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  • 1.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vilic, Azra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fire Impact Tool- Measuring the impact of fire suppression operations on the environment2021Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, artikel-id 103071Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the responsibility for environmental damage when emergency responders are called to an incident is increasingly focussing on the responders. The problem is that most incident response personnel do not have the training and expertise to assess the environmental consequences of their suppression operations. The Fire Impact Tool was developed for training responders about how fire effluents and suppression media affect air, surface/groundwater and soil. The tool has three interdependent parts: fire models (for vehicles and enclosures), an environmental risk assessment (ERA) model for local impacts, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) model for global impacts. Users can create two scenarios that are compared with a reference case in which responders arrive at the incident and prevent the fire from spreading beyond the vehicle or enclosure but do not suppress the fire. The Fire Impact Tool is not intended for use during an actual fire incident. This work does not answer every question for every possible fire scenario, but it does provide a framework for deeper, broader, more comprehensive training and pre-planning. This is a necessary step toward a future in which responders are prepared to make informed decisions about firefighting strategies and tactics that include environmental consequences.

  • 2. Andersson, Berit
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Holmstedt, Göran
    Experimental study of thermal breakdown products from halogenated extinguishing agents2011Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 104-115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Bjelland, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Meacham, Brian
    Meacham Associates, United States.
    Carvel, Ricky
    University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Torero, Jose L.
    University College London, United Kingdom.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Njå, Ove
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Tunnel fire safety management and systems thinking: Adapting engineering practice through regulations and education2024Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 146, artikel-id 104140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Society is changing ever faster, and tunnels are complex systems where performance is affected by many different stakeholders. These conditions suggest that safety management needs to be proactive and based on a systems perspective that acknowledges socio-technical theories. Although systems thinking principles are foundational in overarching European regulations and goals, system principles generally don’t affect tunnel fire safety design principles or engineering practice. In the countries investigated in this study, tunnel fire safety management (TFSM) builds on experience-based and risk management-based principles that are optimized independently system by system. This is usually done with limited consideration of how these systems are interconnected and affect the overall tunnel system. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how systems thinking could support existing engineering practice. The work presented in this article is the outcome of a collaboration between fire safety researchers and practitioners from five countries and three continents. Through three workshops, current TFSM principles have been compiled and discussed. It is suggested that tunnel safety regulations be redesigned to strengthen the ability of engineers to work in design teams using systems thinking principles.

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  • 4.
    Carlson, Eva-Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Lund University, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Zakirov, Artur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Sweden.
    Evacuation tests with elevated platforms in railway tunnels2019Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 108, artikel-id 102840Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the purpose to increase the knowledge on human behaviour when evacuating along elevated platforms, an experiment was carried out at the subway station of Skarpnäck, Stockholm, in October 2016. The overall project objective was to develop basic data for guidelines regarding fire safety design concerning evacuation along elevated platforms. The experiment was designed as a group experiment divided into five different scenarios. In total, 111 persons of mixed gender and age participated. The results from the experiment show that the flow rate along the elevated platform decreased as the walkway was getting narrower. It could also be seen that along the first half of the walkway, where a train was located on the rail track next to the elevated platform, the flow rate was higher and the width of the walkway was used to a lager extent compared to the second half of the walkway where the platform was open to the track area. One of three wheelchair users who participated in the experiment expressed discomfort caused by the height and the width of the walkway and nearly half of the participants experienced problems with passing others walking slower than themselves.

  • 5.
    Evegren, Franz
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    New approach to estimate temperatures in pre-flashover fires: Lumped heat case2015Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 72, s. 77-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model for estimating temperatures in pre-flashover fires where the fire enclosure boundaries are assumed to have lumped heat capacity. That is, thermal inertia is concentrated to one layer with uniform temperature and insulating materials are considered purely by their heat transfer resistance. The model yields a good understanding of the heat balance in a fire enclosure and was used to predict temperatures in insulated and non-insulated steel-bounded enclosures. Comparisons were made with full scale experiments and with other predictive methods, including CFD modeling with FDS and the so called MQH relationship. Input parameter values to the model were then taken from well-known literature and the heat release rateswere provided from the experiments. The fire temperature predictions of the model matched very well with experimental data. So did the FDS predictions while the original MQH relationship gave unrealistic results for the problems studied. Major benefits of using the model in comparison with CFD modeling are its readiness and simplicity as well as the negligible computation times needed. An Excel application of the presented pre-flashover fire model is available on request from the author.

  • 6.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fires in waste facilities: Challenges and solutions from a Scandinavian perspective2021Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, artikel-id 103023Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires in waste facilities represent significant potential social, economic and environmental challenges. Although the awareness of fires in waste facilities and their consequences has increased in recent years, significant fire safety challenges remain. Fires in waste facilities in Norway and Sweden have been studied to make an overall fire safety assessment and propose measures for increased fire safety. Common ignition causes include self-heating, thermal runaway in batteries, friction, human activity, technical or electrical error and unfavourable combined storage. High-risk wastes include general, residual waste, batteries, electrical and electronics waste, and paper and cardboard. Frequent fires in outdoor storage, increasing indoor storage and new types of waste appear to result in an increased reluctance by insurance companies to work with waste facilities. Measures are suggested for fire safe facility design, operations, waste handling and storage, as well as actions to limit the consequences for the environment and the facility during and after a fire. These actions may prevent fires and minimise the impact of fires that do occur. Increased fire safety at waste facilities may foster a better dialogue between the industry and insurance providers by reducing the potential economic impacts, and limit potential social costs and environmental impacts. © 2020 The Authors

