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  • 1.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Processum.
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte i deponigas2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Deponigas bildas under syrefria förhållanden i deponier genom mikrobiell nedbrytning av organiskt material. Gasens sammansättning kan variera mycket, men från svenska deponier brukar den generellt bestå av 40-60 % metan, 30-40 % koldioxid och 5-20 % kvävgas. Svavelväte (H2S) är en mycket giftig och korrosiv gas som finns i deponigas i varierande omfattning, från 10 till 30 000 ppm (motsvarar 0,001-3,0 %). Det är önskvärt att deponigas används för el och/eller värmeproduktion, men för att detta ska vara möjligt behöver H2S-halten renas till låga nivåer (< 200 ppm). Höga halter H2S ökar slitaget på motor/panna och därmed frekvensen på servicetillfällen. Det leder till dyra underhållskostnader och i slutändan till förkortad livslängd för anläggningen. För att minska korrosionen är det vanligt att rökgastemperaturen justeras upp, men det leder samtidigt till lägre verkningsgrad och därmed till sämre energiutnyttjande av gasen. I en del fall bedöms gasens innehåll av H2S vara för högt för att kunna användas för energiproduktion. Under 2015 facklades 53 GWh deponigas i Sverige, vilket i många fall beror på problem med höga halter H2S.

     

    Rening av deponigas från H2S leder således till flera nyttigheter; gasens energiinnehåll används effektivare, underhålls- och servicekostnaderna för förbränningsanläggningarna minskar och utsläpp av försurande svaveldioxid från förbränning av deponigas reduceras. Det finns kommersiell reningsteknik för H2S men den är dyr, både vad gäller kapitalkostnad och driftkostnad. Därmed finns ett behov av att ta fram nya billigare reningstekniker som förbättrar driftekonomin vid deponierna och som möjliggör att även deponigas med höga H2S-halter kan utnyttjas för nyttig energiomvandling.

     

    RISE (f.d. JTI - Inst. för jordbruks och miljöteknik) utvecklar tillsammans med SLU nya, potentiellt kostnadseffektiva metoder för att uppgradera biogas till drivmedelskvalité. En av metoderna baseras på att gasen får passera en bädd av fuktig aska (ett s.k. askfilter) varvid koldioxid och H2S fixeras. Hypotesen i det här projektet var att askor med ursprung från förbränning av avfall, RT-flis eller liknande kan användas för att rena bort höga halter H2S från deponigas. Denna typ av askor ska i regel ändå avsättas på deponier och om reningseffekten är god skulle det ge synergieffekter i form av att askan först används för att rena deponigas från svavel innan den avsätts som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier.

     

    I det här projektet utfördes två försök i pilotskala vid en svensk deponi med mycket höga halter H2S, ca 15 000 ppm. Olika gasflöden studerades (0,7-7,6 m3/h) medan askvolymen var lika i de båda försöken, 0,37 m3. Halten H2S i den renade gasen var genomgående mycket låg under behandling, < 10 ppm vid låga gasflöden och < 200 ppm vid höga gasflöden. Två asktyper undersöktes och båda visade sig ha mycket god förmåga att fixera H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg torr aska. Vid jämförelse med litteraturvärden är det bara en studie som visar upptag i samma storleksordning, övriga studier ligger ca en tiopotens lägre i upptag.

     

    Utifrån försöksresultaten bestämdes den tekniska och ekonomiska potentialen för askfilter som reningsmetod. Beräkningarna gjordes för olika typanläggningar för att på så sätt täcka in vanligt förekommande deponier. För normalstora deponier med gasflöden på 100-1 000 m3/h och H2S-halter mellan 100 och 1 000 ppm uppgår askbehovet till 10-130 ton torr aska per år. För specialfallet där halten H2S är extremt hög ökar askbehovet och för en anläggning med 15 000 ppm H2S och ett gasflöde på 200 m3/h krävs det ca 800 ton torr aska per år. Överlag är det emellertid beskedliga mängder aska som krävs och skulle t.ex. samtliga svenska deponier använda aska för gasrening skulle askbehovet endast vara 0,2-0,3 % av den årliga svenska askproduktionen.

     

    De ekonomiska beräkningarna visar att askfilter är en konkurrenskraftig metod för att rena bort H2S. För specialfallet med extremt höga halter H2S visade det sig att kostnaden för askfilter är drygt 20 % lägre jämfört med den för ändamålet billigaste konventionella reningstekniken på marknaden. Även vid rening av deponigas med mer normala halter H2S står sig askfilter väl. Vid låga flöden kring 100 m3/h är askfilter klart billigare jämfört med litteraturvärden för konventionell reningsteknik. Skalfördelarna tycks dock vara större för de konventionella reningsteknikerna och därför blir skillnaden mellan reningskostnaden för askfilter jämfört med annan teknik mindre vid högre gasflöden.

     

    De låga reningskostnaderna för askfilter kan öppna upp möjligheter för deponier som idag inte renar gas från H2S. Under projektet kontaktades 15 svenska deponier och ingen av dessa hade någon form av H2S-rening. Med rening kan deponigas däremot användas effektivare, t.ex. genom minskad fackling, ökad verkningsgrad för el- och värmeproduktion samt minskat slitage på pannor och förbränningsutrustning. Dessutom minskar emissioner av svavel till atmosfären, vilket även minskar potentiella luktproblem kring deponin.

     

    För fortsatt utveckling är utformning och design av en prototyp av en askfiltermodul i fullskala en central del. Vidare måste den behandlade askan undersökas vad gäller urlakningsegenskaper, lagringsbarhet och användbarhet som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier tillsammans med en bedömning av de samlade miljökonsekvenserna. Försök i fullskala bör även göras vid fler deponier med olika gasflöden och H2S-halter i deponigasen för att verifiera prestanda från de genomförda pilotförsöken.

