Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1 - 26 av 26
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Berktas, Ilayda
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Ghafar, Ali Nejad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Caputcu, Ayten
    Cimsa Cimento Sanayi AS, Turkey.
    Menceloglu, Yusuf
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Okan, Burcu
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Synergistic effect of expanded graphite-silane functionalized silica as a hybrid additive in improving the thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts with controllablewater uptake2020Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 14, artikel-id 3561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a growing demand for geothermal applications has led to the exploitation of energy efficiently by developing grouting materials in the borehole between pipes and the ground. Therefore, the current study developed newly formulated cementitious grouts by the integration of expanded graphite (EG)-based hybrid additives synthesized by building chemical bridges between silica particles and EG in the presence of amino functional silane coupling agents. These produced hybrid additives with controlled EG and silica ratios were utilized in grout mixtures used in borehole heat exchangers to enhance the thermal conductivity. According to the optimization study on the formulation development of grout mixtures with bentonite, silica sands, cement, and superplasticizer by adding neat EG and EG-based hybrids, the relationship between the carbon amount and water demand was found to have a significant impact on thermal conductivity. The highest thermal conductivity value of 2.656 W/mK was achieved by the incorporation of 5 wt% hybrid additive with the ratio silica/EG of 1:5 compared to the reference grout, which showed a thermal conductivity of 2.373 W/mK. Therefore, the enhancement in thermal conductivity was dependent on the increase in the EG content and also the additive loading ratio, resulting in a slight increase in the water demand.

  • 2.
    Bienert, Kathrin
    et al.
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Schumacher, Britt
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Arboleda, Martin
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany; Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Billig, Eric
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Shakya, Semiksha
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Rogstrand, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Zielinski, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Debowski, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Multi-indicator assessment of innovative small-scale biomethane technologies in Europe2019Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikel-id 1321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative small-scale biogas plants, including upgrading solutions to affordable biomethane, are necessary to tap into the spatially distributed potentials of organic waste. This research identified and assessed novel small-scale technologies before market-entry maturity in the key process steps of the biomethane chain. We assessed technical, economic, and ecological indicators, and compared them to larger-scale references. The assessment included 7 pre-treatment, 13 digester, and 11 upgrading systems all at the small scale. We collected recently available data for Europe (2016–2018) for small-scale technologies (<200 m 3 ; raw biogas per hour). In the literature we did not find such a comprehensive assessment of actual European small-scale innovative non-market-ready technologies for the production of biomethane. Several conclusions were drawn for each of the individual process steps in the biomethane chain, e.g., the economic indicator calculated for the upgrading technologies shows that the upgrading costs, for some of them, are already close to the larger-scale reference (about 1.5 €ct/kWh raw biogas). Furthermore, biomethane production is absolutely context-specific, which dramatically limits the traditional way to evaluate technologies. Hence, new ways of integration of the technologies plays a major role on their future

  • 3.
    Brännvall, Rickard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Modular and Transferable Machine Learning for Heat Management and Reuse in Edge Data Centers2023Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 5, artikel-id 2255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the use of transfer learning and modular design for adapting a pretrained model to optimize energy efficiency and heat reuse in edge data centers while meeting local conditions, such as alternative heat management and hardware configurations. A Physics-Informed Data-Driven Recurrent Neural Network (PIDD RNN) is trained on a small scale-model experiment of a six-server data center to control cooling fans and maintain the exhaust chamber temperature within safe limits. The model features a hierarchical regularizing structure that reduces the degrees of freedom by connecting parameters for related modules in the system. With a RMSE value of 1.69, the PIDD RNN outperforms both a conventional RNN (RMSE: 3.18), and a State Space Model (RMSE: 2.66). We investigate how this design facilitates transfer learning when the model is fine-tuned over a few epochs to small dataset from a second set-up with a server located in a wind tunnel. The transferred model outperforms a model trained from scratch over hundreds of epochs.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hennessy, Jay
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi. University of Mälardalen, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Life cycle assessment of horse manure treatment2016Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikel-id 1011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Grauers, Anders
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Enerbäck, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Total cost of ownership model and significant cost parameters for the design of electric bus systems2020Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 12, artikel-id 3262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Without experiences of electric buses, public transport authorities and bus operators have faced questions about how to implement them in a cost-effective way. Simple cost modelling cannot show how costs for different types of electric buses differ between different routes and timetables. Tools (e.g., HASTUS, PtMS, and optibus) which can analyse such details are complicated, time consuming to use, and provide insufficient insights into the mechanisms that influence the cost. This paper therefore proposes a method for how to calculate total cost of ownership, for different types of electric buses, in a way which can predict how the cost varies based on route and timetable. The method excludes factors which cause minor cost variations in an almost random manor, in order to better show the fundamental mechanisms influencing different costs. The method will help in finding ways to reduce the cost and help to define a few cases which deserve a deep analysis with more complete tools. Testing of the method in a Swedish context showed that the results are in line with other theoretical and practical studies, and how the total cost of ownership can vary depending on the variables. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 6.
