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  • 1.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Spångberg, Johanna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Environmental impact of recycling digested food waste as a fertilizer in agriculture: A case study2015Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 95, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the environmental impacts of recycling the plant nutrients in anaerobically digested food waste as fertilizer in agriculture. This was compared with the impacts of using chemical fertilizer, where the food waste was incinerated, producing heat. The study site was a biogas plant in central Sweden and life cycle assessment methodology was used. The impacts studied were primary energy use, global warming potential (GWP), potential acidification, potential eutrophication, cadmium flow to farmland and use of phosphate rock. Use of digested food waste as fertilizer proved to have larger negative results than use of chemical fertilizer in all categories assessed except use of non-renewable phosphate rock. Sensitivity analyses showed that the scenarios were comparable in terms of primary energy use and better for GWP if some improvements in the anaerobic digestion system were made. However, acidification and eutrophication caused by digestate handling and the cadmium content of digestate should still be considered.

  • 2.
    Dalemo, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sonesson, U.
    Bjorklund, A.
    Mingarini, K.
    Frostell, B.
    Jonsson, H.
    Nybrant, T.
    Sundqvist, J.-O.
    Thyselius, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    ORWARE - A simulation model for organic waste handling systems.: Part 1: Model description1997Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 17-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic Waste Research), for the handling of organic waste in urban areas has been constructed. The model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental effects, plant nutrient utilisation and energy turnover for this large and complex system. The ORWARE model consists of several sub-models; sewage plant, incineration, landfill, compost, anaerobic digestion, truck transport, transport by sewers, residue transport and spreading of residues on arable land. The model is intended for simulating different scenarios, and the results are: emissions to air and water, energy turnover and the amount of residues returned to arable land. All results are presented, both as the gross figure for the entire system and figures for each process. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of 43 substances. This extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. In this paper, the model is described. Results from a hypothetical case study are presented in a companion paper.A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch), for the handling of organic waste in urban areas has been constructed. The model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental effects, plant nutrient utilization and energy turnover for this large and complex system. The ORWARE model consists of several sub-models; sewage plant, incineration, landfill, compost, anaerobic digestion, truck transport, transport by sewers, residue transport and spreading of residues on arable land. The model is intended for simulating different scenarios, and the results are: emissions to air and water, energy turnover and the amount of residues returned to arable land. All results are presented, both as the gross figure for the entire system and figures for each process. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of 43 substances. This extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. In this paper, the model is described. Results from a hypothetical case study are presented in a companion paper.

