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  • 1. Johnson, O.
    et al.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Roos, A.
    Hugosson, M.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Consumer perceptions and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and composites: A repertory grid study2008Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 663-678Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about consumer perception and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and wood-based composites is important for product development and marketing. The aim of this study was to identify attributes and associations that people use to describe different types of wood materials and to explore how they relate to preferences. The study involved nine samples that were evaluated with the Kelly’s repertory grid technique and content analysis. Based on respondents’ answers, 19 core categories reflecting sample attributes were extracted. General preferences for each sample were also recorded. Principal component analysis generated two factors describing 1) naturalness, wood-likeness, softness, unprocessed origin, living, pleasant, and high value; and 2) solid and homogeneous impression. A third, preliminary factor included categories describing irregular pattern, sleekness, and smoothness. The wood samples were most liked, whereas composites and panels were not appreciated. Preferred core categories were naturalness, wood-likeness, smoothness, living impression, and value. The least liked core categories were processed, hard, and high weight. The implications of the results for product development and marketing are discussed. © 2008 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology.

  • 2.
    Källbom, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Surface energy characterization of thermally modified spruce using inverse gas chromatography under cyclic humidity conditions2015Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 410-420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface energy of unmodified and thermally modified spruce wood components was researched at dry and moist conditions using inverse gas chromatography. The results indicate a more pronounced heterogeneous nature of the thermally modified wood surfaces in terms of the dispersive (nonpolar) component of the surface energy, compared with that of the unmodified wood surfaces. The dispersive component of the surface energy of the thermally modified wood ranged between 44 and 38 mJ/m2 corresponding to an increase in surface coverage from a low level and up to about 10%. Suggested explanations for the more distinct heterogeneity of the thermally modified wood sample arerelated to chemical changes of the wood substance which seem to result in certain micromorphological features observed by scanning electron microscopy as alternated fracture surfaces created in the grinding process; and also possible changes or redistribution of the wood extractives. An increase of the MC, representing a change from a dry condition of approximately 0% RH to ca 75% RH, of both the unmodified and thermally modified samples seemed to have a marginal influence on the dispersive component of the surface energy. Possible implications of the results in this study can be found in the tailoring of new compatible and durable material combinations, for example, when using thermally modified wood residuals as a component in new types of biocomposites.

  • 3. Lundgren, Nils
    et al.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Hagman, Olle
    Oja, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Predicting the strength of Norway spruce by microwave scanning: A comparison with other scanning techniques2007Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 167-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Mandalika, A.
    et al.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, US; Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, US.
    Bragg, D.
    USDA Forest Service, US.
    Schuler, J.
    West Virginia University, US.
    Baker, Darren
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi.
    Elder, T.
    USDA Forest Service, US.
    Groom, L.
    USDA Forest Service, US.
    Potential of natural-origin loblolly pine tree fractions as a bioenergy feedstock2019Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 26-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical characterization was performed on 10 different samples of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), representing the various woody components of trees (bole, slab, tops and branches, and precommercial stem-only) harvested from two naturally regenerated forests in southern Arkansas. Ultimate analysis, proximate analysis using thermogravimetry, and the energy content of the samples were determined to help evaluate their bioenergy utility. Elemental analysis revealed no significant differences between the pine tree fractions, whereas differences were observed in the proximate analysis, particularly in regard to the fixed carbon content. Generally, proximate analyses did not show significant differences between the slabwood and bolewood samples, although the “tops and branches” and “whole stem” samples contained the lowest volatile matter amounts and the greatest amounts of fixed carbon and ash content. In terms of the calorific value, the “tops and limbs” sample reported the lowest energy content, whereas the “whole stem” sample was among the highest reported value with statistical significance. These results indicate that whole stem samples may be an attractive prospect for bioenergy applications such as gasification, pelletization, and combustion, owing to favorable heating content values and relatively low ash content. Although a number of logistical challenges exist in their acquisition and processing, slabs, topwood, and branches offer opportunities for bioenergy applications that can increase the utilization of forest residues without threatening more traditional uses of wood in lumber, panels, and paper. Finally, we then briefly consider the silvicultural implications of these results for naturally regenerated southern pine €“dominated forests.

  • 5. Nussbaum, Ralph M.
    et al.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, AB Trätek.
    The effect of wood extractive content on glude adhesion and surface wettability of wood2002Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 57-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Olsson, Anders K.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Localized modulus of elasticity in timber and its significance for the accuracy of machine strength grading2014Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 489-501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    From previous research, it is well known that a localized modulus of elasticity (MOE) is a better indicating property (IP) of strength than an MOE averaged across a longer span. In this study, it was investigated to what extent the relationship, in terms of coefficient of determination (R2), between strength and localized MOE was dependent on the length across which the MOE was determined. Localized MOE was calculated with MOE profiles based on dot laser scanning of fiber directions, axial dynamic excitation, and a scheme of integration across a board's cross-section. Two board samples were investigated. Maximum R2 values, which were as high as 0.68 and 0.77, respectively, were obtained for localized MOE determined across lengths corresponding to about half the depth of the investigated boards. Consequently, application of a highly localized bending MOE as an IP will result in very competitive grading.

  • 7.
    Roos, Anders
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Siv
    RISE., Innventia.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    RISE., Innventia. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    A product semantic study of the influence of vision on wood evaluation2013Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 353-362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using product semantics, this study investigated how visual attributes of wood are perceived and interpreted semantically. The wood species alder, ash, aspen, beech, birch, elm, larch, lime, maple, oak, pine, and spruce were included. The subjects rated the samples based on the descriptive words natural, exclusive, ecofriendly, rough, inexpensive, modern, reliable, warm, cozy, solid, and light. The most significant differences in ratings were between softwoods and hardwoods. Principal component analysis yielded three dimensions based on visual perceptions: exclusive-modern, ecofriendly-natural, and light. Maple and ash and other hardwoods were seen as more exclusive and modern than spruce and pine. Pine, conversely, was perceived as the most ecofriendly-natural wood type. Beech and alder did not score high (or low) on any of the three dimensions, meaning that these gave a neutral impression. The potential use of these results in product design and interior design is discussed. 

  • 8.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Vellekoop, Stefan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Process-Related Mechanical Degradation of the Wood Component in High-Wood-Content Wood-Plastic Composites2012Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 145-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Oja, Johan
    Antti, Lena
    Moisture content measurement in Scots pine by microwave and X-rays2012Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 280-285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Schmid, Joakim
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. TUT Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire design of CLT in Europe2018Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 50, s. 68-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire safety design of cross-laminated timber (CLT or X-Lam) in Europe is governed by the Construction Products Regulation and its essential requirements, as for all other building products. These requirements are mandatory, to be used in all European countries. They include classification systems for reaction to fire of building products, fire resistance of building elements, and structural Eurocodes. The reaction-to-fire performance of CLT in accordance with the European classification system is specified. Higher classes can be reached by chemical treatments, but the durability of the reaction-to-fire performance needs to be fulfilled according to a new European system. The fire resistance design of CLT building elements is not included in Eurocode 5, the structural Eurocode for timber, but can be either tested according to European standards or calculated by using design methods being developed recently. This article provides information about both reaction to fire and fire resistance of CLT in Europe. Furthermore, the importance of proper detailing in building design and in practice is stressed. Finally, performance-based design is introduced and some further research needs suggested.

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