    Katsidoniotaki, Eirini
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Sweden.
    Psarommatis, Foivos
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Göteman, Malin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Sweden.
    Digital Twin for the Prediction of Extreme Loads on a Wave Energy Conversion System2022Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, nr 15, artikel-id 5464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wave energy is a renewable energy source with the potential to contribute to the global electricity demand, but a remaining challenge is the survivability of the wave energy converters in harsh offshore conditions. To understand the system dynamics and improve the reliability, experimental and numerical studies are usually conducted. However, these processes are costly and time-consuming. A statistical model able to provide equivalent results is a promising approach. In this study, the digital twin of the CFD solution is developed and implemented for the prediction of the force in the mooring system of a point-absorber wave energy converter during extreme wave conditions. The results show that the digital twin can predict the mooring force with 90.36% average accuracy. Moreover, the digital twin needs only a few seconds to provide the solution, while the CFD code requires up to several days. By creating a digital analog of a wave energy converter and showing that it is able to predict the load in critical components during extreme wave conditions, this work constitutes an innovative approach in the wave energy field. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 7.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludge and Organic FoodWaste — Performance, Inhibition, and Impact on theMicrobial Community2018Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikel-id 2325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion allows for under-utilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), i.e., food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper investigates the co-digestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment plants and OFMSW, through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling, and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process, and an increase of the biomethane production by 20% to 40%, when codigesting mixed sludge with OFMSW at a ratio of 1:1, based on the volatile solids (VS) content. The introduction of OFMSW also has an impact on the microbial community. With 50% co-substrate and constant loading conditions (1 kg VS/m3/d) the methanogenic activity increases and adapts towards acetate degradation, while the community in the reference reactor, without a co-substrate, remains unaffected. An elevated load (2 kg VS/m3/d) increases the methanogenic activity in both reactors, but the composition of the methanogenic population remains constant for the reference reactor. The modelling shows that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads, and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in the digester performance, due to varying inhibition. The paper demonstrates how modelling can be used for designing feed strategies and experimental setups for anaerobic co-digestion.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Khanzadeh, Babak
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thiringer, Torbjörn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kharezy, Mohammad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Multilevel Dual Active Bridge Leakage Inductance Selection for Various DC-Link Voltage Spans2023Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 2, artikel-id 859Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The leakage inductance of the transformer in a dual active bridge (DAB) dc–dc converter directly impacts the ac current waveforms and the power factor; thus, it can be considered a design requirement for the transformer. In the existing literature, a choice is made to either ensure soft switching in nominal power or to minimize the RMS current of the transformer. The inductance is typically obtained using optimization procedures. Implementing these optimizations is time-consuming, which can be avoided if a closed-form equation is derived for the optimum leakage inductance. In this paper, analytical formulas are derived to estimate the desired leakage inductance such that the highest RMS value of the current in the operation region of a DAB is kept to its minimum value. The accuracy and sensitivity of the analytical solutions are evaluated. It is shown that in a large design domain, the solution for the YY-connected MFT has a less than 3% error compared to the results obtained from an optimization engine. As an example of the importance of selecting the leakage inductance correctly, it is shown that for 11% deviations in the dc link voltages, a 10% deviation from the desired leakage inductance value can cause 2% higher RMS currents in the converter. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 9.
