beneath the ceiling, flame length and heat flux were plotted using relationships obtained from theoretical considerations. The data were found to correlate well with empirical correlations that were established. Comparison was made with large-scale data wherever possible.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with longitudinal ventilation2010Ingår i: Fire Safety Journal, nr 45, s. 371-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with point extraction ventilation2011Ingår i: Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 5-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    New Concept for Design Fires in Tunnels2012Ingår i: Proceedings from the Fifth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, SP , 2012, , s. 603-612Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Spilled liquid fires in tunnels2017Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, s. 399-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on release of liquids inside tunnels from tankers containing dangerous good. Experiments and analysis from large scale tests are presented. The tests include different leakage rates, leakage type, liquids, spillage sizes on sloping surfaces and heat release rates. Models for estimation of leakage rates, spillage sizes and heat release rates for different scenarios are presented. The results are important to use in the design of active fire protections systems in tunnels including ventilation, fixed fire-fighting and drainage systems.

  • 32.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Sprinkler limitations for tunnel fire fighting2011Ingår i: TunnelTalk, nr SepArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 33.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Appel, Glenn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Becker, Conny
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Large Scale Tunnel Fire Tests with Large Droplet Water-Based Fixed Fire Fighting System2016Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1539-1558Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the main results of six large scale fixed fire fighting system tests that were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in September 2013. It describes the background and the performance of the system. The main fire load consisted of 420 standardized wood pallets and a target consisting of a pile of 21 wood pallets placed 5 m from the rear end of the main fire load. The purpose was to investigate possible fire spread. The water spray system is a deluge zone system delivering 10 mm/min in the activated zone. The detection system was simulated with use of thermocouple in the tunnel ceiling. The alarm was registered when the ceiling gas temperature was 141°C. After alarm was obtained the system was activated manually after a given delay time that was varied in the tests. The heat release rates in tests with fire suppression were reduced to 20–45 MW compared to 100 MW estimated for a free-burn test or 75 MW in test 6 with a failure of activation. Fire spread to the target was prevented after fire suppression. 

  • 34.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 129, artikel-id 103567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of 1:3 intermediate scale tunnel fire tests was performed to investigate the performance of a fully automatic sprinkler system in a road tunnel. The experiments were carried in a container tunnel with scaled geometry, using wood pallets as the fire source to simulate HGV fires. The activation of the sprinklers was simulated by using thermocouples that corresponded to a given Thermal Response Index (RTI) of a sprinkler bulb or a link. A total of 12 tests were carried out with varying longitudinal velocities (0.8–1.7 m/s), sprinkler activation temperatures (68–141 °C), water densities (2.9–8.7 mm/min) and types of arrangement of the fuel. The activation times, number of activated sprinklers, maximum heat release rates and other key parameters are presented and analyzed. The results show that the water density plays a key role in the performance of the automatic sprinkler systems tested. A high tunnel ventilation velocity, low water density and low sprinkler activation temperature are not recommended. © 2022 The Authors

  • 35.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bobert, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Large scale fire tests with different types of fixed fire fighting systems in Runehamar tunnel2016Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents the main results of the six large-scale tests with different types of fixed firefighting system (FFFS) that were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in June 2016. It describes the background to the tests and the performance of the different systems, and draws conclusions regarding the efficiency of the systems. The fire load consisted of 420 standardised wooden pallets and a target of 21 wooden pallets. Five of the tests were carried out with a 30 mlong deluge zone delivering varying water densities using three different types of side-wall nozzle and an interval distance of 5 m. One test with 93°C glass-bulb nozzles (sprinkler head) in the same zone was also conducted. In the five deluge tests, the detection system was simulated using thermocouples in the tunnel ceiling. The alarm was registered when the ceiling gas temperature reached 141°C, and the system was activated manually after a delay of 4 minutes. The protection goal of the system was to prevent fire spread to a target positioned 5 m from the rear of the main fuel area, and to ensure that the fire did not exceed 30 MW in size. The system setups tested were found to meet these goals.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Runehamar tunnel fire tests2015Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 71, nr Jan, s. 134-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Five large-scale fire tests, including one pool fire test and four HGV mock-up fire tests, were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in Norway in year 2003. New data and new analyzes are presented in this paper, together with a short summary of previous work on these tests. Heat release rate (HRR), radiation, fire spread, gas production, backside wall temperature, visibility, backlayering, fire growth rate, gas temperature, flame length, ventilation and pulsation are investigated. Simple theoretical models are developed to estimate and predict these parameters. The correlations developed can be used by engineers working on fire safety in tunnels.

  • 37.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Tunnel Fire Dynamics2014Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Model of ventilation flows during large tunnel fires2012Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 30, nr Jul, s. 64-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Runehamar Tunnel Fire Tests2011Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 40.
    Ji, Jie
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Sun, Jin Hua
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study of non-monotonous sidewall effect on flame characteristics and burning rate of n-heptane pool fires2015Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 145, s. 228-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the influence of sidewall effect on flame characteristics and burning rate, a series of experiments with heptane pools was conducted. The results showed that as the fires were placed close to the sidewall, the flames inclined to the sidewall due to the restriction on air entrainment, and the burning rate increased on the whole, which could be mainly due to the enhanced radiation from the heated sidewall and ceiling flame. However, regardless of fuel pool shape, the burning rate obtained the peak value when the fire was near the sidewall, rather than attached to the sidewall, resulting from less flame radiation from the vertical flame part to the fuel in the latter case. The ratio of longitudinal ceiling flame length to transverse length tended to decrease with the fire moving close to the sidewall. For cases with the largest length and wall fires, the ratio was nearly 0.5, which could be explained according to the theory of mirror effect. Also, due to the non-monotonous sidewall effect, a higher burning rate did not necessarily lead to a larger ceiling flame length.

