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Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Experience a tunnel fire - live2007Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 36, s. 27-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Upplev brand i tunnlar live2007Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 36, s. 28-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Appel, Glenn
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Test av sprinklervattens effekt mot spillbränder i tunnlar2013Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 48, s. 12-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Appel, Glenn
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Trafikverket väljer nyutvecklat släcksystem för vägtunnlar i Förbifart Stockholm2013Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 49, s. 10-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5.
    Appel, Glenn
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Fixed fire fighting systems impact on fire spread between vehicles in road tunnel2014Ingår i: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , s. 113-122Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Appel, Glenn
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lyckade försök i Törnskogstunneln i Stockholm2012Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 47, s. 12-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Measurement of the efficiency of a water spray system against diesel oil pool and spray fires2005Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple and robust test methodologies that make it possible to measure and quantify the effectiveness of water spray or water mist systems intended for ‘large’ shipboard machinery spaces were investigated. Heat Release Rate calorimetry is usually the best method to measure the effectiveness of a water spray or mist system, although not all fire laboratories have access to such equipment. Therefore, there is a need to explore if other traditional measurement techniques can be used. Such methods include thermocouples, heat flux gages and Plate Thermometers. An additional method, the Pipe Thermometer, has been developed and investigated within the project. It consists of an insulated thin-walled stainless steel tube having an outer diameter of 103 mm with numerous thermocouples welded on the outside surface. The study, which was applied here on a water spray system, shows that the Pipe Thermometer is a possible method to use for evaluation of the efficiency of such system. It is definitely a better method than using heat flux meters or Plate Thermometer which were located at a distance from the fire source. The best correspondence between the measured data below the water spray system and the measured heat release rate was found between the measured gas temperature data and the measured convective heat release data. Consequently, there is no clear advantage of using the Pipe Thermometer (as mounted here) instead of traditional thermocouples at similar locations.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Water based fire protection systems for vehicle decks on ro-ro passenger ferries. Brandforsk project 421-941.1997Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Carlsson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Wadman, Charlotta
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Visualization of Measurement Data from Tunnel Fire2007Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10. Carvel, R.
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Fires in vehicle tunnels2016Ingår i: SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, Fifth Edition, Springer, 2016, s. 3303-3325Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunnel fire safety is a complex problem with no clear solution as yet. Current knowledge of vehicle fire behaviour in tunnels has been established on the basis of a relatively small selection of experimental fire tests, each of which is described. The characteristics of vehicle fires in tunnels are highlighted and issues to be considered when defining ‘design fire for tunnels are discussed. The mechanisms of fire spread in the tunnel environment are presented. The most common fire protection measures used in tunnels are ventilation systems, passive thermal barriers and, increasingly, water spray systems. Each of these three system types are discussed. © Society of Fire Protection Engineers 2016. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Claesson, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lindström, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Kumm, Mia
    Laboratory fire experiments with a 1/3 train carriage mockup2012Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 12. Fallberg, Ronny
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Erfarenheter med övertrycksventilation.2000Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China; Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Ji, Jie
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Sun, Jin Hua
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study of sidewall effect on flame characteristics of heptane pool fires with different aspect ratios and orientations in a channel2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, ISSN 1540-7489, E-ISSN 1873-2704, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 3121-3129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of small scale tests was conducted to investigate the influence of sidewall on flame characteristics of heptane pool fires in a channel, considering pool shape (aspect ratio: 1, 2, 4 and 8) and pool orientation relative to sidewall. Distance between fire and sidewall was changed systematically. Both transverse flame development (along the direction of channel width) and longitudinal flame development (along the direction of channel length) were recorded by digital video. Results show that for a fixed fire location, the heat release rate increases with the increasing pool aspect ratio (namely a larger pool perimeter), which indicates more air entrainment and more intense combustion. In wall fire cases, when the long pool rim is perpendicular with channel sidewall, the flame can obtain more air entrainment with a weaker boundary restriction from the sidewall, compared to the case with the long pool rim being parallel with sidewall. Comparison of some previously established correlations based on various experimental conditions with our test results is made. Due to the fact without considering sidewall effect and fuel shape on the air entrainment of fire plume, the classic correlations need to be further improved. Therefore, an integral flame length model considering both sidewall effect and fuel shape is developed, which correlates well with all the data from cases with various pool positions, orientations and aspect ratios. © 2016 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 14.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    et al.
    Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Effect of tunnel cross section on gas temperatures and heat fluxes in case of large heat release rate2016Ingår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 93, s. 405-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests with liquid and solid fuels in model tunnels (1:20) were performed and analysed in order to study the effect of tunnel cross section (width and height) together with ventilation velocity on ceiling gas temperatures and heat fluxes. The model tunnel was 10m long with varying width (0.3m, 0.45m and 0.6m) and height (0.25m and 0.4m). Test results show that the maximum temperature under the ceiling is a weak function of heat release rate (HRR) and ventilation velocity for cases with HRR more than 100MW at full scale. It clearly varies with the tunnel height and is a weak function of the tunnel width. With a lower tunnel height, the ceiling is closer to the base of continuous flame zone and the temperatures become higher. Overall, the gas temperature beneath the ceiling decreases with the increasing tunnel dimensions, and increases with the increasing longitudinal ventilation velocity. The HRR is also an important factor that influences the decay rate of excess gas temperature, and a dimensionless HRR integrating HRR and other two key parameters, tunnel cross-sectional area and distance between fuel centre and tunnel ceiling, was introduced to account for the effect. An equation for the decay rate of excess gas temperature, considering both the tunnel dimensions and HRR, was developed. Moreover, a larger tunnel cross-sectional area will lead to a smaller heat flux.