    Kharezy, Mohammad
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mirzaei, Hassan
    University of Zanjan, Iran.
    Thiringer, Torbjörn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Serdyuk, Yuriy
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Green Solution for Insulation System of a Medium Frequency High Voltage Transformer for an Offshore Wind Farm2022Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, nr 6, artikel-id 1998Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission represents the most efficient way for transporting produced electrical energy from remotely located offshore wind farms to the shore. Such systems are implemented today using very expensive and large power transformers and converter stations placed on dedicated platforms. The present study aims at elaborating a compact solution for an energy collections system. The solution allows for a minimum of total transformer weight in the wind turbine nacelle reducing or even eliminating the need for a sea-based platform(s). The heart of the project is a Medium Frequency Transformer (MFT) that has a high DC voltage insulation towards ground. The transformer is employed in a DC/DC converter that delivers the energy into a serial array without additional conversion units. The insulation design methodology of an environmentally friendly HV insulation system for an MFT, based on pressboard and biodegradable oil, is introduced. The measurement method and results of the measurements of electrical conductivities of the transformer oil and Oil Impregnated Pressboard (OIP) are reported. The measurements show that the biodegradable ester oil/OIP conductivities are generally higher than the mineral oil/OIP conductivities. Numerical simulations reveal that the performance of the insulation system is slightly better when ester oil is used. Additionally, a lower temperature dependency for ester oil/OIP conductivities is observed, with the result that the transformer filled with ester oil is less sensitive to temperature variations. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 10.
    Kramer, Morten
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark; Floating Power Plant, Denmark.
    Andersen, Jacob
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Thomas, Sarah
    Floating Power Plant, Denmark.
    Buus Bendixen, Flemming
    Sintex, Denmark.
    Bingham, Harry
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Read, Robert
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Holk, Nikolaj
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Ransley, Edward
    University of Plymouth, UK.
    Brown, Scott
    University of Plymouth, UK.
    Yu, Y-H
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA.
    Tran, Thanh Toan
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA.
    Davidson, Josh
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
    Horvath, Csaba
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
    Janson, Carl-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Kim
    Ramboll Group A/S, Denmark; Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Highly accurate experimental heave decay tests with a floating sphere: A public benchmark dataset for model validation of fluid–structure interaction2021Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 2, artikel-id 269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly accurate and precise heave decay tests on a sphere with a diameter of 300 mm were completed in a meticulously designed test setup in the wave basin in the Ocean and Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University, Denmark. The tests were dedicated to providing a rigorous benchmark dataset for numerical model validation. The sphere was ballasted to half submergence, thereby floating with the waterline at the equator when at rest in calm water. Heave decay tests were conducted, wherein the sphere was held stationary and dropped from three drop heights: a small drop height, which can be considered a linear case, a moderately nonlinear case, and a highly nonlinear case with a drop height from a position where the whole sphere was initially above the water. The precision of the heave decay time series was calculated from random and systematic standard uncertainties. At a 95% confidence level, uncertainties were found to be very low—on average only about 0.3% of the respective drop heights. Physical parameters of the test setup and associated uncertainties were quantified. A test case was formulated that closely represents the physical tests, enabling the reader to do his/her own numerical tests. The paper includes a comparison of the physical test results to the results from several independent numerical models based on linear potential flow, fully nonlinear potential flow, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations. A high correlation between physical and numerical test results is shown. The physical test results are very suitable for numerical model validation and are public as a benchmark dataset. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 11.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Boork, Magdalena
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Barriers, driving forces and non-energy benefits for battery storage in photovoltaic (PV) systems in modern agriculture2019Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 18, artikel-id 3568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery storage has been highlighted as one way to increase the share of renewables in energy systems. The use of local battery storage is also beneficial when reducing power variations in the grid, thereby contributing to more robust and cost-effective energy systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits (NEB) for investments in battery storage in photovoltaic systems (PV) in the context of farmers with PV systems in Sweden. The study is based on a questionnaire about barriers, driving forces and NEB for investment in battery storage connected to PV. The questionnaire was sent to farmers in Sweden who already have photovoltaics installed and about 100 persons answered, a response rate of 59%. The major barriers found are related to the technical and economic risks of investing in battery storage. One of the main conclusions is that the highest-ranked driver, i.e., to use a larger part of the produced electricity oneself, turns out to be the highest priority for the grid-owner seeking to reduce the need for extensive investments in the grid. The primary NEBs found were the possibility of becoming independent from grid electricity. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 12.
