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  • 1.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Irene
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klingberg, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sjons, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, Lauren
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Secular trends in diet-related greenhouse gas emission estimates since 2000 - a shift towards sustainable diets in Sweden2021Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 24, nr 12, s. 3916-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study examines secular changes in diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) in younger and older Swedish adults, since the turn of this century. Setting: The municipality of Gothenburg, in western Sweden. Design: Two cross-sectional health examination surveys were conducted in 2001-04 (T1) and 2014-18 (T2). At both times, an 86-item food frequency questionnaire was embedded in the survey. From the food frequencies and age-standardized portion sizes, GHGE estimates (kg CO2e/year) were calculated. GHGE was modeled as a function of time period and covariates, for five distinct age groups. Participants: Women and men aged 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64 and 65-75 were randomly selected from the population registry and recruited for examinations. After exclusion of participants with incomplete dietary data, the analytic sample consisted of 2569 individuals at T1 and 2119 at T2. Results: Lower dietary GHGE scores were observed at T2 compared to T1, in each age group, adjusting for sex, body mass index, and education. The largest differences in GHGE were observed in the youngest age group (circa 30% reduction). Decreasing trends in GHGE from animal-based foods were observed at all ages and were accompanied by smaller increases from plant-based sources in younger groups only. At all ages, GHGE from discretionary foods decreased, and prevalence of overweight remained stable. Conclusions: Optimal dietary trends should support both human health and planetary health. Our results suggest that Swedish adults have moved in this direction, e.g. through less intake of red meat products and stable weight status.

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  • 2.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hjorth, Therese
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Huseinovic, Ena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Climate impact from diet in relation to background and sociodemographic characteristics in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme2019Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 22, nr 17, s. 3288-3297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:The objective of this study was to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden.Design:A cross-sectional study within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Dietary data from a 64-item food frequency questionnaire collected during 1996-2016 were used. Energy-adjusted greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) for all participants, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/day and 4184 kJ (1000 kcal), were estimated using data from life cycle analyses. Differences in background and sociodemographic characteristics were examined between participants with low and high GHGE from diet, respectively. The variables evaluated were age, BMI, physical activity, marital status, level of education, smoking, and residence.Setting:Västerbotten county in northern Sweden.Participants:In total, 46 893 women and 45 766 men aged 29-65 years.Results:Differences in GHGE from diet were found across the majority of examined variables. The strongest associations were found between GHGE from diet and age, BMI, education, and residence (all P < 0·001), with the highest GHGE from diet found among women and men who were younger, had a higher BMI, higher educational level, and lived in urban areas.Conclusions:This study is one of the first to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics. The results show that climate impact from diet is associated with age, BMI, residence and educational level amongst men and women in Västerbotten, Sweden. These results define potential target populations where public health interventions addressing a move towards more climate-friendly food choices and reduced climate impact from diet could be most effective. 

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  • 3.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Berndt
    University Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegärd
    University Umeå, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University Umeå, Sweden.
    Adherence to the Swedish dietary guidelines and the impact on mortality and climate in a population-based cohort study2023Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 26, s. 2333-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the associations between adherence to the Swedish dietary guidelines and all-cause mortality and thus assessing the index' ability to predict health outcomes, as well as levels of dietary greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). Design: A longitudinal study 1990-2016 within the population-based cohort Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Dietary data were based on food frequency questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed by the Swedish Healthy Eating Index for Adults 2015 (SHEIA15), based on the 2015 Swedish dietary guidelines. Dietary GHGEs were estimated from life cycle assessment data including emissions from farm to industry gate. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality were evaluated with Cox proportional hazards regression, and differences in median GHGEs were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA test, between quintiles of SHEIA15 score. Setting: Northern Sweden. Participants: In total, 49,124 women and 47,651 men, aged 35-65 years. Results: Median follow-up times were 16.0 years for women and 14.7 years for men, during which time 3074 women and 4212 men died. A consistent trend of lower all-cause mortality HRs for both sexes with higher SHEIA15 scores was demonstrated. For women, the all-cause mortality HR was 0.81 [(95% CI 0.71-0.92); p=0.001] and for men 0.90 [(95% CI 0.81-0.996); p=0.041] between the quintile with the highest SHEIA15 score compared with the quintile with the lowest SHEIA15 score. A consistent trend of lower estimated dietary GHGEs among both sexes with higher SHEIA15 scores was also found. Conclusions: Adherence to Swedish dietary guidelines, estimated by SHEIA15, seems to promote longevity and reduce dietary climate impact. © The Authors 2023.

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