  • 7.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Enhanced absorption of fire induced heat radiation in liquid droplets2013Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 55, s. 182-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of additives on the interaction between radiation from fires and single water droplets has been investigated in detail. A literature study was performed on available information of radiation spectra from different types of fires. Based on this, four reference spectra were proposed that cover most of the different types of radiation that can be expected from fires. These reference spectra were used to compare the effect of different water additives and droplets sizes. Using Mie-theory it was found that increased atomization, down to a diameter limit of 1-10 μm, gives a better volumetric absorption efficiency. Decreasing the diameter further does not lead to improved volumetric absorption since the Rayleigh (small droplet) limit is reached, where the volumetric absorption is independent of diameter. Different additives were investigated with respect to increased absorption in the droplets. It was found, however, that it is not trivial to find non-flammable and non-toxic additives that give a significant improvement in absorption. Carbonated water was a potential candidate but the increased absorption was limited to a very weak band centered at 2300 cm-1. Since this coincides with the strong CO 2 emission band an effect could be seen when carbonated water interacted with radiation from clean flames. The maximum increase in volumetric absorption for carbonated water was 4%, occurring for a droplet diameter of 10 μm. Other additives gave better effects but they were either combustible (carbon nanopowder) and/or toxic to some degree.

  • 8.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    The theoretical framework of fire safety design: Reflections and alternatives2017Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, s. 973-981Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to discussions and reflections upon the practice and theory of fire safety design. Are we reaching the results we want by the best available means? The theoretical framework of fire safety design is today restricted by a linear design process where mainly quantitative data and methods matters. A deterministic approach to safety ignores the decision-making context and considers each objective in isolation. Alternative methods for the fire safety design could view the design work as an iterative problem solving process between the designers and the stakeholders. Then decision making theory can be applied to solve the problem. In the iterative process key objectives are identified and the problem and its solutions are being reframed, creative inherently safer (cannot fail) and fail safe (forgiving to errors) alternatives are initially aimed at. Design should further embrace a function-centred view of the human-technology-structure system. A utilitarian evaluation that includes also qualitative factors can identify the best trade-offs between conflicting objectives. With a diversity of perspectives on fire safety design, the field of fire safety will be strengthened and be able to assist a rapidly changing world.

  • 9.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Uneven exposure of compressed natural gas (CNG) and hydrogen (H2) cylinders: Fire and extinguishment tests2024Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 146, artikel-id 104170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles that are powered by gaseous fuel, e.g., compressed natural gas (CNG) or hydrogen (H2), may, in the event of fire, result in a jet flame from a thermally activated pressure relief device (TPRD), or a pressure vessel explosion. There have been a few incidents for CNG vehicles where the TPRD was unsuccessful to prevent a pressure vessel explosion in the event of fire, both nationally in Sweden and internationally. If the pressure vessel explosion would occur inside an enclosure such as a road tunnel, the resulting consequences are even more problematic. In 2019 the authors investigated the fire safety of CNG cylinders exposed to localized fires. One purpose of the tests conducted in 2021 reported in this paper is to investigate whether extinguishment with water, e.g., from a tunnel deluge system, may compromise the safety of vehicle gas cylinders in the event of fire. Steel cylinders handles the situation with localizde fire and/or cooling with water well. Composite tanks can rupture if the fire exposure degrades the composite material strength, and the TPRD is not sufficiently heated to activate, e.g., if the fire is localized or if the TPRD is being cooled by water, which prevents its activation.

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  • 10.
    Gernay, Thomas
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Lund University, Sweden.
    Felicetti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Concrete columns2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 134, artikel-id 103691Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Structures may collapse during the cooling phase of a fire, yet standard furnace tests only measure the response under heating. There lacks experimental test protocols and design methods to assess resistance until burnout. This paper describes a new experimental approach for burnout resistance evaluation, reports experimental data on loaded reinforced concrete columns in furnace tests with cooling down phases, and presents numerical models of the tests. The test results show that columns designed for a standard fire resistance of 60 min exhibited a fire resistance of 83 min in the furnace but failed during the cooling phase when the burners were shut off after 72 min while the load was maintained. Two other specimens survived exposure to heating of 45 and 55 min, respectively, and their residual capacity was measured. Finite element analyses show agreement with the tests, showing applicability of numerical methods for evaluating burnout resistance of concrete columns. These findings demonstrate experimentally that delayed thermal-mechanical effects can jeopardize structural stability in real fires, and provide a framework to measure these effects. Moving beyond fire resistance to quantify the response until burnout will support designs for safety of occupants and firefighters throughout the fire and promote repairability and resilience. 