    Mattsson, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Korda, Olga
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    An Exploratory Study on Swedish Stakeholders’ Experiences with Positive Energy Districts2023Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 12, artikel-id 4790Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive energy district (PED) is a novel idea aimed to have an annual surplus of renewable energy and net zero greenhouse gas emissions within an area. However, it is still an ambiguous concept, which might be due to the complexity of city district projects with interconnected infrastructures and numerous stakeholders involved. This study discusses various aspects of PED implementation and presents practitioners’ experiences with the PED concept, challenges, and facilitators they have faced with real projects. The study is based on interviews with ten Swedish professionals. The major challenges reported for PED implementation were local energy production and energy flexibility, sub-optimization, legislation, suitable system boundaries, and involvement of stakeholders. Most of the interviewees mentioned improved collaboration, integrated innovative technology, political support, and climate change mitigation goals as important facilitators. The interviewees highlighted the importance of a local perspective and considered each city’s preconditions when developing a PED project. The study emphasizes that to facilitate PED implementation and replication in cities, more knowledge and clarity is required about PED such as on the definition and system boundaries. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 13.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Gustafsson, Gabriel
    Bioshare AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anton
    Bioshare AB, Sweden.
    Samavati, Mahrokh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Electrification of Biorefinery Concepts for Improved Productivity—Yield, Economic and GHG Performances2023Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 21, artikel-id 7436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Demand for biofuels will likely increase, driven by intensifying obligations to decarbonize aviation and maritime sectors. Sustainable biomass is a finite resource, and the forest harvesting level is a topic of ongoing discussions, in relation to biodiversity preservation and the short-term role of forests as carbon sinks. State-of-the-art technologies for converting lignocellulosic feedstock into transportation biofuels achieves a carbon utilization rate ranging from 25% to 50%. Mature technologies like second-generation ethanol and gasification-based processes tend to fall toward the lower end of this spectrum. This study explores how electrification can enhance the carbon efficiency of biorefinery concepts and investigates its impact on energy, economics and greenhouse gas emissions. Results show that electrification increases carbon efficiency from 28% to 123% for gasification processes, from 28% to 45% for second-generation ethanol, and from 50% to 65% for direct liquefaction processes. Biofuels are produced to a cost range 60–140 EUR/MWh-biofuel, depending on the chosen technology pathway, feedstock and electricity prices. Notably, production in electrified biorefineries proves cost-competitive when compared to pure electrofuel (E-fuels) tracks. Depending on the selected technology pathway and the extent of electrification, a reduction in GHG emissions ranging from 75% to 98% is achievable, particularly when powered by a low-carbon electricity mix. 