  • 41.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    CFD modellering av brandförlopp i tunnelbanevagnar under olika ventilationsförhållanden2016Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 54, s. 20-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    CFD modelling of fire development in metro carriages under different ventilation conditions2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 43.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    CFD modelling of pressure rise in a room fire2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 44.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Effect of cross section on critical velocity in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires2017Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, s. 303-311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical and theoretical work was conducted to investigate the effect of tunnel cross section on critical velocityfor smoke control in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires. The results show that for small fires, the criticalvelocity decreases with both the increasing tunnel height and tunnel width. For large fires, the critical velocitysignificantly increases with the increasing tunnel height but is independent of tunnel width. Differentcalculation models are compared with a focus on effect of tunnel cross section. A new correlation is proposedto account for the effect of tunnel width based on the previous model.

  • 45.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Latest advance of research on tunnel fire dynamics2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Modeling of pressure rise in a room fire2015Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 52, s. 28-29Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Study of fire and explosion hazards of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels2019Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 110, artikel-id 102871Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results concerning fire and explosion hazards of various alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels. The alternative fuels are divided into four types: liquid fuels, liquefied fuels, compressed gases, and electricity, and detailed parameters are obtained. Three important types of fire hazards: pool fires, jet fires and fireballs are identified and investigated. From the perspective of pool fire size, the liquid fuels pose equivalent or even lower fire hazards compared to traditionally used fuels, but the hazards of liquefied fuels may be higher. For pressurized tanks, fires are generally much larger in size but shorter in duration. The gas releases from pressure relief devices and the resulting jet flames are highly transient. For hydrogen vehicles, the fire sizes are significantly higher compared to CNG tanks, while flame lengths are only slighter longer. Analysis of the peak overpressure in case of an explosion in a tunnel shows that the consequences of tank rupture and BLEVE are relatively tolerable for a position further than 100 m away, but the situations in case of a cloud explosion are highly severe and intolerable for tunnel users in most cases. These hazards need to be carefully considered in both vehicle safety design and tunnel fire safety design. 

  • 48. Li, Ying Zhen
    Study of fire and explosion hazards of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of fire and explosion hazards of different types of alternativefuel vehicles in tunnels is presented. The different fuels are divided into four types:liquid fuels, liquefied fuels, compressed gases, and electricity, and detailed parameters are obtained. Three types offire hazards for the alternativefuel vehicles: pool fires, jet fires and fireballs are identified andinvestigated in detail. Fromthe perspective of pool fire size, the liquid fuels pose equivalent or evenmuch lower fire hazards compared to the traditionally used fuels, but theliquefied fuels may pose higher hazards. For pressurized tanks, the fires are generally much larger in size butshorter in duration. The gas releases from pressure relief devices and the resulting jet firesare highly transient. Forhydrogen vehicles, the fire sizes are significantly higher compared to CNGtanks, while flame lengths only slighter longer. Investigation of the peakoverpressure in case of an explosion in a tunnel was also carried out. Theresults showed that, for the vehicles investigated, the peak overpressure of tankrupture and BLEVE are mostly in a range of 0.1 to 0.36 bar at 50 m away. Thesituations in case of cloud explosion are mostly much more severe andintolerable. These hazards need to be carefully considered in both vehiclesafety design and tunnel fire safety design. Further researches on thesehazards are in urgent need.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    RISE Rapport 2018:20
  • 49.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Nyman, Hans
    Brandskyddslaget.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with water-based fire suppression systems2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 18 tests were carried out in the 1:4 model scale tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems together with one free-burn test. The key parameters including fuel load covers, activation time, water flow rate, nozzle type, ventilation velocity, sprinkler section length and tunnel width were tested. Technical information and analyses of test data are presented in this report with a focus on the influence of these different parameters on the design fire in a tunnel with a water-based fire suppression system. Further, guidance for the design fires in tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems is proposed.

  • 50. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ji, Jie
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Effect of cross section and ventilation on heat release rates in tunnel fires2016Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 51, s. 414-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale fire tests were performed in tunnels with varying tunnel widths and heights in order to study the effect of tunnel cross-section and ventilation velocity on the heat release rate (HRR) for both liquid pool fires and solid fuel fires. The results showed that for well ventilated heptane pool fires, the tunnel width nearly has no influence on the HRR whilst a lower tunnel height clearly increases the HRR. For well ventilated solid fuel fires, the HRR increases by approximately 25% relative to a free burn test but the HRR is not sensitive to either tunnel width, tunnel height or ventilation velocity. For solid fuel fires that were not well ventilated, the HRRs could be less than those in free burn laboratory tests. In the case of ventilation controlled fires the HRRs approximately lie at the same level as for cases with natural ventilation.

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