    Deponigas bildas under syrefria förhållanden i deponier genom mikrobiell nedbrytning av organiskt material. Gasens sammansättning kan variera mycket, men från svenska deponier brukar den generellt bestå av 40-60 % metan, 30-40 % koldioxid och 5-20 % kvävgas. Svavelväte (H2S) är en mycket giftig och korrosiv gas som finns i deponigas i varierande omfattning, från 10 till 30 000 ppm (motsvarar 0,001-3,0 %). Det är önskvärt att deponigas används för el och/eller värmeproduktion, men för att detta ska vara möjligt behöver H2S-halten renas till låga nivåer (< 200 ppm). Höga halter H2S ökar slitaget på motor/panna och därmed frekvensen på servicetillfällen. Det leder till dyra underhållskostnader och i slutändan till förkortad livslängd för anläggningen. För att minska korrosionen är det vanligt att rökgastemperaturen justeras upp, men det leder samtidigt till lägre verkningsgrad och därmed till sämre energiutnyttjande av gasen. I en del fall bedöms gasens innehåll av H2S vara för högt för att kunna användas för energiproduktion. Under 2015 facklades 53 GWh deponigas i Sverige, vilket i många fall beror på problem med höga halter H2S.

     

    Rening av deponigas från H2S leder således till flera nyttigheter; gasens energiinnehåll används effektivare, underhålls- och servicekostnaderna för förbränningsanläggningarna minskar och utsläpp av försurande svaveldioxid från förbränning av deponigas reduceras. Det finns kommersiell reningsteknik för H2S men den är dyr, både vad gäller kapitalkostnad och driftkostnad. Därmed finns ett behov av att ta fram nya billigare reningstekniker som förbättrar driftekonomin vid deponierna och som möjliggör att även deponigas med höga H2S-halter kan utnyttjas för nyttig energiomvandling.

     

    RISE (f.d. JTI - Inst. för jordbruks och miljöteknik) utvecklar tillsammans med SLU nya, potentiellt kostnadseffektiva metoder för att uppgradera biogas till drivmedelskvalité. En av metoderna baseras på att gasen får passera en bädd av fuktig aska (ett s.k. askfilter) varvid koldioxid och H2S fixeras. Hypotesen i det här projektet var att askor med ursprung från förbränning av avfall, RT-flis eller liknande kan användas för att rena bort höga halter H2S från deponigas. Denna typ av askor ska i regel ändå avsättas på deponier och om reningseffekten är god skulle det ge synergieffekter i form av att askan först används för att rena deponigas från svavel innan den avsätts som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier.

     

    I det här projektet utfördes två försök i pilotskala vid en svensk deponi med mycket höga halter H2S, ca 15 000 ppm. Olika gasflöden studerades (0,7-7,6 m3/h) medan askvolymen var lika i de båda försöken, 0,37 m3. Halten H2S i den renade gasen var genomgående mycket låg under behandling, < 10 ppm vid låga gasflöden och < 200 ppm vid höga gasflöden. Två asktyper undersöktes och båda visade sig ha mycket god förmåga att fixera H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg torr aska. Vid jämförelse med litteraturvärden är det bara en studie som visar upptag i samma storleksordning, övriga studier ligger ca en tiopotens lägre i upptag.

     

    Utifrån försöksresultaten bestämdes den tekniska och ekonomiska potentialen för askfilter som reningsmetod. Beräkningarna gjordes för olika typanläggningar för att på så sätt täcka in vanligt förekommande deponier. För normalstora deponier med gasflöden på 100-1 000 m3/h och H2S-halter mellan 100 och 1 000 ppm uppgår askbehovet till 10-130 ton torr aska per år. För specialfallet där halten H2S är extremt hög ökar askbehovet och för en anläggning med 15 000 ppm H2S och ett gasflöde på 200 m3/h krävs det ca 800 ton torr aska per år. Överlag är det emellertid beskedliga mängder aska som krävs och skulle t.ex. samtliga svenska deponier använda aska för gasrening skulle askbehovet endast vara 0,2-0,3 % av den årliga svenska askproduktionen.

     

    De ekonomiska beräkningarna visar att askfilter är en konkurrenskraftig metod för att rena bort H2S. För specialfallet med extremt höga halter H2S visade det sig att kostnaden för askfilter är drygt 20 % lägre jämfört med den för ändamålet billigaste konventionella reningstekniken på marknaden. Även vid rening av deponigas med mer normala halter H2S står sig askfilter väl. Vid låga flöden kring 100 m3/h är askfilter klart billigare jämfört med litteraturvärden för konventionell reningsteknik. Skalfördelarna tycks dock vara större för de konventionella reningsteknikerna och därför blir skillnaden mellan reningskostnaden för askfilter jämfört med annan teknik mindre vid högre gasflöden.

     

    De låga reningskostnaderna för askfilter kan öppna upp möjligheter för deponier som idag inte renar gas från H2S. Under projektet kontaktades 15 svenska deponier och ingen av dessa hade någon form av H2S-rening. Med rening kan deponigas däremot användas effektivare, t.ex. genom minskad fackling, ökad verkningsgrad för el- och värmeproduktion samt minskat slitage på pannor och förbränningsutrustning. Dessutom minskar emissioner av svavel till atmosfären, vilket även minskar potentiella luktproblem kring deponin.

     

    För fortsatt utveckling är utformning och design av en prototyp av en askfiltermodul i fullskala en central del. Vidare måste den behandlade askan undersökas vad gäller urlakningsegenskaper, lagringsbarhet och användbarhet som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier tillsammans med en bedömning av de samlade miljökonsekvenserna. Försök i fullskala bör även göras vid fler deponier med olika gasflöden och H2S-halter i deponigasen för att verifiera prestanda från de genomförda pilotförsöken.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte från deponigas
  • 2.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Granström, Karin Maria
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Daniel
    RISE., Innventia.
    Tomani, Per E.
    RISE., Innventia.
    The effects of kraft lignin additives on wood fuel pellet quality, energy use and shelf life2013Ingår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, s. 64-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, the total consumption of pellets in Sweden amounted to 1.9 million tons, which represents an energy value of 9 TWh. The pellets are used in large-scale as well as in small-scale applications, and increased demands on pellet quality are likely to force pellet producers to improve on the pellet properties. One way of increasing pellet quality is by using additives. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to examine kraft lignin as an additive. Pellets were produced in a small industrial pellet press located at Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden, and 1-4% of kraft lignin was added to the pellets. The results indicate that the addition of an increased amount of kraft lignin to the pellets increases their mechanical durability and their lengths. The results also indicate that dry kraft lignin yields pellets with higher durability as compared to wet kraft lignin. The energy demand was unaffected by the increased use of kraft lignin. The general results presented in this paper are useful for producers of lignin, pellet producers and end-users of pellets, who are interested in developing their products and/or improving the production processes.