  • 3.
    Davis, Jenny
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Geyer, R.
    Ley, J.
    He, J.
    Clift, R.
    Kwan, A.
    Time-dependent material flow analysis of iron and steel in the UK.: Part 2. Scrap generation and recycling2007Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 118-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of the use of iron and steel in the UK and explores how much of the iron and steel is recycled when it becomes obsolete after use. The first part of this paper series investigated production and consumption trends of iron and steel in the UK, whereas this paper focuses on scrap generation and recycling. Information on the amounts of iron and steel going into different groups of goods, together with values for their estimated lifetimes, have enabled modelling of the annual release of iron and steel from the use phase in the form of end-of-life scrap. This is an application to material flow accounting of the theory of residence time distributions used routinely in chemical reaction engineering. By comparing modelled generation of scrap with actual scrap consumption in the UK, we obtain estimates of loss or accumulation of iron and steel scrap in the UK. The model indicates that as much as 30% of the scrap that was potentially available in 2001 as end-of-life scrap has either been accumulated within the economic system or lost to landfill. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Eriksson, O.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Identification and testing of potential key parameters in system analysis of municipal solid waste management2010Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 54, nr 12, s. 1095-1099Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) are well-established methods used for many years in many countries for system analysis of waste management. According to standard LCA procedure the assessment should include improvement analysis, in many cases this is performed by simple sensitivity analyses. An obstacle to perform more thorough sensitivity analyses is that it is hard to distinguish input data important to the results, i.e. key parameters. This paper further elaborates sensitivity analyses performed in an environmental system analysis for a hypothetical Swedish municipality. In this paper, the methodto identify and test input data that can be categorised as potential key parameters is described. The method and the results from computer simulations of the identified parameters are presented, and some conclusions are drawn regarding the robustness of the results for environmental impact from municipal solid waste management. The major conclusion is that the results are robust. Changes in results, when changing the preconditions, are often small and the changes observed do not lead to new conclusions; i.e., a change of ranking order between treatment options. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5. Eriksson, O.
    et al.
    Frostell, B.
    Bjorklund, A.
    Assefa, G.
    Sundqvist, J.-O.
    Granath, J.
    Carlsson, M.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Thyselius, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    ORWARE - A simulation tool for waste management2002Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 287-307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) is described. The model is mainly used as a tool for researchers in environmental systems analysis of waste management. It is a computer-based model for calculation of substance flows, environmental impacts, and costs of waste management. The model covers, despite the name, both organic and inorganic fractions in municipal waste. The model consists of a number of separate submodels, which describes a process in a real waste management system. The submodels may be combined to design a complete waste management system. Based on principles from life cycle assessment the model also comprises compensatory processes for conventional production of e.g. electricity, district heating and fertiliser. The compensatory system is included in order to fulfil the functional units, i.e. benefits from the waste management that are kept constant in the evaluation of different scenarios. ORWARE generates data on emissions, which are aggregated into different environmental impact categories, e.g. the greenhouse effect, acidification and eutrophication. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of up to 50 substances. The extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. Scientists have used ORWARE for 8 years in different case studies for model testing and practical application in the society. The aims have e.g. been to evaluate waste management plans and to optimise energy recovery from waste. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6. Geyer, R.
    et al.
    Davis, Jenny
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ley, J.
    He, J.
    Clift, R.
    Kwan, A.
    Time-dependent material fl{ligature}ow analysis of iron and steel in the UK.: Part 1: Production and consumption trends 1970-20002007Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 101-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a detailed account of the supply chain for iron and steel in the UK, using material fl{ligature}ow analysis. Due to the lack of a universally agreed methodology of material fl{ligature}ow analysis, we include an explanation of the accounting methodology employed in the study. Data for the supply chain has been collected reaching back three decades, enabling analysis of trends in production and consumption of iron and steel over the years. This fi{ligature}rst part of a series of two papers quantifi{ligature}es the iron and steel fl{ligature}ows through the UK economy including the annual amount of iron and steel embodied in all fi{ligature}nal goods that enter the use phase in the UK. The second part explores the more elusive fl{ligature}ows of scrap generation and recycling. In this fi{ligature}rst paper we show that the UK no longer has the capacity to recycle the scrap it collects and is increasingly relying on foreign economies to do so. We also observe that trade in iron and steel products and ferrous metal containing fi{ligature}nal goods has increased dramatically over the years, but remained relatively balanced. Today, one-half of UK's iron and steel production is exported, whereas one-half of the iron and steel entering the UK use phase comes from imported fi{ligature}nal goods. The efficiency with which the UK iron and steel industry transforms iron ore and scrap into iron and steel products has increased substantially. However, there is no significant downward trend in the absolute level of iron and steel use in the UK. Between 1970 and 1981 the annual amount of steel put to use dropped from 16.4 to 10.7 million metric tonnes but climbed back up to 15 million metric tonnes twice since then. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stage, J.
    Retail waste of horticultural products in Sweden2011Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, nr 5, s. 554-556Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste of food is a topic of considerable policy interest. However, few studies have been done on food waste at the retail level. The aim of this study was to examine how large retail waste is for 16 different horticultural products, selected among typical fruit and vegetables. The levels of retail waste were examined in cooperation with one of the leading Swedish retail companies. The results showed that retail waste of horticultural products amounted between 0.4% and 6.3% of store supplies for different horticultural products. The results did not show that packaging reduced waste of horticultural products. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Lundkvist, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Samuelsson, C.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Optimisation of a centralised recycling system for steel plant by-products, a logistics perspective2013Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 77, s. 29-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the optimisation of a recovery strategy for waste materials and thereby improved material efficiency in the iron and steel industry. A joint venture between four Nordic steel plants is considered in order to recycle materials otherwise mainly put to landfill, i.e. dusts and sludges from the steel production processes. Process integration (PI) was used to investigate the possibilities for recovering the materials by developing a system optimisation model of the steel plants and integrating a dedicated material upgrading process in the system. This work aims to develop a model suitable for analysing and finding a logistic solution needed to achieve a common recycling system by studying material supply, required material storage, shipping system and shipping frequency. The developed optimisation model is presented, using a case study of the steel production plants with the dedicated upgrading process and the logistics system. The prospect for shipping materials from the steel production sites to the material upgrading process site as well as the material supply to the upgrading unit is essential in the system analysis. A mathematical optimisation model based on mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) for the common system is presented. The integration of the dedicated material upgrading process show a system in balance regarding the materials generated and processed in the upgrading unit. Generated material amounts suitable for the upgrading process can be fully recovered thereby decreasing the landfilled amounts from the four steel production sites. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    McConville, J. R.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jönsson, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, M.
    Ecoloop, Sweden.
    Source separation: Challenges & opportunities for transition in the Swedish wastewater sector2017Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 120, s. 144-156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A paradigm shift to waste reuse has started in the wastewater sector with many experts calling for greater resource recovery, often facilitated by alternative solutions such as source separation. Source separation has been shown to be advantageous for improving treatment capacity, food security, and efficiency; yet these systems are still immature, considered risky by professionals and scarcely implemented. This study attempts to answer the question of why source separation is still marginalized by examining the Swedish experience with source separated wastewater from the perspective of Technology Innovation Systems (TIS) in order to identify obstacles and policy recommendations. Considering that source-separation is still in a development phase, the study found that source separation works moderately well within the on-site niche and that blackwater systems in general perform better than urine diversion. Knowledge development is found to be the weakest function. A major blocking mechanism is the weakness of interchange between knowledge development and entrepreneurial activity. Policy recommendations include: increased R&D; building networks and communication platforms; and establishing guidelines for technologies, legislation interpretation and organizational models.