  • 11.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Tongji University, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Theoretical studies on buoyancy-driven ceiling jets of tunnel fires with natural ventilation2020Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 119, artikel-id 103228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a theoretical study on the ceiling jets induced by small fires in tunnels. The ceiling jet thickness, temperature rise and velocity are analyzed theoretically with Non-Boussinesq approximation. The study focuses on the radial and one-dimensional ceiling jets. Numerical solutions in the radial region and one-dimensional shooting region are obtained and new analytical solutions in the critical flow region are achieved. Analytical solutions indicate that the ceiling jet thickness increases with distance away from the fire source, which largely differs from the existing models implying that the ceiling jet thickness in the one-dimensional critical flow remains constant. Additionally, impacts of the air entrainment, friction and heat transfer on the ceiling jet are analyzed. It is found that in the radial and one-dimensional shooting flow regions, the air entrainment has a much more significant effect than the friction and heat transfer. However, in the one-dimensional critical flow region, the impact of air entrainment seems to be negligible and the flow is dominated by the friction and heat transfer. Further, validation of the present theory is made by comparing with previous theories, semi-empirical models, and experiments. The results show that the present theory provides a good prediction of the ceiling jet properties with natural ventilation for a small fire. © 2020 The Authors

  • 12.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Heat release rate measurements of burning mining vehicles in an underground mine2013Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 61, s. 12-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat release rates from two full-scale fire experiments with mining vehicles in an underground mine are presented. The mining vehicles involved were a wheel loader and a drilling rig typical for mining operations. The calculated peak heat release rate of the loader was 15.9 MW and occurred after approximately 11 min from ignition. The calculated peak heat release rate of the drilling rig was 29.4 MW and occurred after approximately 21 min from ignition. The heat release rate was calculated from measured data of gas concentrations of oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, measured gas velocity and measured gas temperatures. The fuel load of the wheel loader consisted mainly of the tyres, the hydraulic oil and the diesel fuel. The fuel load of the drilling rig consisted mainly of the hydraulic oil and the hydraulic hoses. The calculated heat release rate curves were controlled by comparing the summed up energy contents of the participating components with the integrated heat release rate curves.

  • 13.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Heat release rates of multiple objects at varying distances2012Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 52, nr Aug, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes simple theoretical calculations of the overall heat release rate (HRR) of multiple objects at both constant and varying distances that have been carried out. The results were compared to both fire experiments in a longitudinal ventilated model tunnel (scale 1:15) using piles of wooden pallets placed at varying distance from each other and with model scale fire experiments (scale 1:4) conducted with piles of wooden pallets in the open. Two different methods are presented which are based on physical relations for fire spread between the piles of wooden pallets. The first method uses a critical heat flux as ignition criteria while the other method uses an ignition temperature. The method using the critical heat flux as ignition criteria shows very good agreement with the corresponding experimental results used. The method using the ignition temperature as ignition criteria did not agree well with the corresponding experimental results. The prerequisite that the burning objects should not necessarily have to be positioned at equal distances was fulfilled. The results can be used to estimate the heat release rate in full scale tunnel experiments where wooden pallets have been used as fuel.

  • 14.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests2023Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 139, artikel-id 103829Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable attention in the media. In particular, the toxic gases released upon combustion of electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries has been a major concern. In this study, the results of six large-scale vehicle fire tests are presented including three electric vehicles, two internal combustion engine vehicles, and one electric vehicle with the battery pack removed. Additionally, separate battery component tests were performed. In two of the vehicle fire tests a sprinkler system was used to assess the effect of water application on the combustion gases. Furthermore, calculations of the heat release rate, peak heat release rate and total heat release were performed, as well as chemical analysis of gas and soot. Peak heat release rate and total heat release were affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly by the type of powertrain. Regarding the combustion gases, hydrogen fluoride represented the largest difference between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, battery specific metals such as manganese, nickel, cobalt and lithium were found in higher concentrations in the electric vehicle tests than in the internal combustion vehicle tests, in which larger quantities of lead were found.

  • 15.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    An engineering tool to calculate heat release rates of multiple objects in underground structures2011Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 194-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Correlation between temperatues and oxygen measurements in a tunnel flow2007Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 75-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Temperature stratification in tunnels2012Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 48, nr Febr, s. 30-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Erratum: The maximum ceiling gas temperature in a large tunnel fire (Fire Safety Journal (2012) 48 (38-48))2012Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 50, s. 63-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Large scale tunnel fire tests with different types of large droplet fixed fire fighting systems2019Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, s. 29-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presented the main results of large-scale fire tests with different types of fixed firefighting systems (FFFS) conducted in the Runehamar tunnel in June 2016. The background to the tests, the performance of the different systems, and conclusions regarding the efficiency of the systems were presented. The fire load consisted of 420 standardised wooden pallets and a target of 21 wooden pallets. Five of the tests were carried out with a 30 m long deluge zone delivering varying water densities using three different types of side-wall nozzles with an interval distance of 5 m. One test with 93 °C glass-bulb automatic sprinklers in the same zone was also conducted. In the five deluge tests, the detection system was simulated using thermocouples in the tunnel ceiling. The alarm was registered when the ceiling gas temperature reached 141 °C, and the system was activated manually after a delay of 4 min. The protection goal of the system was to prevent fire spread to a target positioned 5 m from the rear of the main fuel area, and to ensure that the fire did not exceed 30 MW in size. The system setups tested were found to meet these goals.

  • 20.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Spilled liquid fires in tunnels2017Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, s. 399-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on release of liquids inside tunnels from tankers containing dangerous good. Experiments and analysis from large scale tests are presented. The tests include different leakage rates, leakage type, liquids, spillage sizes on sloping surfaces and heat release rates. Models for estimation of leakage rates, spillage sizes and heat release rates for different scenarios are presented. The results are important to use in the design of active fire protections systems in tunnels including ventilation, fixed fire-fighting and drainage systems.