  • 3.
    Berglin, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE., Innventia.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    RISE., Innventia.
    Co-production of renewable polymers and ethanol from eucalyptus-based pulp mills2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Farmers current practices, and their opinion on supplying straw for production of second-generation biofuels in Sweden2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents results from the EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921) and especially focuses on the results from a survey looking at the current practices with straw use in Sweden as well as the farmer’s opinion on supplying straw for the production of second-generation biofuel. The survey was developed as a collaboration between LRF (Federation of Swedish farmers) RISE and Lantmännen.The reader can first read about the context within which the survey was developed and analysed. The questions and the methodology are then presented. The main part of the report presents the questionnaire results before drawing conclusions in line with the project’s objectives.The survey shows that about 60% of the straw from farmers participating in the survey, remains in the field while 40% is harvested mostly for animal production. The county of Skåne, the “ÖSÖ” region (Östergötland, Södermanland, and Örebro counties), the region including Uppsala, Stockholm and Västmanland counties, and the county of Västra Götaland have the largest potential for collection of straw for industrial processes in Sweden. However, farmers from these regions are the most concerned about the decrease of soil quality due to straw removal. The current common practices for straw handling in Sweden, including baling, collection, transport, storage and sale, are highlighted.Some interesting conclusions are drawn concerning the logistics needed for the handling of straw for the biobased industry. Moreover, the answers from the survey give some insights concerning a potential “straw contract” between Lantmännen and the farmers. The report also highlights the aspects to be further researched.More information concerning the Swedish contribution to the AGROinLOG project can be found in the public report AGROinLOG (2020a).

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Jamieson, Max
    HIR Skåne, Sweden.
    Elmquist, Helena
    Odling i Balans, Sweden.
    Persson, Ingvar
    LRF konsult, Sweden.
    Bergman, Niklas
    LRF, Sweden.
    Färdplan för effektivisering och egenförsörjning av energi i lantbruket2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The greenhouse gas emissions connected to energy use in the Swedish agriculture (excluding greenhouse cultures) represents 0,6 Mton CO2eq which is about 4% of the agriculture greenhouse gas emission in Sweden (Jordbruksverket, 2018). The “All Party Committee for environmental objectives” (miljömålsberedning) suggested that by 2045 Sweden should has a zero-net-emission of greenhouse gases. The parliament (Riksdag) adopted this political framework for climate issues which entered into force the 1st of January 2018. To reach this ambitious goal, all sectors including agriculture must undertake measures.

    The project developed a roadmap in the form of a list of measures leading the Swedish agriculture towards a sustainable status in line with the Swedish Environmental Goals. This roadmap was developed using a backcasting methodology. It means that first the goals were set and then the measures needed to move from the present status to the goals were developed. Based on political goals as well sustainability principles, a vision of the future for Swedish agriculture has been developed. The vision is:

    In the future, agriculture is energy effective, independent from fossil resources, deliver energy to the society and is profitable. Agricultural enterprises have access to knowledge, competences, and decision support. Collaboration within the agricultural sector as well as with other sectors is comprehensive for energy.

    To analyse the current situation, four studies were implemented within the project: (i) a survey of farmers view and interest, (ii) a survey of agrarian education, (iii) identification of bottlenecks with research and development (R&D), and (iv) an analysis of how relevant tools for energy are communicated. A selection of observation positive for the energy and climate questions are as follow: more agricultural enterprises have solar cells today than three years ago, 25% of the respondents have attend an eco-driving course, large farms have done most energy surveys and, investment in fossil free energy is seen as positive for both enterprise and the environment. Negative observations are that farmers miss a long-term regulation for energy production and feel a lack of knowledge about energy efficiency and production. Only 8% of the respondents uses high blends biofuels. In addition, respondents have expressed a lack of collaboration and inquire for a joint communication for R&D results concerning energy efficiency and production. In the agrarian education the interest in energy efficiency and production is low.

    A range of measures contributing to reach the vision were suggested. These measures vary between different communication strategies, improved advisory services and need for regulatory simplification to minimize the hassle with permissions and administration. Simple and accessible key figures as well as better statistics would make it easier to follow the different energy flows. It is up to decision-making authorities, advisory organisations, institutions of higher education, agricultural organisations and agriculture themselves to implement these measures.

    The greenhouse gas emissions connected to energy use in the Swedish agriculture (excluding greenhouse cultures) represents 0,6 Mton CO2eq which is about 4% of the agriculture greenhouse gas emission in Sweden (Jordbruksverket, 2018). The “All Party Committee for environmental objectives” (miljömålsberedning) suggested that by 2045 Sweden should has a zero-net-emission of greenhouse gases. The parliament (Riksdag) adopted this political framework for climate issues which entered into force the 1st of January 2018. To reach this ambitious goal, all sectors including agriculture must undertake measures.

    The project developed a roadmap in the form of a list of measures leading the Swedish agriculture towards a sustainable status in line with the Swedish Environmental Goals. This roadmap was developed using a backcasting methodology. It means that first the goals were set and then the measures needed to move from the present status to the goals were developed. Based on political goals as well sustainability principles, a vision of the future for Swedish agriculture has been developed. The vision is:

    In the future, agriculture is energy effective, independent from fossil resources, deliver energy to the society and is profitable. Agricultural enterprises have access to knowledge, competences, and decision support. Collaboration within the agricultural sector as well as with other sectors is comprehensive for energy.