  • 15.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Principer och strategier för ventilation vid brand i undermarksanläggningar2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes different underground systems including mines and tunnels during construction (tunneling). The key factors that affect fire development in underground systems are described. Proposal and recommendations for ventilation strategies in case of fire are given. The report covers both fuel- and ventilation-controlled fires. In general, a minimal ventilation limits the fire growth and may even inert the fire through ascended smoke. A minimal ventilation also contributes to improved conditions for a first fire extinguishing attempt and evacuation.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Requirements and verification methods of tunnel safety and design2012Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Funktionsbaserade krav och rekommendationer för brandsäkerhet i vägtunnlar (FKR-BV12)2012Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 18.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Performance-based design of road tunnel fire safety: Proposal of new Swedish framework2014Ingår i: Case Studies in Fire Safety, ISSN 2214-398X, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 18-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains a proposal of new Swedish framework for performance-based design of road tunnel fire safety derived from Swedish and European regulation. The overall purpose of the guideline is to protect life, health, property, environment, and key societal functions from fire. The guideline is structured into five key groups of requirements: #1 Proper management and organisation, #2 to limit the generation and spread of fire and smoke, #3 to provide means for safe self-evacuation, #4 to provide means and safety for the rescue service, and #5 to ensure load-bearing capacity of the construction. Each group contains a hybrid of prescriptive requirements, performance-based requirements, and acceptable solutions. Prescriptive requirements must be fulfilled, however, it is the choice of the design team to either adopt the proposed acceptable solutions, or to design alternative solutions by verifying that performance-based requirements are satisfied. For verification of performance-based requirements through risk analysis the operational, epistemic, and aleatory uncertainties are considerable. Therefore, a scenario-based risk analysis with several specified input variables and methods is recommended for verification of #3 and #5. Indispensable complements are scenario exercises, emergency exercises and similar methods that validate the design and highlight organisational aspects. The proposed design guide has been developed by the authors together with the advisory group established for the work.