  • 21.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 129, artikel-id 103567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of 1:3 intermediate scale tunnel fire tests was performed to investigate the performance of a fully automatic sprinkler system in a road tunnel. The experiments were carried in a container tunnel with scaled geometry, using wood pallets as the fire source to simulate HGV fires. The activation of the sprinklers was simulated by using thermocouples that corresponded to a given Thermal Response Index (RTI) of a sprinkler bulb or a link. A total of 12 tests were carried out with varying longitudinal velocities (0.8–1.7 m/s), sprinkler activation temperatures (68–141 °C), water densities (2.9–8.7 mm/min) and types of arrangement of the fuel. The activation times, number of activated sprinklers, maximum heat release rates and other key parameters are presented and analyzed. The results show that the water density plays a key role in the performance of the automatic sprinkler systems tested. A high tunnel ventilation velocity, low water density and low sprinkler activation temperature are not recommended. © 2022 The Authors

  • 22.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Runehamar tunnel fire tests2015Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 71, nr Jan, s. 134-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Five large-scale fire tests, including one pool fire test and four HGV mock-up fire tests, were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in Norway in year 2003. New data and new analyzes are presented in this paper, together with a short summary of previous work on these tests. Heat release rate (HRR), radiation, fire spread, gas production, backside wall temperature, visibility, backlayering, fire growth rate, gas temperature, flame length, ventilation and pulsation are investigated. Simple theoretical models are developed to estimate and predict these parameters. The correlations developed can be used by engineers working on fire safety in tunnels.

  • 23.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    The international FORUM of fire research directors: A position paper on future actions for improvning road tunnel fire safety2006Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 111-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    A round robin study on modelling the fire resistance of a loaded steel beam2017Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 92, s. 64-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper details a round robin study of the calculated response of structures in fire. In this instance, the study is based on one of two fire tests which were conducted on steel beams in a horizontal fire resistance furnace. The two specimens in the tests were identical having come from the same cast flow. The tests were conducted according to EN 1365-3 and the steel beams had a total length 5.4 m, spanning 5.2 m. These tests also formed a part of a testing round robin, reported elsewhere. The calculations were conducted by round robin participants in two stages. In the first instance a prediction of the response was made without knowledge of the measured temperatures of the steel beam and with only the grade of steel and details of the test setup. In the second instance the participants were also given the measured elastic limit of the steel, which differed significantly from the elastic limit implied by the grade, as well as measured temperatures from the steel beam and the plate thermometers from the furnace and asked to refine their model. Statistical analysis of the round robin results are presented to illustrate the variation which arises in the results of calculations. The results of the round robin study serve to illustrate the fire research and testing community's capability for modelling this simple case as well as the uncertainty in the calculation results. The results of the calculation round robin are also compared with the testing round robin to illustrate the comparative certainty between testing and calculations.

  • 25.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mechanical response of a partially restrained column exposed to localised fires2014Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 67, nr Jul, s. 82-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent trends in structural fire engineering research have focussed on the response of buildings with large open plan spaces to so-called travelling fires. These fires travel horizontally across the floor plate of a building and result in time and spatially varying thermal exposure and response of the structure to the fire. What has received little attention, however, is the effect that non-uniform thermal exposure has on columns. Recent tests conducted at SP demonstrated the effect of a small non-uniformity of thermal exposure, resulting in a thermal gradient of around 1 °C/mm, on a column exposed to a pool fire. The curvature resulting from a non-uniform thermal exposure where the column is pinned, or in cases where the column is partially restrained, will result in an eccentricity in the column's loading and large second order effects. This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure varying in both the horizontal and vertical axes to columns by means of including this thermal boundary in a solution of classical Euler beam theory. The resulting solution allows for a variation in the stiffness of the rotational restraint at both ends of the column and a non-uniform temperature exposure through the column's section and along its height. The resulting equations help to understand better the impact of the assumptions of 'lumped capacitance' on steel columns, suggesting a challenge to this assumption in some instances, as well as to enhance understanding of the impact of non-uniform fires on steel columns.

  • 26.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Effect of cross section on critical velocity in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires2017Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, s. 303-311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical and theoretical work was conducted to investigate the effect of tunnel cross section on critical velocityfor smoke control in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires. The results show that for small fires, the criticalvelocity decreases with both the increasing tunnel height and tunnel width. For large fires, the critical velocitysignificantly increases with the increasing tunnel height but is independent of tunnel width. Differentcalculation models are compared with a focus on effect of tunnel cross section. A new correlation is proposedto account for the effect of tunnel width based on the previous model.

  • 27.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Study of fire and explosion hazards of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels2019Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 110, artikel-id 102871Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results concerning fire and explosion hazards of various alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels. The alternative fuels are divided into four types: liquid fuels, liquefied fuels, compressed gases, and electricity, and detailed parameters are obtained. Three important types of fire hazards: pool fires, jet fires and fireballs are identified and investigated. From the perspective of pool fire size, the liquid fuels pose equivalent or even lower fire hazards compared to traditionally used fuels, but the hazards of liquefied fuels may be higher. For pressurized tanks, fires are generally much larger in size but shorter in duration. The gas releases from pressure relief devices and the resulting jet flames are highly transient. For hydrogen vehicles, the fire sizes are significantly higher compared to CNG tanks, while flame lengths are only slighter longer. Analysis of the peak overpressure in case of an explosion in a tunnel shows that the consequences of tank rupture and BLEVE are relatively tolerable for a position further than 100 m away, but the situations in case of a cloud explosion are highly severe and intolerable for tunnel users in most cases. These hazards need to be carefully considered in both vehicle safety design and tunnel fire safety design. 