    To analyse the current situation, four studies were implemented within the project: (i) a survey of farmers view and interest, (ii) a survey of agrarian education, (iii) identification of bottlenecks with research and development (R&D), and (iv) an analysis of how relevant tools for energy are communicated. A selection of observation positive for the energy and climate questions are as follow: more agricultural enterprises have solar cells today than three years ago, 25% of the respondents have attend an eco-driving course, large farms have done most energy surveys and, investment in fossil free energy is seen as positive for both enterprise and the environment. Negative observations are that farmers miss a long-term regulation for energy production and feel a lack of knowledge about energy efficiency and production. Only 8% of the respondents uses high blends biofuels. In addition, respondents have expressed a lack of collaboration and inquire for a joint communication for R&D results concerning energy efficiency and production. In the agrarian education the interest in energy efficiency and production is low.

    A range of measures contributing to reach the vision were suggested. These measures vary between different communication strategies, improved advisory services and need for regulatory simplification to minimize the hassle with permissions and administration. Simple and accessible key figures as well as better statistics would make it easier to follow the different energy flows. It is up to decision-making authorities, advisory organisations, institutions of higher education, agricultural organisations and agriculture themselves to implement these measures.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6. Celaya, J.
    et al.
    Bridgwater, A.V.
    Toven, K.
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Fast pyrolysis bio-oil production from Scandinavian forest residues2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7. Celaya, J.
    et al.
    Bridgwater, A.V.
    Toven, K.
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Fast pyrolysis bio-oil production from Scandinavian forest residues2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8. Chacha, N.
    et al.
    Toven, K.
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Mtui, G.
    Katima, J.
    Mrema, G.
    Steam pretreatment of pine (Pinus patula) for fuel ethanol production in Tanzania2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    de Toro, Alfredo
    et al.
    Independent Researcher, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Jonsson, Nils
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Effects of variable weather conditions on baled proportion of varied amounts of harvestable cereal straw, based on simulations2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 16, artikel-id 9449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    All harvestable cereal straw cannot be collected every year in regions where wet periods are probable during the baling season, so some Swedish studies have used 'recovery coefficients’ to estimate potential harvestable amounts. Current Swedish recovery coefficients were first formu-lated by researchers in the early 1990s, after discussions with crop advisors, but there are no recent Swedish publications on available baling times and recovery proportions. Therefore, this study evaluated baling operations over a series of years for representative virtual farms and machine systems in four Swedish regions, to determine the available time for baling, baled straw ratio and annual variation in both. The hourly grain moisture content of pre-harvested cereals and swathed straw was estimated using moisture models and real weather data for 22/23 years, and the results were used as input to a model for simulating harvesting and baling operations. Expected available baling time during August and September was estimated to be 39–49%, depending on region, with large annual variation (standard deviation 22%). The average baling coefficient was estimated to be 80– 86%, with 1400 t·year−1 harvestable straw and 15 t·h−1 baling capacity, and the annual variation was also considerable (s.d. 20%). © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 10. Dyrset, N.
    et al.
    Øyaas, K.
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hobley, T.J.
    Alfrén, J.
    Hreggvidson, G.
    Uusitalo, J.
    Schenck, A.V.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Sustainable Biofuel: Innovations in Bioethanol Production Technologies (SusBioFuel)2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11. Dyrset, Nils
    et al.
    Öyaas, Karin
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hobley, Timothy John
    Alfthen, Johan
    RISE., Innventia.
    Hreggvidsson, Gudmundir
    Uusitalo, Jaana
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE., Innventia.
    Ochoa-Fernandez, Esther
    Einen, Jörn
    Sustainable biofuel: innovations in bioethanol production technologies (SusBioFuel)2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Ek, Monica
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Chirat, Christine
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fogelström, Linda
    Grenoble INP-Pagora, France.
    Iversen, Tommy
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Dongfang
    RISE., Innventia.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norström, Emelie
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sixta, Herbert
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Testova, Lidia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wawro, Dariusz
    IBWCh Institute of Biopolymer and Chemical Fibres, Poland.
    Wobama - Wood based materials and fuels2014Ingår i: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, nr 9-10, s. 773-779Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    WOBAMA - Wood Based Materials and Fuels is a biorefinery oriented scientific research project supported by Wood Wisdom-Net Research Programme and ERA-NET Bioenergy. In this project, the wood based raw materials were converted to a range of value added products through unconventional techniques. So far, many demonstrators have been prepared, such as the dissolving pulps with high cellulose content, the regenerated cellulose films with high tenacity, the hydrophobic materials based on cellulose and birch bark suberin, as well as the adhesives based on polysaccharides.

  • 13. Francey, S.
    et al.
    Tran, H.
    Berglin, N.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Global survey on lime kiln operation energy consumption and alternative fuel usage2011Ingår i: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, nr 8, s. 19-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Håkansson, N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Åkesson, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wolk, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Dietary environmental impacts relative to planetary boundaries for six environmental indicators – A population-based study2022Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 373, artikel-id 133949Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impact of Swedish diets was assessed for six indicators (greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions, cropland use, nitrogen application, phosphorus application, consumptive water use and extinction rate), using self-reported food intake within two population-based cohorts of men and women, 56–96 years of age. The dietary environmental impact was assessed in relation to per capita planetary boundaries, overall and by population subgroups, addressing the relative importance of specific foods and food groups. The total average dietary impact exceeded the planetary boundaries by 1.6 to 4-fold for five of the six environmental indicators; consumptive water use did not exceed the boundaries. Comparing the highest with lowest quintiles of the population impact showed >2.5-fold differences across all environmental indicators. Of the diet's total average environmental impact, animal-based, plant-based and discretionary foods accounted for 28–83%, 8–40% and 9–37%, respectively, across the six indicators. Animal-based foods dominated the impact on GHG emissions, cropland use and nitrogen and phosphorus application, while plant-based and discretionary foods contributed more to consumptive water use and extinction rate. Environmental impact was driven predominantly by consumption of red meat, dairy, fresh fruit and coffee. The findings show major challenges in affluent countries that have to be addressed to achieving sustainable food production systems and diets. They provide guidance on critical food groups, environmental indicators and population subgroups to prioritize in future efforts to reduce the environmental impact. © 2022 The Authors