  • 19.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Performance-based design of road tunnel fire safety: proposal of new Swedish framework2014Ingår i: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , s. 205-214s. 205-214Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Performance-based requirements and recommendations for fire safety in road tunnels (FKR-BV12)2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 21.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Stort behov av funktionsbaserade regler för tunnlar2016Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 55, s. 26-26Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Tianjin Fire Research Institute of MEM, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Yan, Zhigou
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Study on spilled liquid from a continuous leakage in sloped tunnels2022Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 120, artikel-id 104290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the behaviors of spilled liquid from a continuously leaked tank in sloped tunnels. Spillage width and area, which impact the potential heat release rates in case of fire, are investigated under different tunnel slopes and leakage flow rates by numerical simulations using interFoam based on the VOF method in the OpenFOAM toolbox following the validation. The simulation results show that the spillage width initially decreases rapidly and then slowly as the tunnel slope increases. Other parameters, including road surface roughness, physical properties of liquid and leakage source height, are also considered. Empirical models for predicting the spillage width and area are established considering both tunnel slope and leakage flow rate. The results may provide guidance for tunnel safety design and drainage system design affiliated with a tank leakage inside a tunnel. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 23.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    Taiyuan University of Science and Technology China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, Cina.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Numerical study on thermally driven smoke flow characteristics in long tunnels under natural ventilation2023Ingår i: International journal of thermal sciences, ISSN 1290-0729, E-ISSN 1778-4166, Vol. 192, artikel-id 108379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on the flow structures and mass flow rates of thermally driven smoke flows induced by fires in long transportation tunnels under natural ventilation. The important influencing factors including heat release rate (HRR), tunnel width and height, are taken into consideration. The mechanism of the smoke flow movement is explored. The results show that for a fire in a long naturally ventilated transportation tunnel, there exists a critical point which is dependent on HRR and tunnel geometry. This critical point is defined as the location where the smoke layer thickness and the outgoing mass flow rate increase towards it and decrease after it. Further, it is found that the critical point moves farther away from the fire source in a wider or higher tunnel, while it lies closer to the fire source for a higher HRR. A correlation is proposed to estimate the location of the critical point. The outgoing mass flow rates along the tunnel are calculated using the two-layer flow model and well-mixed flow model of thermally driven flows, and the results indicate that these models produce satisfactory predictions of the mass flow rates if the vertical temperature profile is known. © 2023 The Authors

  • 24.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Tongji University, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Theoretical and numerical study on mass flow rates of smoke exhausted from short vertical shafts in naturally ventilated urban road tunnel fires2021Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, artikel-id 103782Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the mass flow rate of the buoyancy-driven gases exhausted from the shaft in naturally ventilated urban road tunnel fires. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are performed. The model to predict the mass flow rate of the incoming smoke exhausted by the nearest shaft is developed by considering that the smoke is exhausted along the four sides of the shaft separately. Based on the heat balance between the incoming smoke exhausted and the total gas flow exhausted, the model to estimate the total mass flow rate exhausted from the shaft (both smoke and entrained air) is also established. Meanwhile, a series of numerical simulation in a naturally ventilated tunnel considering the heat release rate (HRR), the shaft height, shaft length and width, shaft location was carried out. The simulation results show that the shaft height has a limited contribution to the mass flow rate of the incoming smoke exhausted while a larger shaft cross-sectional area shows a favorable performance in exhausting the smoke. Further, the air entrainment into the shaft increases with both the shaft height and shaft cross-sectional area. Comparisons of the mass flow rates of the incoming smoke and the total mass flow rates exhausted between simple calculations and simulations are made, showing that the simple models perform well. Further, it is found that there exist two regimes for the total mass flow rate corresponding to different smoke modes in the shaft (complete plug-holing, plug-holing and without plug-holing), which is caused by the different driven forces in the shaft. The outcomes of this work could provide some guidance for the design of vertical shaft and smoke control in naturally ventilated tunnel in urban area.

  • 25.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Tongji University, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Theoretical studies on buoyancy-driven ceiling jets of tunnel fires with natural ventilation2020Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 119, artikel-id 103228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a theoretical study on the ceiling jets induced by small fires in tunnels. The ceiling jet thickness, temperature rise and velocity are analyzed theoretically with Non-Boussinesq approximation. The study focuses on the radial and one-dimensional ceiling jets. Numerical solutions in the radial region and one-dimensional shooting region are obtained and new analytical solutions in the critical flow region are achieved. Analytical solutions indicate that the ceiling jet thickness increases with distance away from the fire source, which largely differs from the existing models implying that the ceiling jet thickness in the one-dimensional critical flow remains constant. Additionally, impacts of the air entrainment, friction and heat transfer on the ceiling jet are analyzed. It is found that in the radial and one-dimensional shooting flow regions, the air entrainment has a much more significant effect than the friction and heat transfer. However, in the one-dimensional critical flow region, the impact of air entrainment seems to be negligible and the flow is dominated by the friction and heat transfer. Further, validation of the present theory is made by comparing with previous theories, semi-empirical models, and experiments. The results show that the present theory provides a good prediction of the ceiling jet properties with natural ventilation for a small fire. © 2020 The Authors