  • 28.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Discussions on critical velocity and critical Froude number for smoke control in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation2018Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 99, s. 22-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of critical velocity is a key issue for smoke control in any tunnel with longitudinal ventilation. The critical Froude model using single Froude number of 4.5 has for decades been widely used in engineering applications. This value was originally used by Danziger and Kennedy and they argued that the critical Froude number obtained by Lee et al. was in a range of 4.5 and 6.7 and therefore a conservative value of 4.5 was obtained. This paper explores the validity of using single critical Froude number of 4.5 by investigating the original sources and comparing it to recent research results. It was found that the value of 4.5 obtained in the original source corresponds to a large tunnel fire and it correlates well with data from other literature within a narrow range of large fire sizes. Using this value produces a significantly lower critical velocity for a wide range of fire sizes and therefore it is not conservative. The Froude number of 6.7 obtained by Lee et al. corresponds to another Froude number with a different definition and it is therefore not comparable with the value of 4.5. It is found that the use of a single value of 4.5 for the critical Froude number is not reasonable in calculation of the critical velocity for smoke control in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation.

  • 29.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Influence of fire suppression on combustion products in tunnel fires2018Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 97, s. 96-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of model scale tunnel fire tests was carried out to investigate effects of the fire suppression system on production of key combustion products including CO and soot. The key parameters accounted for in the tests include fuel type, ventilation velocity and activation time. The results show that fire suppression indeed has influence on production of combustion products especially for cellulose fuels. In case that the fire is not effectively suppressed, e.g. when the water density is too low or activation is too late, the CO concentration and visibility could be worse than in the free-burn test. From the point of view of production of combustion products, only fire suppression systems with sufficient capability and early activation are recommended to be used in tunnels.

  • 30.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with automatic sprinkler2013Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 61, s. 298-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The study focuses on the performance of an automatic sprinkler system in a model scale tunnel with longitudinal ventilation. A total of 28 tests were carried out in a 1:15 model scale tunnel using an automatic sprinkler system with glass bulbs. The maximum heat release rate, energy content and failure of the automatic sprinkler system were analysed. The results show that high ventilation rates and low water flow rates result in a failure of the automatic sprinkler system in a longitudinal ventilated tunnel fire. The main reason for the failure under the tested water flow rates was the effect of the longitudinal flow on the fire development and the hot gas flow close to the sprinklers. The fire development and the activation heat release rate of the first activated bulb are intimately related to the ventilation velocity. The fire spread to the neighbouring wood crib was investigated and a presentation of tests conducted using a deluge system are given.

  • 31.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Parametric study of design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems2021Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, artikel-id 103107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of tests was carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters on design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems in a 1:4 scale tunnel. The key parameters tested included fuel load covers, activation time, water density, nozzle type, ventilation velocity, sprinkler section length and tunnel width. Analyses of test data are presented with a focus on the influence of these parameters on the design fire. The main findings are that the fuel load covers, activation time and ventilation velocity all play significant roles in the fire development. Further, suggestions on design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems are proposed. © 2020 The Authors

  • 32.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Scaling of wood pallet fires2017Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 88, s. 96-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    §method for scaling time-resolved burning behaviors of wood pallet fires has been developed. A series of validation tests was carried out in two different scales and the time-resolved heat release rates were obtained and compared. The results show that the scaling method proposed works very well. The scaling method proposed could be applied to general wood pallets.

  • 33. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    The maximum ceiling gas temperature in a large tunnel fire2012Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 48, nr Febr, s. 38-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Tunnel fire safety: editorial2018Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 97, s. 85-86Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Performance of various water-based fire suppression systems in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation2024Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 146, artikel-id 104141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low pressure, medium pressure and high pressure water-based fire suppression systems were tested in a medium scale tunnel (scale 1:3). The primary objective was to investigate which of these systems are most effective in the suppression or control of different types of tunnel fires. The default low, medium and high pressure systems refer to full scale water flow rates of 10 mm/min, 6.8 mm/min and 3.7 mm/min, respectively. Some other water densities were also tested to investigate the effects, as well as different ventilation velocities and activation criteria. Several series of fire tests were conducted for different fire scenarios. The fire scenarios considered included idle wood pallet fires, loosely packed wood crib fires, loosely packed wood and plastic crib fires, and pool fires, with or without a top cover on the fuel load. Comparisons of the three default systems based on the three parameters: heat release rate, energy released and possibility of fire spread, show that the performance of the default low pressure system is usually the most effective based on the parameters studied. The default high pressure system usually yields results less effective in comparison to the default low pressure system. The performance of the default medium pressure system usually lies in between them. The high pressure system behaves very differently in comparison to the others, in terms of tunnel ventilation velocity, water density, operating pressure, and the presence of the top cover. © 2024 The Authors