  • 15.
    Hung, Chih-Yu
    et al.
    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada.
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Rennie, Timothy
    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada.
    Grant, Brian
    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada.
    Smith, Ward
    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada.
    VanderZaag, Andrew
    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada.
    Manure temperature prediction for slurry storage in Sweden: Model validation including effects of shading, snow cover and mixing2024Ingår i: Biosystems Engineering, ISSN 1537-5110, E-ISSN 1537-5129, Vol. 243, s. 70-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring and modelling manure temperatures are crucial for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from liquid manure storage. The manure temperature was recorded at various depths in two swine slurry storage tanks situated in Vallentuna (VA) and Örsundsbro (OR) in Sweden. These data were used to assess the effectiveness of a revised mechanistic model for estimating manure temperatures, which incorporates the effects of wall shading, snow cover, and manure input mixing. The average manure temperatures were higher than air temperatures in the summer and fall. This indicated that using air temperature would result in an underestimation of methane emissions when applying the 2019 IPCC Refinement methodology. The revised model estimated manure temperatures for spring, summer, fall, and winter as 4.8, 16.1, 7.8, and 2.6 °C at the VA tank and 11.6, 17.1, 9.5, and 3.6 °C at the OR tank. The root mean square errors between daily simulated and observed temperatures in the summer decreased in both tanks due to incorporating shadow effect into the revised model. Fall estimates did not improve, possibly because of uncertainties from slurry removal and higher precipitation inputs. Sensitivity analysis indicated that solar radiative heat input was reduced with higher tank walls and smaller tank diameters when applying the revised model. Wall shading may influence manure temperatures in tanks with small diameters at high-latitude locations. This study offers insights into understanding the relationship between manure temperatures and its thermal balance influenced by latitude, storage design, snow cover and mixing, and its implications for accurately estimating methane emissions. 

  • 16.
    Jansson, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE., Innventia.
    Larsson, M
    The value chain for biomethane from the forest industry2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Bergvall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Molinder, Roger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Wikberg, Elena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Niinipuu, Mirva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Comparison of co-refining of fast pyrolysis oil from Salix via catalytic cracking and hydroprocessing2023Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 172, artikel-id 106753Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass from energy crops, i.e., short rotation coppice willows such as Salix spp., can be used as feedstock for production of transportation biofuels. Biomass conversion via fast pyrolysis followed by co-refining with fossil oil in existing refinery infrastructure could enable a fast introduction of large-scale production of biofuels. In this study, Salix was first liquefied using ablative fast pyrolysis in a pilot scale unit. The resulting pyrolysis oil, rich in oxygenates, was thereafter co-refined in 20 wt% ratio with fossil feedstock using two separate technologies, a fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) laboratory unit and a continuous slurry hydroprocessing pilot plant. In the FCC route, the pyrolysis oil was cracked at 798 K using a commercial FCC catalyst at atmospheric pressure, while in the hydroprocessing route, the oil was processed at 693 K and a hydrogen pressure of 15 MPa in the presence of an unsupported molybdenum sulfide catalyst. Both routes resulted in significant deoxygenation (97 wt% versus 93 wt%). It is feasible to co-refine pyrolysis oil using both methods, the main difference being that the hydroprocessing results in a significantly higher biogenic carbon yield from the pyrolysis oil to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon products (92 wt%) but would in turn require input of H2. In the cracking route, besides the liquid product, a significant part of the biogenic carbon ends up as gas and as coke on the catalyst. The choice of route depends, among other factors, on the available amount of bio-oil and refining infrastructures. © 2023 The Authors

  • 18.
    Karpenja, Tatjana
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Jansson, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Bergnor, Elisabeth
    RISE., Innventia.
    Environmental results from EU project BioCoup and LignoFuel project: co-processing pyrolysis oil in a traditional oil refinery unit2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Lund, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Fischer, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Outnyttjat ensilage till förnybar energi2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora mängder outnyttjat ensilage finns inom lantbruket samt när kommun och länsstyrelse skördar de vallar och slåtterängar som de ansvarar för att sköta. Denna biomassa är ofta ett kvittblivningsproblem och en kostnad. Samtidigt efterfrågar biogasanläggningar substrat som inte konkurrerar med produktion av foder och livsmedel. Outnyttjat ensilage kan vara ett utmärkt substrat under förutsättning att det förbehandlas effektivt. Projektet utfördes som en fallstudie av Jordberga biogasanläggning i Skåne där resultaten från projektet är tillämpbara på andra regioner i Sverige där outnyttjad biomassa finns. Projektets syfte var att genom lönsam hantering kunna ersätta 20 % dagens åkerbaserade substrat i Jordberga biogasanläggning med outnyttjat ensilage från lantbruk samt slåtterytor hos kommun och länsstyrelse. Projektet har genomförts av RISE Jordbruk och Livsmedel tillsammans med det tyska biomassaforskningscentrat Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ), Gasum, Länsstyrelsen i Skåne och Fogda Farm.

    Projektet utgjordes av tre delar. En del där mängderna av olika typer av outnyttjat ensilage från jordbruksmark samt slåtterytor hos kommun och länsstyrelse upp-skattades, dels för området runt Gasums biogasanläggning i Jordberga, dels för hela Sverige. En del där lämplig teknik för sönderdelning identifierades och sedan testades i praktiska försök på olika typer av outnyttjat ensilage. Sedan en del där kostnaderna beräknades för hantering och sönderdelning av det outnyttjade ensilaget.

    Vid uppskattningen av mängderna outnyttjat ensilage visade det sig att den stora potentialen finns från outnyttjat ensilage från vallodling. Arealen befintlig slåtteräng är betydligt mindre och med en betydligt lägre avkastning. Antagandet gjordes att 5% av den totala mängden outnyttjade ensilagebalar är tillgängligt för biogasproduktion. Projektets beräkningar visade att 35% av dessa måste samlas in för att uppnå projektets mål att ersätta 20% av Jordbergas grödbaserade substrat. Beroende på balensilagets kvalitet och biogasutbyte behövs då 12-23 ton ts/dygn.