  • 14.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Matsakas, Leonidis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Technoeconomic assessment of hybrid organosolv-steam explosion pretreatment of woody biomass2019Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 21, artikel-id en12214206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates technoeconomic performance of standalone biorefinery concepts that utilize hybrid organic solvent and steam explosion pretreatment technique. The assessments were made based on a mathematical process model developed in UniSim Design software using inhouse experimental data. The work was motivated by successful experimental applications of the hybrid pretreatment technique on lignocellulosic feedstocks that demonstrated high fractionation efficiency into a cellulose-rich, a hemicellulose-rich and lignin streams. For the biorefinery concepts studied here, the targeted final products were ethanol, organosolv lignin and hemicellulose syrup. Minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and Internal rate of return (IRR) were evaluated as economic indicators of the investigated biorefinery concepts. Depending on the configuration, and allocating all costs to ethanol, MESP in the range 0.53-0.95 €/L were required for the biorefinery concepts to break even. Under the assumed ethanol reference price of 0.55 €/L, the corresponding IRR were found to be in the range -1.75-10.7%. Hemicellulose degradation and high steam demand identified as major sources of inefficiencies for the process and economic performance, respectively. Sensitivity of MESP and IRR towards the most influential technical, economic and market parameters performed. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 15.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dennis
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bagge, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Effect of High Occupancy Density on IAQ, Moisture Conditions and Energy Use in Apartments2019Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 23, artikel-id 4454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Apartments built in Sweden during the record years 1961–1975 with the aim to remedy thehousing shortage and abolish poor standards, were designed for a normal-sized family of 2–4 persons.The mechanical ventilation system, if existing, was primarily designed to ensure an air exchange inthe apartment according to Swedish building regulations. During the last few years, the number ofovercrowded apartments has increased due to housing shortage in general but also due to migration.Another aspect is that the ventilation in many apartments built during the record years is alreadyinsucient at normal occupant load. The question is how doubling or tripling the number ofoccupants and thus, the moisture load will aect the risk of bad air quality and moisture damage.To find out, simulations were made to estimate whether it is possible to obtain sucient air qualityand low risk of moisture damage by only increasing the ventilation rates in existing systems orintroducing new ventilation systems with and without heat recovery and what the consequencewould be in terms of the additional energy demand. Measurements from earlier studies of CO2 andmoisture supply in Swedish apartment buildings were used as input data.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Ollas, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thiringer, Torbjörn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Persson, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Markusson, Caroline
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Energy Loss Savings Using Direct Current Distribution in a Residential Building with Solar Photovoltaic and Battery Storage2023Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 3, artikel-id 1131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a comparison of alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) distribution systems for a residential building equipped with solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and battery storage. Using measured PV and load data from a residential building in Sweden, the study evaluated the annual losses, PV utilization, and energy savings of the two topologies. The analysis considered the load-dependent efficiency characteristics of power electronic converters (PECs) and battery storage to account for variations in operating conditions. The results show that DC distribution, coupled with PV generation and battery storage, offered significant loss savings due to lower conversion losses than the AC case. Assuming fixed efficiency for conversion gave a 34% yearly loss discrepancy compared with the case of implementing load-dependent losses. The results also highlight the effect on annual system losses of adding PV and battery storage of varying sizes. A yearly loss reduction of 15.8% was achieved with DC operation for the studied residential building when adding PV and battery storage. Additionally, the analysis of daily and seasonal variations in performance revealed under what circumstances DC could outperform AC and how the magnitude of the savings could vary with time. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 17.
    Ostadi, Mohammad
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Paso, Kristofer
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Rodriguez-Fabia, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Øi, Lars Erik
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Manenti, Flavio
    Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy.