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  • 36.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    In response to the letter: thermocouple configuration and heat transfer effects2007Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 168-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire development in a 1/3 train carriage mock-up2017Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, s. 432-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To study what parameters that control the initial fire spread and the development to local flashover in a metro carriage, a total of six fire tests were conducted in a mock-up of a metro carriage that is about 1/3 of a full wagon length. They were carried out under a large scale calorimeter in a laboratory environment. The focus was on the initial fire development in a corner scenario using different types of ignition source that may lead to a fully developed fire. The ignition sources used were either a wood crib placed on a corner seat or one litre of petrol poured on the corner seat and the neighbouring floor together with a backpack. The amount of luggage and wood cribs in the neighbourhood of the ignition source was continuously increased in order to identify the limits for flashover in the test-setup. The tests showed that the combustible boards on parts of the walls had a significant effect on the fire spread. In the cases where the initial fire did not exceed a range of 400–600 kW no flashover was observed. If the initial fire grew up to 700–900 kW a flashover was observed. The maximum heat release rate during a short flashover period for this test set-up was about 3.5 MW. The time to reach flashover was highly dependent on the ignition type: wood cribs or backpack and petrol. A full developed carriage fire was achieved as a result of intense radiation from the flames and ceiling smoke layer. This was mostly dependent on the amount of fire load nearby the ignition source and how strong the vertical flame spread on the high pressure laminate boards mounted to walls and ceiling above the ignition source was, leading to a ceiling flame. In such cases, the seats alone did not contain sufficient fuel for the fire to spread within the train, and additional fuel (luggage) is required near the seats. For fully developed carriage fires, the fire starting on the seat in the corner spread to the opposite seat on the same side of the aisle, then horizontally spread to seats on the other side of the aisle, and finally a longitudinal flame spread along the carriage was observed. When and where the fire stopped or whether it reached a fully developed stage was mostly dependent on the amount of fire load nearby the ignition source and how strong the vertical flame spread on the high pressure laminate boards mounted to walls and ceiling above the ignition source was.

  • 38.
    McNamee, Margaret
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Göras, Therese
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Aaxel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Wetterqvist, Cecilia
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Lundh, Karolina
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Challenges and opportunities for reuse of products and materials with fire safety requirements – A Swedish perspective2023Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, artikel-id 103857Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is of great importance to the Swedish economy, but its impact on the climate is significant and the sector accounts for about 40% of Sweden's total energy consumption. The sector also generates a significant share of the total material flows and waste quantities in the society. Thus, due to the large impact of the construction sector, there are great opportunities to contribute positively by reducing the climate impact through change and modernization. There are many activities focused on reducing construction waste in various ways and the issue of material and product reuse has received increasing attention in recent years. However, very little work has focused on products associated with fire safety requirements. This paper provides an overview of research on the reuse of materials and products with a focus on products with fire safety requirements. In addition, it provides a review of the Swedish building legislation and its impact on the possibility of reusing materials and products with fire safety requirements. Finally, possible paths are explored for introducing more large-scale reuse of such materials and products. © 2023 The Authors

  • 39.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jørgensen, M.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Svensson, S.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; University of Borås, Sweden.
    Jomaas, G.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; University of Edinburgh, UK.
    A simple correlation for monitoring the ignition propensity of wet nordic spruce wood2019Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, s. 186-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A combination of cone heater experiments and asymptotic analysis was used to determine the moisture content of Nordic spruce with varying degree of drying. The fuel moisture content was measured by weighing the specimens before and after a drying procedure in an oven. A high-flux asymptotic solution from an integral model established that the ignition temperature from the experiments (directly linked to the intercept heat flux) was constant for both the dry and the moist wood. As a result, one simple equation was developed that can be used to determine the time to ignition for a piece of wet spruce from the time to ignition of dry wood. This simple correlation, combined with models giving the fuel moisture content of wood from humidity and temperature of air surrounding, can be used as an engineering equation for monitoring the ignition propensity of timber.

  • 40.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Klippel, Michel
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Procedure for implementing new materials to the component additive method2019Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, s. 149-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of light timber frame wall and floor assemblies in fire depends on their composition. The assemblies' ability to form fire-separations between building compartments (separating function) can be assessed by full-scale fire testing or calculation methods. Calculations are the low cost and more flexible alternative.The component additive method is a commonly used calculation method for fire design of timber structures. The method considers the insulation ability of the material layers present in the assembly. The component additive method described in this article is developed to be flexible to implement different materials and products of different dimensions. However, the amount of different materials currently included in this method is rather limited and there is no generally accepted procedure to implement new materials.This paper presents a common agreement of the procedure to implement new materials which comprises of: (1) the design and execution of model-scale fire tests; (2) determination of the modified thermal properties needed for simulations; (3) thermal simulations of assemblies in fire conditions; (4) development of design equations and; (5) verification by one or more full-scale fire test(s). The abovementioned steps have been clearly presented in this paper and supported by examples.