    Baserat på tidigare studier och erfarenheter från projektgruppen valdes tre maskiner ut för praktiska sönderdelningstester; Roto Grind, RS CutMaster och I-GRIND. I Roto Grind och I-GRIND sker sönderdelningen med en hammarkvarn medan RS CutMaster har knivar som sönderdelar materialet. Samtliga tre testade maskiner klarade av att sönderdela ensilage med ts-halt varierande mellan 40 och 70%. Strålängden efter sönderdelning analyserades i en sorteringsmaskin och en visuell bedömning gjordes av hur ensilagets struktur påverkats. Den analyserade strålängden för Roto Grind och RS CutMaster var lika, medan I-GRIND gett betydligt längre material. Sönderdelningen fungerade bättre på det fuktigare ensilaget än på det torrare både med avseende på både strålängd och struktur i samtliga maskiner.

    Baserat på resultaten från våra tester hade RS CutMaster högre totala sönder-delningskostnader än Roto Grind och I-GRIND. Främsta orsakerna till detta är lägre uppmätt kapacitet hos RS CutMaster samt högre inköps- och underhållskostnader för RS CutMaster och I-GRIND. För att komma ner till samma kostnadsnivå skulle RS CutMaster behöva ha ca 40% högre kapacitet än den som uppmättes i testet som gjordes i projektet.

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  • 20.
    Malhotra, Jaskaran Singh
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Valiollahi Bisheh, Roudabeh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    From wood to supercapacitor electrode material via fast pyrolysis2023Ingår i: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 57, artikel-id 106179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adding high-value products, such as carbon-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage, to the value chain of biorefinery may increase the profits of the whole concept. In this work, carbon-based supercapacitor electrode materials were produced by chemical activation (using KOH) of two fractions of bio-oil (aerosol and condensed) as well as bio-char precursors, all of them originally made from fast pyrolysis of stem wood from pine and spruce. The produced materials show a hierarchical porous structure, a high surface area (1300–1500 m2 g−1) and, almost double the specific capacitance (149–152 F g−1 @ 50 mA g−1) compared to commercially available activated carbon (79 F g−1 @ 50 mA g−1). The benefit of using bio-oils compared to biochar is having an electrode material almost free from metal impurities alongside marginally higher energy storage performance. Together with the material yield in the production chain (fast pyrolysis and activation), a normalized energy storage value was presented for each material that may be used in the future to select the best techno-economic route for the whole concept. © 2022 The Authors

  • 21.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Energy Savings Using a Direct Current Distribution Network in a PV and Battery Equipped Residential Building2020Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) are generated as direct current (DC) and almost all of today’s electrical loads in residential buildings, household appliances and HVAC system (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) are operated on DC. For a conventional alternating current (AC) distribution system this requires the need for multiple conversion steps before the final user-stage. By switching the distribution system to DC, conversion steps between AC to DC can be avoided and, in that way, losses are reduced. Including a battery storage–the system’s losses can be reduced further and the generated PV energy is even better utilised.

    This thesis investigates and quantifies the energy savings when using a direct current distribution topology in a residential building together with distributed energy generation from solar photovoltaic and a battery storage. Measured load and PV generation data for a single-family house situated in Borås, Sweden is used as a case study for the analysis. Detailed and dynamic models–based on laboratory measurements of the power electronic converters and the battery–are also used to more accurately reflect the system’s dynamic performance.

    In this study a dynamic representation of the battery’s losses is presented which is based on laboratory measurements of the resistance and current dependency for a single lithium-ion cell based on Lithium iron phosphate (LFP). A comparative study is made with two others, commonly used, loss representations and evaluated with regards to the complete system’s performance, using the PV and load data from the single-family house. Results show that a detailed battery representation is important for a correct loss prediction when modelling the interaction between loads, PV and the battery.

    Four DC system topologies are also modelled and compared to an equivalent AC topology using the experimental findings from the power electronic converters and the battery measurements. Results from the quasi-dynamic modelling show that the annual energy savings potential from the suggested DC topologies ranges between 1.9–5.6%. The DC topologies also increase the PV utilisation by up to 10 percentage points, by reducing the associated losses from the inverter and the battery conversion. Results also show that the grid-tied converter is the main loss contributor and when a constant grid-tied efficiency is used, the energy savings are overestimated.

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    Licentiatavhandling__OLLAS
  • 22.
    Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Fjäll, Stephanie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Westlin, Hugo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Jordbruksbaserat bioraffinaderi - kombination av lokal och regional skala2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural Biorefinery - combining local and regional scale In order to achieve Sweden's sustainability goals and an increased degree of self-sufficiency, our resources need to be used in an innovative way. Resources that today are classified as residual streams can be used in a smarter way to produce the future's food, feed, fuel and energy. There is a great potential in utilizing agricultural biomasses. In the project, the potential of agriculture to supply ILUC-free feedstock to a local and regional biorefinery concept was calculated and the system was evaluated through mass and energy flow calculations, cost calculations and case descriptions on Vårgårda Herrljunga Biogas Plant (VH Biogas). In addition, practical tests were carried out on bio-oil production from dewatered digestate from participating biogas plants. Quantifications were also carried out of how the concept contributes to more resource-efficient crop cultivation with maintained humus content in soil despite increased removal of biomass from the farm. ...

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  • 23.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Löfgren, Bengt-Erik
    Pelletsförbundet, Sweden.
    Iwarsson Wide, Maria
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Melin, Gustav
    SVEBIO, Sweden.
    Innovationskluster för internationalisering inom bioenergiområdet - förstudie2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy contributes to a sustainable energy mix in most countries worldwide, is the largest renewable energy generation and has a global development potential. Bioenergy today accounts for 60 percent of all renewable energy in the EU: 11 percent of all used energy, compared with 7 percent for all other renewable energy sources. However, the market for Swedish bioenergy and bioenergy technology in Sweden has decreased. Partly because our domestic market for new district heating installations has already been expanded and partly because the competition from electricity heating through energy efficient heat pumps in the residential segment takes over the exchange market. In order for Swedish know-how and products to grow, increased exports and visibility are important. An innovation cluster for internationalization in the bioenergy field cre-ates a meeting place that facilitates involved bioenergy companies and organizations to create sustainable growth inside and outside their own industry.