  • 26.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Heat release rate measurements of burning mining vehicles in an underground mine2013Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 61, s. 12-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat release rates from two full-scale fire experiments with mining vehicles in an underground mine are presented. The mining vehicles involved were a wheel loader and a drilling rig typical for mining operations. The calculated peak heat release rate of the loader was 15.9 MW and occurred after approximately 11 min from ignition. The calculated peak heat release rate of the drilling rig was 29.4 MW and occurred after approximately 21 min from ignition. The heat release rate was calculated from measured data of gas concentrations of oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, measured gas velocity and measured gas temperatures. The fuel load of the wheel loader consisted mainly of the tyres, the hydraulic oil and the diesel fuel. The fuel load of the drilling rig consisted mainly of the hydraulic oil and the hydraulic hoses. The calculated heat release rate curves were controlled by comparing the summed up energy contents of the participating components with the integrated heat release rate curves.

  • 27.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Heat release rates of multiple objects at varying distances2012Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 52, nr Aug, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes simple theoretical calculations of the overall heat release rate (HRR) of multiple objects at both constant and varying distances that have been carried out. The results were compared to both fire experiments in a longitudinal ventilated model tunnel (scale 1:15) using piles of wooden pallets placed at varying distance from each other and with model scale fire experiments (scale 1:4) conducted with piles of wooden pallets in the open. Two different methods are presented which are based on physical relations for fire spread between the piles of wooden pallets. The first method uses a critical heat flux as ignition criteria while the other method uses an ignition temperature. The method using the critical heat flux as ignition criteria shows very good agreement with the corresponding experimental results used. The method using the ignition temperature as ignition criteria did not agree well with the corresponding experimental results. The prerequisite that the burning objects should not necessarily have to be positioned at equal distances was fulfilled. The results can be used to estimate the heat release rate in full scale tunnel experiments where wooden pallets have been used as fuel.

  • 28.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Shi, Zhicheng
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Yang, Hui
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Zhang, Heping
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study on flame characteristics of double fires in a naturally ventilated tunnel: Flame merging, flame tilt angle and flame height2021Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 114, artikel-id 103912Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of fire tests was carried out to investigate the diffusion flame characteristics of double fires generated from separated burners in a naturally ventilated tunnel, considering different heat release rates and fire separation distances. The results show that the flame tilt angle, as well as the horizontal projected flame length, first increases with fire separation distance and then remains constant, but the vertical flame length first decreases and then remains constant, which is different from two fires in free spaces where flames do not tilt when the separation distance is relatively long. This difference is caused by the non-dimensional fire induced air flow velocity in the tunnel, which is mainly related to the tunnel cross-section dimensions and burner radius. Three regions can be identified, i.e. flame vertical merging, plume vertical merging and non-merging with flame tilted. The critical flame merging separation distance, estimated by the flame merging probability, is greater than that of two fires in an open environment due to the fire-induced air flows. The merging flame height is lower than that of a single fire with a same heat release rate. A correlation was proposed to estimate flame height of two fires in a tunnel by the modified non-dimensional heat release rate using an air entrainment perimeter as the characteristic length. This work enhances the understanding of diffusion flame behaviors of double fires in naturally ventilated tunnels.

  • 29.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation2023Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 133, artikel-id 104967Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from a series of fire tests in a 1:15 scale tunnel. Further, a simple theoretical model for gas temperature in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed and used in analysis of the experimental data. The results showed that, for objects (wood piles) placed at a same separating distance downstream of the fire, the fire spread occurred faster and faster along the tunnel. Validation of the simplified temperature model for multiple fire sources was made against both model and full-scale tunnel fire tests. The model was further used to predict the critical conditions for fire spread to the second and third objects. Comparisons with the test data showed that average excess temperature of 465 K (or an equivalent incident heat flux of 18.7 kW/m2) could be used as the criterion for fire spread, and this was verified further by other model-scale tests and full-scale tests. The results showed that the critical fire spread distance monotonously increases with the heat release rate, and decreases with the tunnel perimeter. For multiple fire sources with equivalent heat release rates, as the separation distance between the first two fire sources increases, the critical fire spread distance from the second fire source to the third fire source decreases, but the total fire spread distance from the first fire source to the third one increases. If the total heat release rate at the site of a downstream fire source is greater than that at the former fire source, the critical fire spread distance becomes longer.