  • 41.
    Nadjai, Ali
    et al.
    Ulster University, UK.
    Naveed, Alam
    Ulster University, UK.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Welsh, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Glorieux, Antoine
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Large scale fire test: The development of a travelling fire in open ventilation conditions and its influence on the surrounding steel structure2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 130, artikel-id 103575Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the frame of the European RFCS-TRAFIR project, natural fire tests in large compartment were conducted by Ulster University, involving steel structure and aiming at understanding the conditions in which a travelling fire develops, how it behaves and impacts the surrounding structure. During the experimental programme, the path and geometry of the travelling fire was studied and temperatures, heat fluxes and spread rates were measured. The experimental data is presented in terms of gas temperatures recorded in the test compartment at different positions and levels. The influence of the travelling fire on the surround structure is presented in terms of the temperatures recorded in the selected steel columns and beams. The temperatures in the test compartment were dependent on the positioning of the travelling fire band as well as the height from the floor level. The non-uniform temperatures in the compartment lead to transient heating of the nearby structural steel elements, resulting in a reduction of their resistance which may influence the global structural stability. The results obtained will help to understand the behaviour of travelling fires and their influence on the structural members. This knowledge will help to reduce the travelling fire associated risks in future. 

  • 42.
    Olsson, Kim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Uncertainty propagation in FE modelling of a fire resistance test using fractional factorial design based model reduction and deterministic sampling2017Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, s. 517-523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, fractional factorial design (FFD) and deterministic sampling (DS) are applied to a finite element (FE) model of a fire resistance test of a loaded steel beam, to investigate how uncertainties are propagated through the FE model. The sought quantity was the time when the deflection of the beam exceeded 225. mm. The FFD method was used as a model reduction technique which reduced the number of uncertain parameters from 5 to 3. The DS method was compared to a reference Monte Carlo (MC) method of 1000 simulations from all 5 uncertain parameters, which was the minimum number of simulations in order for the statistical moments to converge. The combined FFD and DS method successfully computed the propagation of the mean and standard deviation in the model, compared to the MC method. Given the uncertainties in the FE model, the fractional factorial design reduced the number of simulations required in the DS method by 82%. The combined method of FFD and DS reduced the number of required simulations by 96% compared to the MC method. The DS method did not capture the tails of the probability distribution and is therefore not a suitable candidate for probabilistic evaluation of the time of failure at the edges of the domain of possible failure times. Future research could very well be on improving the tails in DS. However, the DS method provides a conservative 95% coverage interval of 6. min for the time to failure of the steel beam.

  • 43.
    Palm, Anders
    et al.
    Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Storm, Artur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Breathing air consumption during different firefighting methods in underground mining environment2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 133, artikel-id 103661Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the breathing air consumption among participating firefighters during full-scale tests performed in the Tistbrottet mine in Sweden 2013. The availability of breathing air during firefighting has in earlier work been identified as a critical tactical factor in underground firefighting. Results from the tests show that there are differences in the breathing air consumption and that this depends on the methods used, equipment and the workload. The use of BA-teams, i.e. firefighters equipped with breathing apparatuses, is a complex group activity where the largest breathing air consumer will set the limits for the whole team. Light equipment and a structured command and control during the activities will enhance the endurance and the firefighting performance. Equipment and methods affect both firefighting performance and the durability of the firefighting activities. Examples of tested methods and equipment during the test series are: different variations of conventional hose lay-out; CAFS; cutting extinguisher; and trolley for equipment and complementary air. The aid of additional air supply and the use of trolleys will support the activities but is dependent on a large degree of preparation and training to function properly. Based on the tests, it is concluded that the larger model of air bottles should be considered for distances longer than 75 m. © 2022 The Authors

  • 44.
    Sauer, Nathaniel G.
    et al.
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Sarp Arsava, Kemal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Rangwala, Ali S.
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Burning capability of the flame refluxer under the influence of waves2023Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, artikel-id 103901Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental oil spills pose a significant hazard to marine ecosystems. In-situ burning is an effectively employed means of cleanup and containment due to its low cost and speed for removing large volumes of oil. Previous studies have demonstrated that new Flame Refluxer™ (FR) technology can improve the burning rate of crude oil spilled on water. This study examines the FR-enhanced burning behavior of crude oil spilled on water under the influence of waves. The wave tank platform at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory was used for these experiments. A grid-type FR was examined with no waves and under the impingement of two different waves. Thermocouple data was used to evaluate thermal penetration rates and in-depth temperature gradients, as well as a distinct foaming behavior. It is observed that waves lowered fuel temperatures, reduced thermal penetration rates, and increased heat loss to the water sublayer. It was concluded that wave steepness is proportional to the increase in heat loss to the water and inversely proportional to the thermal penetration rate.

  • 45.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Technical note - Thermal exposure of wood in standard fire resistance tests2019Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, s. 179-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, standard fire resistance testing has been questioned for combustible products. A part of the comments address the thermal boundary conditions and the different thermal exposure of combustible products in comparison to incombustibles. These comments are evaluated in this technical note.To compare heat flux measurements of combustibles and incombustible products when tested in a furnace, furnace tests were performed. The furnace was controlled by plate thermometers to follow the EN 1363/ISO 834 standard temperature-time curve. It could be proven that (a) the heat flux measurements at the specimens surface behind the plate thermometer (PT) are not higher than in front of the PT. The reason for this is most likely that no flaming combustion is possible near the surface due to the low oxygen content typically for a furnace. It could be further shown (b) that the heat flux measurements when combustibles are tested follow the trend reported in literature for incombustibles. Further, (c) that the lower burner fuel used in furnaces is due to the contribution of the specimen (ca. 30% in the presented tests) and due to the lower thermal inertia (ca. 20% in the presented tests). Finally it can be concluded that the thermal exposure of combustibles and incombustibles is equivalent in furnaces simulating a ventilation controlled fire development for a pre-defined duration.