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  • 24.
    Pettersson, Karin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ehn, Christian
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE., Innventia.
    Integration of next-generation biofuel production in the Swedish forest industry - A geographically explicit approach2015Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 154, s. 317-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The geographic locations of biofuel production facilities should be strategically chosen in order to minimise the total cost of using biofuels. Proximity to biomass resources, possibilities for integration, and distance to biofuel users are aspects that need to be considered. In this paper, the geographically explicit optimisation model BeWhere Sweden was used to investigate the future production of next-generation biofuels from forest biomass in Sweden. A focus was placed on the integration of biofuel production with the existing forest industry, as well as on how different parameters affect biofuel production costs, the choice of technologies and biofuels, and the localisation of new biofuel plants. Six examples of different biofuel routes were considered. A methodology was developed considering detailed, site-specific conditions for potential host industries. The results show that the cost of biomass and the biofuel plant capital cost generally dominate the biofuel cost, but the cost for biomass transportation and biofuel distribution can also have a significant impact. DME produced via black liquor gasification (naturally integrated with chemical pulp mills) and SNG produced via solid biomass gasification (mainly integrated with sawmills), dominate the solutions. The distribution of these technology cases varies depending on a number of parameters, including criteria for sizing biofuel plants, the electricity price, the biofuel distribution cost and the cost of biomass, and is sensitive to changes in these parameters. Generally, plants with low specific investment costs (i.e., high biofuel production) and/or plants with low specific biomass transportation costs occur most frequently in the solutions. Because these properties often vary significantly among biofuel production facilities at different host industry sites of the same type, the results show the advantage of including site-specific data in this type of model.

  • 25.
    Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann Christin
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Dufour, Louis
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gao, Jie
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Herrmann, Anke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jebrane, Mohamed
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Kalita, Saurav
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Molinder, Roger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Nordh, Nils-Erik
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Jonas A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Passoth, Volkmar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sandgren, Mats
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Shi, Andong
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Terziev, Nasko
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Daniel, Geoffrey
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Weih, Martin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Optimized utilization of Salix : Perspectives for the genetic improvement toward sustainable biofuel value chains2022Ingår i: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 14, nr 10, s. 1128-1144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Bioenergy will be one of the most important renewable energy sources in the conversion from fossil fuels to bio-based products. Short rotation coppice Salix could be a key player in this conversion since Salix has rapid growth, positive energy balance, easy to manage cultivation system with vegetative propagation of plant material and multiple harvests from the same plantation. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of the main challenges and key issues in willow genetic improvement toward sustainable biofuel value chains. Primarily based on results from the research project ?Optimized Utilization of Salix? (OPTUS), the influence of Salix wood quality on the potential for biofuel use is discussed, followed by issues related to the conversion of Salix biomass into liquid and gaseous transportation fuels. Thereafter, the studies address genotypic influence on soil carbon sequestration in Salix plantations, as well as on soil carbon dynamics and climate change impacts. Finally, the opportunities for plant breeding are discussed using willow as a resource for sustainable biofuel production. Substantial phenotypic and genotypic variation was reported for different wood quality traits important in biological (i.e., enzymatic and anaerobic) and thermochemical conversion processes, which is a prerequisite for plant breeding. Furthermore, different Salix genotypes can affect soil carbon sequestration variably, and life cycle assessment illustrates that these differences can result in different climate mitigation potential depending on genotype. Thus, the potential of Salix plantations for sustainable biomass production and its conversion into biofuels is shown. Large genetic variation in various wood and biomass traits, important for different conversion processes and carbon sequestration, provides opportunities to enhance the sustainability of the production system via plant breeding. This includes new breeding targets in addition to traditional targets for high yield to improve biomass quality and carbon sequestration potential.

  • 26.
    Stockfelt, Leo
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Xu, Yiyi
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Brunskog, Jonas
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Patrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Margareta
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Barregard, Lars
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bohgard, Mats
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Albin, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hagerman, Inger
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wierzbicka, Aneta
    Lund University, Sweden; .
    A controlled chamber study of effects of exposure to diesel exhaust particles and noise on heart rate variability and endothelial function2022Ingår i: Inhalation Toxicology, ISSN 0895-8378, E-ISSN 1091-7691, Vol. 34, nr 5-6, s. 159-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adverse cardiovascular effects are associated with both diesel exhaust and road traffic noise, but these exposures are hard to disentangle epidemiologically. We used an experimental setup to evaluate the impact of diesel exhaust particles and traffic noise, alone and combined, on intermediary outcomes related to the autonomic nervous system and increased cardiovascular risk. Methods: In a controlled chamber 18 healthy adults were exposed to four scenarios in a randomized cross-over fashion. Each exposure scenario consisted of either filtered (clean) air or diesel engine exhaust (particle mass concentrations around 300 µg/m3), and either low (46 dB(A)) or high (75 dB(A)) levels of traffic noise for 3 h at rest. ECG was recorded for 10-min periods before and during each exposure type, and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) computed. Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness were assessed after each exposure using EndoPAT 2000. Results: Compared to control exposure, HRV in the high frequency band decreased during exposure to diesel exhaust, both alone and combined with noise, but not during noise exposure only. These differences were more pronounced in women. We observed no synergistic effects of combined exposure, and no significant differences between exposure scenarios for other HRV indices, endothelial function or arterial stiffness. Conclusion: Three-hour exposure to diesel exhaust, but not noise, was associated with decreased HRV in the high frequency band. This indicates activation of irritant receptor-mediated autonomic reflexes, a possible mechanism for the cardiovascular risks of diesel exposure. There was no effect on endothelial dysfunction or arterial stiffness after exposure. © 2022 The Author(s). 