  • 10.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Rosander, Erica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Veide, Andras
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden2017Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 125, s. 86-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The option of producing the chemical succinic acid from bio-based resources is well in line with current political and industrial ambitions for a bio-based economy. A little explored but intriguing biomass feedstock opportunity is food waste. Mixed food waste is especially appealing as it represents less resource competition than more homogenous food waste fractions. The feasibility of producing succinic acid from mixed food waste depends on both technical and societal system structures. Therefore, to assess the production prospect, it is important to investigate all relevant system components. This study explores from such multiple perspectives the feasibility of chemical production as a viable added pathway for mixed food waste, using microbial production of succinic acid from municipal solid waste in Sweden as an example. The perspectives explored are: 1) feedstock feasibility, 2) societal drivers and barriers for technology progress, and 3) resource availability. Findings show that even though, from a technical feasibility and resource availability perspective, production seems possible, it lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for development in Sweden. Findings also show that a holistic and interdisciplinary systems perspective contributes valuable insight when assessing prospects for bio-based chemicals.

  • 11.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä. RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Peters, Greg
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Moving down the cause-effect chain of water and land use impacts: An LCA case study of textile fibres2013Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 73, s. 104–113-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12. Shen, H
    et al.
    Forssberg, E
    Pugh, RJ
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Selective flotation separation of plastics by chemical conditioning with methyl cellulose2002Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 35, s. 229-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The floatability of seven plastics (POM, PVC, PET, PMMA, PC, PS and ABS) in the presence of methyl cellulose (MC) and separation of plastics mixtures were investigated in this paper. It was found that the seven plastics can be separated into three groups by using the wetting agent MC. Group one includes POM and PVC. They are depressed at very low MC concentrations. Group two, including PET, PMMA and PC, has an intermediate floatability. Group three (ABS and PS) has a high floatability. They are almost not depressed within the given MC concentration range. In order to understand the mechanism of selective flotation of plastics and the chemical conditioning process, surface chemical factors, such as wettability of plastics and surface tension of flotation medium, and gravity factors, such as particle density and shape, were studied. It was found that the depressing effect of MC on plastics is ascribed mainly to its adsorption on the plastics surfaces. The MC molecules absorbed on plastics expose some of their polar groups oriented towards the aqueous phase, hence making the plastics surfaces hydrophilic. In addition, flotation selectivity for the plastics is dominated not only by wettability of plastics, but also by particle size, density and shape

  • 13. Shen, H
    et al.
    Pugh, RJ
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Forssberg, E
    A review of plastics waste recycling and the flotation of plastics1999Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 25, s. 85-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summerizes the importance of plastic waste recycling and plastic waste separation. Based on an analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of plastics and plastic waste, the potentials and limitations of several technological processes are discussed. In addition, a review of the surface chemical aspects of plastic flotation is presented. It can be concluded that the flotation of plasics is a fairly flexible technique and could prove to be a useful process for the separation of mixtures of several different types of plastics. however, more research and development effort is required before this technology can be introduced to industry.

  • 14. Shen, H
    et al.
    Pugh, RJ
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Forssberg, E
    Selective flotation separation of plastics by particle control2001Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 33, s. 37-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the characteristics of plastics particles in the cutting products and flotation behaviours of plastics were studied. On this basis, the relation of floatability of plastics with surface chemical related factor and gravity factors was derived and discussed. From the results, it was shown that plastics flotation is dominated not only by surface chemical factors, but also significantly by gravity factors. It is suggested that plastics flotation is a combination of froth flotation and gravity separation. According to this relation, the idea of particle control was first applied for the separation of plastics mixture. From the separation results, it can be seen that this method can greatly increase the separation efficiency for flotation separation of plastics mixture