  • 46.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Klippel, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Frangi, Andrea
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Review and analysis of fire resistance tests of timber members in bending, tension and compression with respect to the Reduced Cross-Section Method2014Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 68, s. 81-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Reduced Cross-Section Method (RCSM) provides a popular method for the design of timber members exposed to fire, using an effective cross-section and mechanical properties at normal temperature. The RCSM was adopted from a single publication and was originally developed for single-span beams exposed to bending load. It has been introduced in Eurocode 5 for a large range of timber members, including columns under compression and members under tension. Recently, the applicability of the method and its extended applications were called into question on the basis of limitations and contradictions found by advanced simulations. This paper analyses a total of 153 fire resistance tests (117 members in bending, six members in compression and 30 members in tension) with respect to the RCSM. The analysis shows that (i) most of the references are of too poor quality, or are incomplete, to validate a design model, (ii) results with adequate information content showed a significant deviation from the RCSM, and (iii) that the RCSM may lead to a non-conservative design. For members in tension, results fit well with the RCSM, while significant deviations were found for members in compression. Members in bending show very large scatter. It is therefore recommended that the existing design approach inEurocode 5 should be revised in order to include the results of advanced calculations and appropriate tests.

  • 47.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Amon, Francine K.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Thermal exposure from large scale ethanol fuel pool fires2015Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 78, s. 229-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing use of ethanol as fuel for combustion engines has dramatically increased the need for large scale storage of ethanol in tanks. There are new risks related to fires in storage tanks having larger volumes. Very little experimental data exist to support risk assessments regarding emitted radiation and burning rate for large pool fires. Experience from small scale tests show that the exposure to nearby surroundings is less for alcohols than for hydrocarbon fuels like gasoline and these results are often extrapolated to fires of large sizes. This paper describes the results of two pool fires conducted within the frame of the ETANKFIRE project, one with 97% ethanol and 3% gasoline and the other with 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, both with a surface area of 254 m2. The results show, contrary to experience from small scale pool fires, that the exposure to nearby surroundings is much larger for ethanol-rich fuels compared to the calculated radiative heat flux from a pure gasoline fire of same fuel area.

  • 48.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Granström, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Human activity and demographics drive the fire regime in a highly developed European boreal region2023Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 136, s. 103743-103743, artikel-id 103743Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organization of successful wildfire prevention and suppression require detailed information on ignition causes, size distributions and relations to weather. From a large and highly detailed dataset of Swedish wildfire incidents (n = 124 000) we assess temporal, geographical and human-related patterns over a 25-year-period (1996–2020). We find strong positive correlations between population density and wildfire occurrence, primarily caused by a wide spectrum of human activities. However, fires >10 ha mostly occurred in sparsely populated regions and were more often ignited by lightning or heavy machinery. Further, large fires had a history of long response times and insufficient mop-up, in turn intimately linked to low population density. We detect no trend over the 25-year-period in either fire weather, number of ignitions or burned area, but a dramatic decline in wildfire caused by children's play as well as by springtime burning of dead grass, a traditional fire use in rural areas. Our results indicate that irrespective of climate change, societal changes such as rural depopulation and cultural shifts are imminently important for the future fire regime in this intensely managed part of the boreal, and may warrant more attention worldwide.

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  • 49.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Learning from fire investigations and research – A Norwegian perspective on moving from a reactive to a proactive fire safety management2020Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, artikel-id 103047Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigation of fires are useful tools for gathering experience and knowledge of how and why fires occur and why they develop as they do. Several tools for accident investigation that also are applicable for analysis of fires are available. Data from fires is valuable for different branches of the fire safety science and are also used in revisions of fire regulations. This paper describes the concept of accident investigation with focus on learning and presents how investigation from fires has been used as a valuable tool in Norwegian fire safety management. Examples of how learnings have improved the residential fire safety level in Norway over the last decades are described. Three different analyses of fatal fires over four decades have given knowledge about how and why residential fires start, and how the victims could be characterized. The fire fatality rate in Norway has decreased by 50% from 1970 until 2014, one of the reasons for this is believed to be implementation of several targeted fire safety measures over the years. Through fire investigations combined with research, new trends in society and their possible implications on fire safety can be uncovered and lead to a more proactive fire safety management.

  • 50.
    Storm, Artur
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Celander, Eva-Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    Field evacuation experiment in a long inclined tunnel2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 132, artikel-id 103640Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An evacuation experiment was carried out at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in March 2018 to investigate human behaviour during evacuation in underground facilities via escape routes with long ascending tunnels. The objective of the experiment was to collect data that could be used as a basis for evacuation risk and safety assessments in underground tunnels and other large infrastructure projects related to e.g., mining. In total, 32 participants individually ascended the 907 m long tunnel with an inclination of 14%. During the evacuation, each participant's walking speed, vertical walking speed, heart rate and estimated physical exertion was documented. The measured walking speeds were found to be higher than the walking speeds obtained in previous experiments, but the vertical walking speeds were lower. The strategy of 44% of the participants was to adjust their walking speed to a pace they thought could be maintained over a longer distance. The results of this experiment show that the walking speed decreased as the level of perceived exertion increased. Moreover, the results indicate that the walking speed and the level of perceived exertion stabilized during the movement along the tunnel. © 2022 The Author(s)

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