  • 27.
    Svens, Pontus
    et al.
    Scania, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kjell, Maria Hellqvist
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania, Sweden.
    Flodberg, Göran
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li-ion pouch cells for vehicle applications-studies of water transmission and packing materials2013Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 400-410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study includes analysis of encapsulation materials from lithium-ion pouch cells and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) measurements. WVTR measurements are performed on both fresh and environmentally stressed lithium-ion pouch cells. Capacity measurements are performed on both the fresh and the environmentally stressed battery cells to identify possible influences on electrochemical performance. Preparation of the battery cells prior to WVTR measurements includes opening of battery cells and extraction of electrode material, followed by resealing the encapsulations and adhesively mounting of gas couplings. A model describing the water diffusion through the thermal welds of the encapsulation are set up based on material analysis of the encapsulation material. Two WVTR equipments with different type of detectors are evaluated in this study. The results from the WVTR measurements show how important it is to perform this type of studies in dry environment and apply a rigorous precondition sequence before testing. Results from modelling confirm that the WVTR method has potential to be used for measurements of water diffusion into lithium-ion pouch cells. Consequently, WVTR measurements should be possible to use as a complement or alternative method to for example Karl Fisher titration.

  • 28.
    Tomani, P.
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Axegard, P.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Norberg, L.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Akerlund, L.-E.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lignin removal from different black liquors2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Tomani, P.
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Axegård, P.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Berglin, N.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lovell, A.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Nordgren, D.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Integration of lignin removal into a kraft pulp mill and use of lignin as a biofuel2011Ingår i: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 2457-9459, nr 7-8, s. 533-540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Toven, K.
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Azócar, L.
    Reitan, A.
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Mass loss kinetics in torrefaction for various biomass feedstocks2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 31.
    Toven, K.
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Reitan, A.
    Karlsen, T.
    Properties of Torrefied Pellets made of softwood forestry residues2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    von Schenck, Anna
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE., Innventia.
    Uusitalo, Jaana M.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Ethanol from Nordic wood raw material by simplified alkaline soda cooking pre-treatment2013Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 102, s. 229-240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials will generate multiple streams, since only a certain fraction of the material can be converted into sugars and then fermented to ethanol. This requires a 'poly-generation' approach, where by-products also must have high value (e.g. lignin, sugars from hemicellulose). To reach the large scale required for profitability, it is proposed that the best way is to integrate the new processes with existing industries, preferably those that already operate biomass-to-materials or biomass-to-fuels plants. One of the largest industry branches in this respect is the pulp and paper industry. Production of second generation ethanol (or other products) via sugars from lignocellulosic materials includes a relatively costly pre-treatment of the raw material in order to separate the lignin from the cellulose. This separation of the wood components already takes place in the chemical pulp mill, and the long proven technology in pulp production known as soda cooking (pre-treatment under alkaline conditions) is further evaluated in this study. It can be directly integrated into the recovery of chemicals and energy in the pulp mill. The pre-treatment of the lignocellulosic material studied in this work is alkaline and sulphur-free, and results in a technically pure cellulose to be fed to the hydrolysis stage, which makes it different compared to most of the other processes that aim to produce ethanol from lignocelluloses. The process chain from enzymatic hydrolysis to ethanol is very similar to that being used today for grain ethanol. The aim of this study was to define the conditions in alkaline pre-treatment stage for the separation of wood to a carbohydrate fraction for hydrolysis and ethanol production, and to a lignin fraction for the production of lignin products. Aspen (Populus tremula) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood from Nordic mills were studied. The reference case was alkaline pre-treatment according to the well-known soda pulping technique. The pulps of alkaline pre-treated aspen could be enzymatically hydrolysed very efficiently and fermented to ethanol with high yields (82-88% ethanol yield from theoretical maximum). It should be possible to use raw material of lower quality and cost than wood from the pulp industry. However, it can then be important to be able to take out non-process elements (NPEs) that otherwise accumulate in the process. This can be done by introducing an acidic prehydolysis stage prior to the alkaline fractionation. The content of Mg and Mn ions in the wood was possible to reduce by 85-90% and Ba and Ca ions by 75-80%. Potassium was virtually completely removed during the acidic pre-treatment stage.

  • 33.
    Vähä-Savo, Niklas
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Demartini, Nikolai
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Ziesig, Rufus
    RISE., Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE., Innventia.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Välimäki, Erkki
    Valmet Power Oy, Finland.
    Hupa, Mikko
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Combustion properties of reduced lignin black liquors2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in production of green chemicals and biofuels from biomass provides an incentive for pulp mills to identify new possibilities in recovering more wood components from the pulping process. One possibility is to use lignin, separated from black liquor. We undertook this work to determine the combustion properties of reduced-lignin black liquors-two kraft liquorsand one soda liquor-in a laboratory-scale, single-particle furnace. The combustion times, maximum swollen volume, nitric oxide formation, cyanate formation, and sulfur release were measured for the original liquors, the filtrates, and intermediate levels of lignin reduction. Combustion experiments were conducted at 900°C in 10% oxygen. Cyanate formation experiments were carried out by pyrolyzing the droplets at 800°C in 100% nitrogen to form a char. The chars were then gasified at 800°C in a 13% carbon dioxide/87% nitrogen atmosphere to obtain the smelt. Sulfur release was studied by pyrolyzing the samples at temperatures ranging from 300°C to 900°C. Liquors with the lowest lignin content had a smaller maximum swollen volume than the original sample. The devolatilization time was not affected by the lignin removal to any great extent, but lignin removal did have a clear effect on the char burning time. The amount of formed nitric oxide (g N/kg black liquor solids) remained constant or decreased slightly with increasing lignin removal in the kraft liquor samples, while for the soda samples the amount of nitric oxide formed increased. The amount of cyanate decreased clearly when comparing the samples with lowest lignin content to the original liquor samples. The peak sulfur release occurred at 500°C for both kraft liquors. In almost all experiments, the share of sulfur released was highest for the original samples and lowest for the sample with lowest lignin content. These results provide new data on combustion properties for reduced-lignin black liquors and indicate that for lignin removal levels up to about 20%, no significant changes are expected in the combustion behavior. Application: This work will help mills identify the effect of lignin precipitation on combustion properties of black liquor.

  • 34.
    Ziesig, Rufus
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Björk, Maria
    Stora Enso, Finland.
    Olowson, Per
    Södra, Sweden.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE., Innventia.
    Combustion and production of a kraft lignin-based biofuel slurry2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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