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  • 30.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Shi, Long
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study on the maximum ceiling gas temperature driven by double fires in a tunnel with natural ventilation2024Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 144, artikel-id 105550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is an important parameter for tunnel safety. The present study analyzed the characteristics of the maximum excess ceiling gas temperature driven by double fire sources in a naturally ventilated tunnel. A series of small-scale tunnel fire experiments were carried out with different fire separation distances and heat release rates. Theoretical analysis based on the equivalent virtual origin was also performed. The results showed that there exists only one peak gas temperature when the two fire plumes are merged before reaching the ceiling, while two peak gas temperatures can be observed when the two fire plumes are completely separated. The maximum excess gas temperature below the tunnel ceiling gradually decreases with an increasing fire separation distance in the plume merging region (S < Scp). When the fire separation distance increases further (S > Scp), the effect of the fire separation distance on the maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is very limited. Furthermore, a model using an equivalent fire source was proposed to predict the maximum excess gas temperature below the ceiling, considering different plume merging states. The present study contributes to the understanding of the maximum excess gas temperature characteristics of the smoke flow driven by double fires with an equal heat release rate in naturally ventilated tunnels. 

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  • 31.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    A fire test in the Gothenburg Tingstad tunnel2005Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 31, s. 4-5Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 32.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    An engineering tool to calculate heat release rates of multiple objects in underground structures2011Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 194-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    An experimental study of rack storage fires. Brandforsk project 602-9712001Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Anders Lönnermark doktorerar på tunnelförsök i Norge2003Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 28, s. 30-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 35.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Assessing the development in underground metro cars2011Ingår i: Eurotransport Magazine, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 45-47Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Better tools for assessing the risk of spread of fire between industrial buildings2008Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 37, s. 19-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 37.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Brand i sluttande tunnel utvecklas snabbt2000Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 23, s. 6-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Brand och brandskydd i undermarksanläggningar. Litteraturstudie. Brandforsk projekt 401-971.1997Rapport (Refereegranskat)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 39.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Branddynamik i oventilerade väg- och järnvägstunnlar2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the fire dynamic conditions in natural ventilated tunnels. A summary of the today’s knowledge about the dynamic fire conditions in nonventilated road or railway tunnel is given. The concept of fire dynamic conditions includes the variation of different parameters in length and height at different ventilation conditions. This primarily applies to parameters such as fire development, heat and smoke gas dispersion, gas temperatures, heat radiation towards objects and surrounding wall construction, flame lengths and sight length and toxic conditions in the smoke gases.

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  • 40.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Brandförsök i en vägtunnel i Norge kommer att ge underlag för dimensioneringsregler2002Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 26, s. 3-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 41.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Brandförsök i Tingstadstunneln2004Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 31, s. 4-5Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 42.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Brandförsök med offensiv släckning kombinerat med övertrycksventilering. Erfarenheter och mätresultat från försök i Svaneholm 5-7 nov. 1997.1998Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 43.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Brandsäkerhet i kritisk infrastruktur under mark, SP arrangerar workshop2011Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 44, s. 21-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 44.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Bättre verktyg för att bedöma risken för brandspridning2007Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 37, s. 26-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 45.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Computer modelling of evacuation from the discotheque fire in Gothenburg supports current regulations2004Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 29, s. 30-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 46.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Correlation between temperatues and oxygen measurements in a tunnel flow2007Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 75-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Design fire curves in tunnels2009Ingår i: Fire safety Journal, nr 44, s. 2-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Det är fordonen och lasten som brinner och inte tunnlarna2003Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 29, s. 3-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 49.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Diskoteksbranden - Modellförsök bekräftar hypotes2000Ingår i: BrandPosten, nr 22, s. 13-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 50.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Effects of ventilation on heat release rate of pool fires in a model tunnel. Brandforsk project 738-951.1995Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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