  • 15. Sonesson, U.
    et al.
    Dalemo, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Mingarini, K.
    Jonsson, H.
    ORWARE - A simulation model for organic waste handling systems.: Part 2: Case study and simulation results1997Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 39-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from simulations with the ORWARE model (ORganic WAste REsearch) are presented. The model was tested on a medium-sized Swedish city. The scenarios were planned to illustrate the consequences of different waste handling systems. The modelled processes for organic solid waste were; incineration, landfilling, anaerobic digestion and composting, for the wastewater they were sewage plant and source separation of urine. Each transport and treatment facility was modelled with respect to incoming waste. Each process model generates an energy balance, liquid and/or gaseous emissions and residual products as outputs. The simulation results show that source separation of solid waste, followed by biological treatment, is beneficial with respect to the recycling of phosphorus and environmental effects. The negative results for these systems are their energy balances. Source-separating human urine seems to be the only way to get a high degree of nitrogen recycling. The results also stress the importance of including liquid waste to get an overall picture of the transports needed to get the residues to arable land. Landfilling organic waste generates the largest negative environmental effect. A model description is presented in a companion paper.Results from simulations with the ORWARE model (ORganic WAste REsearch) are presented. The model was tested on a medium-sized Swedish city. The scenarios were planned to illustrate the consequences of different waste handling systems. The modelled processes for organic solid waste were; incineration, landfilling, anaerobic digestion and composting, for the wastewater they were sewage plant and source separation of urine. Each transport and treatment facility was modelled with respect to incoming waste. Each process model generates an energy balance, liquid and/or gaseous emissions and residual products as outputs. The simulation results show that source separation of solid waste, followed by biological treatment, is beneficial with respect to the recycling of phosphorus and environmental effects. The negative results for these systems are their energy balances. Source-separating human urine seems to be the only way to get a high degree of nitrogen recycling. The results also stress the importance of including liquid waste to get an overall picture of the transports needed to get the residues to arable land. Landfilling organic waste generates the largest; negative environmental effect. A model description is presented in a companion paper.

  • 16.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Karrman, E.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, H.
    Wastewater management integrated with farming: An environmental systems analysis of a Swedish country town2006Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 295-315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of plant nutrients in sewage products to arable land is considered to be a step towards a more sustainable society. Sewage sludge is the predominant sewage fertiliser product available today, but the use of sewage sludge in agriculture has been questioned as regards hazardous substances. In this respect, blackwater from separating systems seems to better fulfil agricultural requirements regarding fertiliser products. The objective of this paper was to analyse the environmental impact and resource use in a life cycle perspective for three systems, each including both wastewater handling and agricultural production. In the reference system, food waste disposers were installed in houses. Milled food waste and wastewater were treated in a wastewater treatment plant and the sewage sludge was used for producing a soil conditioner. In the sludge utilisation system, food waste from households was composted, wastewater was treated conventionally and sewage sludge was used in oat production. In the blackwater system, toilet water from low-flush toilets and milled organic waste were digested together and spread in growing oats. Data on the wastewater system were derived from simulations by the substance-flow model URWARE/ORWARE. The blackwater system required slightly more primary energy than the other two systems. In particular, construction of storage facilities contributed considerably to energy use. The emissions of greenhouse gases and SO2 were of the same magnitude for all three systems, while the eutrophying emissions were reduced significantly in the blackwater system. As regards NH3 and NOX, the emissions were highest for the blackwater system. High substitution of mineral fertiliser, optimal spreading technique and well-designed collection and storage facilities were important factors for the environmental outcome in the blackwater system. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Vaneeckhaute, Celine
    et al.
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Styles, David
    Bangor University, UK.
    Prade, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Adams, Paul
    Bath University, UK.
    Thelin, Gunnar
    Ekobalans, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Gunnarsson, Inga
    Lund University, Sweden.
    D'Hertefeldt, Tina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Closing nutrient loops through decentralized anaerobic digestion of organic residues in agricultural regions: A multi-dimensional sustainability assessment2018Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 136, s. 110-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decentralized anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure and organic residues is a possible strategy to improve carbon and nutrient cycling within agricultural regions, meanwhile generating renewable energy. To date, there has been limited adoption of decentralized AD technology in industrialized countries owing to low profitability for plant operators. There remains a need to demonstrate the wider sustainability of small-scale, decentralized AD in order to justify policy support for such a strategy. This study applies a multi-dimensional assessment of the environmental, economic and social sustainability of two scenarios of decentralized, farm-scale AD of pig slurry and organic residues in Southern Sweden. The environmental dimension was assessed by means of an expanded boundary life cycle assessment, in which trade-offs between fertilizer replacement, soil organic carbon accumulation, digestate/manure storage and application, transport and soil emissions were evaluated. The economic dimension was assessed through modelling of the net present value and internal rate of return. Finally, the social dimension was assessed by means of a stakeholder perception inquiry among key stakeholders in the field. It was concluded that the overall environmental balance of decentralized AD was favorable, while also the net present value could be positive. Fertilizer replacement, soil organic carbon and digestate storage effects were identified as important factors that should be accounted for in future life cycle assessments. A key issue for interviewed stakeholders was product quality assurance. Wider application of multi-dimensional sustainability assessment, capturing important nutrient cycling effects, could provide an evidence base for policy to support sustainable deployment of decentralized AD.

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