    Hillestad, Magne
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Process integration of green hydrogen: Decarbonization of chemical industries2020Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 18, artikel-id 4859Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated water electrolysis is a core principle of new process configurations for decarbonized heavy industries. Water electrolysis generates H2 and O2 and involves an exchange of thermal energy. In this manuscript, we investigate specific traditional heavy industrial processes that have previously been performed in nitrogen-rich air environments. We show that the individual process streams may be holistically integrated to establish new decarbonized industrial processes. In new process configurations, CO2 capture is facilitated by avoiding inert gases in reactant streams. The primary energy required to drive electrolysis may be obtained from emerging renewable power sources (wind, solar, etc.) which have enjoyed substantial industrial development and cost reductions over the last decade. The new industrial designs uniquely harmonize the intermittency of renewable energy, allowing chemical energy storage. We show that fully integrated electrolysis promotes the viability of decarbonized industrial processes. Specifically, new process designs uniquely exploit intermittent renewable energy for CO2 conversion, enabling thermal integration, H2 and O2 utilization, and sub-process harmonization for economic feasibility. The new designs are increasingly viable for decarbonizing ferric iron reduction, municipal waste incineration, biomass gasification, fermentation, pulp production, biogas upgrading, and calcination, and are an essential step forward in reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 18.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Bo
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Nordin, Lars-Olof
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The feasibility of replacing coal with biomass in iron-ore pelletizing plants with respect to melt-induced slagging2020Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 20, artikel-id 5386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion-generated fly ash particles in combination with the particles arising from the disintegration of iron-ore pellets, could give rise to the build-up of deposits on the refractory linings of the induration facility. Due to climate change and other environmental issues, there is a desire to cut down on use of fossil fuels. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the feasibility of replacing coal with less carbon-intensive alternatives such as upgraded biomass, e.g., biochar and pyrolysis bio-oil. While the combustion of biomass can be carbon-neutral, the effects of biomass ash upon slagging during the iron-ore pelletizing process in a grate-kiln setup is unknown. In the present study, the effect of the interaction between the pellet dust and biomass-ash upon melt formation and the viscosity of the resulting melt, which can collectively affect melt-induced slagging, was theoretically assessed. The slagging potential of 15 different biomass fuels, suitable for the pelletizing process, was quantified and compared with one another and a reference high-rank coal using a thermodynamically derived slagging index. The replacement of coal with biomass in the pelletizing process is a cumbersome and challenging task which requires extensive and costly field measurements. Therefore, given the wide-ranging nature of the biomasses investigated in this study, a prescreening theoretical approach, such as the one employed in the present work, could narrow down the list, facilitate the choice of fuel/s, and help reduce the costs of the subsequent experimental investigations. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 19.
    Stankovic, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Hillberg, Emil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    System Integrity Protection Schemes: Naming Conventions and the Need for Standardization2022Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, nr 11, artikel-id 3920Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy transition is placing increased strain on power systems and making it challenging for Transmission System Operators (TSOs) to securely operate power systems. System Integrity Protection Schemes (SIPSs) are one of the solutions to address these challenges. SIPSs are a type of over-arching power system control; their goals are to increase the secure utilization of power system assets and to limit the impact of large disturbances on the system. Due to societal developments, the interest in utilizing SIPSs is increasing internationally, highlighting the importance of the standardization of terms and definitions to support collaboration between internationally interconnected power systems. This paper addresses the issue of increasing SIPS literature and the efficient exchange of knowledge about SIPSs by providing a new, up-to-date literature review and proposal for the standardization of SIPS terminology. The need for standardized terminology is highlighted by gathering various terms used to describe SIPSs and proposing a standardization of definitions, terms, and SIPS operational execution steps. The goal of the proposed standardization is to provide clarity and to decrease the sources of misinterpretation in an international collaborative environment. The analyzed literature is further classified according to the SIPS features it addresses, and conclusions about well-established and interesting future research areas are drawn. For example, it has been observed that the most commonly considered SIPS action is load shedding, while more sophisticated actions, e.g., using HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) installations, controlled together with var rescheduling, are more in the realm of future research that may provide additional benefits to TSOs.

  • 20.
    Suardi, Allessandro
    et al.
    Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
    Saia, Sergio
    Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
    Stefanoni, Walter
    Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Pari, Luigi
    Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy.
    Admixing chaff with straw increased the residues collected without compromising machinery efficiencies2020Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikel-id 1766Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection of residues from staple crop may contribute to meet EU regulations in renewable energy production without harming soil quality. At a global scale, chaff may have great potential to be used as a bioenergy source. However, chaff is not usually collected, and its loss can consist of up to one-fifth of the residual biomass harvestable. In the present work, a spreader able to manage the chaff (either spreading [SPR] on the soil aside to the straw swath or admixed [ADM] with the straw) at varying threshing conditions (with either 1 or 2 threshing rotors [1R and 2R, respectively] in the combine, which affects the mean length of the straw pieces). The fractions of the biomass available in field (grain, chaff, straw, and stubble) were measured, along with the performances of both grain harvesting and baling operations. Admixing chaff allowed for a slightly higher amount of straw fresh weight baled compared to SPR (+336 kg straw ha−1), but such result was not evident on a dry weight basis. At the one time, admixing chaff reduced the material capacity of the combine by 12.9%. Using 2R compared to 1R strongly reduced the length of the straw pieces, and increased the bale unit weight; however, it reduced the field efficiency of the grain harvesting operations by 11.9%. On average, the straw loss did not vary by the treatments applied and was 44% of the total residues available (computed excluding the stubble). In conclusion, admixing of chaff with straw is an option to increase the residues collected without compromising grain harvesting and straw baling efficiencies; in addition, it can reduce the energy needs for the bale logistics. According to the present data, improving the chaff collection can allow halving the loss of residues. However, further studies are needed to optimise both the chaff and the straw recoveries. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 21.
    Svens, Pontus
    et al.
    Scania, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kjell, Maria Hellqvist
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania, Sweden.
    Flodberg, Göran
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li-ion pouch cells for vehicle applications-studies of water transmission and packing materials2013Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 400-410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study includes analysis of encapsulation materials from lithium-ion pouch cells and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) measurements. WVTR measurements are performed on both fresh and environmentally stressed lithium-ion pouch cells. Capacity measurements are performed on both the fresh and the environmentally stressed battery cells to identify possible influences on electrochemical performance. Preparation of the battery cells prior to WVTR measurements includes opening of battery cells and extraction of electrode material, followed by resealing the encapsulations and adhesively mounting of gas couplings. A model describing the water diffusion through the thermal welds of the encapsulation are set up based on material analysis of the encapsulation material. Two WVTR equipments with different type of detectors are evaluated in this study. The results from the WVTR measurements show how important it is to perform this type of studies in dry environment and apply a rigorous precondition sequence before testing. Results from modelling confirm that the WVTR method has potential to be used for measurements of water diffusion into lithium-ion pouch cells. Consequently, WVTR measurements should be possible to use as a complement or alternative method to for example Karl Fisher titration.

  • 22.
    Tobiasson, Wenche
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Llorca, Manuel
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Jamasb, Tooraj
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Performance effects of network structure and ownership: The norwegian electricity distribution sector2021Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 21, artikel-id 7160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission and distribution networks are capital intensive segments of the electricity sector and are generally considered natural monopolies. Due to their non-competitive nature, these are subject to independent regulation to prevent the abuse of monopolistic power and to induce competitive behaviour. Effective economic regulation of the electricity networks has become a key target in most developed economies after the 1980s. In Norway, incentive regulation and efficiency benchmarking were introduced in 1997. In Norway, the electricity grid is divided into three levels, namely, central, regional and distribution networks. In this paper, we study two overlooked aspects when analysing the performance of electricity networks: vertical integration and ownership structure. We use a stochastic frontier analysis approach to analyse the performance of Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the period 2007–2014. We observe that vertical integration between distribution and regional transmission implies higher cost inefficiencies. This indicates that the efficiency gains due to separate management of the networks exceed the economies of coordination from vertical economies of scope. In addition, we find that council ownership entails higher efficiencies. This could be explained by the state having an interest in high-voltage electricity networks, rather than low-voltage ones, and the decentralised model from which the now centralised system was once developed. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 23.
    van Noord, Michiel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Landelius, Tomas
    SMHI, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sandra
    SMHI, Sweden.
    Snow-induced PV loss modeling using production-data inferred PV system models2021Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 6, artikel-id 1574Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow-induced photovoltaic (PV)-energy losses (snow losses) in snowy and cold locations vary up to 100% monthly and 34% annually, according to literature. Levels that illustrate the need for snow loss estimation using validated models. However, to our knowledge, all these models build on limited numbers of sites and winter seasons, and with limited climate diversity. To overcome this limitation in underlying statistics, we investigate the estimation of snow losses using a PV system’s yield data together with freely available gridded weather datasets. To develop and illustrate this approach, 263 sites in northern Sweden are studied over multiple winters. Firstly, snow-free production is approximated by identifying snow-free days and using corresponding data to infer tilt and azimuth angles and a snow-free performance model incorporating shading effects, etc. This performance model approximates snow-free monthly yields with an average hourly standard deviation of 6.9%, indicating decent agreement. Secondly, snow losses are calculated as the difference between measured and modeled yield, showing annual snow losses up to 20% and means of 1.5-6.2% for winters with data for at least 89 sites. Thirdly, two existing snow loss estimation models are compared to our calculated snow losses, with the best match showing a correlation of 0.73 and less than 1% bias for annual snow losses. Based on these results, we argue that our approach enables studying snow losses for high numbers of PV systems and winter seasons using existing datasets. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 24.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Renovating on unequal premises: A normative framework for a just renovation wave in swedish multifamily housing2021Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 19, artikel-id 6054Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While the energy transition of the EU housing stock is now being intensified with the launch of the Renovation Wave, economic inequalities are increasing in many OECD countries, which has effects on housing-related inequalities and the demand of affordable housing. The Renovation Wave is thus an opportunity to improve housing quality for low-income households, but also entails risks for increased rents. In Sweden, the standard of housing is relatively high and energy poverty in multifamily housing is rare, meaning that there are limited social benefits to be achieved from extensive energy retrofitting; moreover, Sweden lacks a social housing sector, which limits protection of the worst-off residents. This paper thus explores whether the limited social benefits of the Renovation Wave weigh up against the risks that it entails for the worst-off in the Swedish context. This is done within a normative framework for just energy transitioning that is developed within the context of the Renovation Wave and increasing economic inequalities, consisting of four ordered principles: (1) The equal treatment principle; (2) The priority principle; (3) The efficiency principle; and (4) The principle of procedural fairness. Analysis showed that to be considered just according to our framework, the Swedish energy transition of housing should, in contradistinction to what is suggested in the Renovation Wave, limit the imposition of extensive energy retrofitting in low-income areas. Finally, having identified a mismatch between the most effective approaches in terms of energy savings and the most acceptable approaches in terms of social justice, we offer policy recommendations on how to bridge this mismatch in a Swedish context. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 25.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Jörgensson, Kajsa
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Viktor
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    Using Machine Learning to Enrich Building Databases—Methods for Tailored Energy Retrofits2020Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Building databases are important assets when estimating and planning for national energy savings from energy retrofitting. However, databases often lack information on building characteristics needed to determine the feasibility of specific energy conservation measures. In this paper, machine learning methods are used to enrich the Swedish database of Energy Performance Certificates with building characteristics relevant for a chosen set of energy retrofitting packages. The study is limited to the Swedish multifamily building stock constructed between 1945 and 1975, as these buildings are facing refurbishment needs that advantageously can be combined with energy retrofitting. In total, 514 ocular observations were conducted in Google Street View of two building characteristics that were needed to determine the feasibility of the chosen energy retrofitting packages: (i) building type and (ii) suitability for additional façade insulation. Results showed that these building characteristics could be predicted with an accuracy of 88.9% and 72.5% respectively. It could be concluded that machine learning methods show promising potential to enrich building databases with building characteristics relevant for energy retrofitting, which in turn can improve estimations of national energy savings potential.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Life Cycle Assessment of an Office Building Based on Site-Specific Data2019Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 13, artikel-id 2588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an established method to assess the various environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a building. The goal of this project was to calculate the environmental releases for a whole office building and investigate the contribution in terms of environmental impact for different parts of the building, as well as the impact from different stages of the life cycle. The construction process was followed up during production and the contractors provided real-time data on the input required in terms of building products, transport, machinery, energy use, etc. The results are presented for five environmental impact categories and, as expected, materials that constitute the main mass of the building and the energy used during operation contribute the largest share of environmental impact. It is usually difficult to evaluate the environmental impact of the materials in technical installations due to the lack of data. However, in this study, the data were provided by the contractors directly involved in the construction and can, therefore, be considered highly reliable. The results show that materials for installations have a significant environmental impact for four of the environmental impact categories studied, which is a noteworthy finding.

1 - 26 av 26
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf