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  • 1.
    Borthwick, Louisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensk konsumtion av sjömat2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten visar att det är möjligt att få fram tillförlitlig statistik över svensk sjömatskonsumtion för alla arter utom sill och skarpsill på en detaljgrad som tidigare saknats, trots de dataluckor som finns.Sjömatskonsumtionen i Sverige beräknas ligga på 25 kg per capita hel sjömat, vilket motsvarar 12,5 kg ätlig sjömat eller knappt två portioner i veckan. Vi äter mindre sjömat än för fem år sedan.Upp mot 80 olika sjömatsarter finns på den svenska marknaden, men de tio vanligaste står för 80 procent av konsumtionen. Mest äter svenskar av lax, sill, torsk och räkor.Knappt 30 procent av det som äts kommer från den inhemska produktionen av sjömat från yrkes- och fritidsfiske, samt odling. Den inhemska produktionen kan ses som Sveriges teoretiska självförsörjningsgrad av sjömat. Drygt 70 procent importeras alltså och då främst med Norge, Danmark och Kina som avsändarland. Från den svenska produktionen är det främst sill, skarpsill, regnbåge och den fisk som rapporteras under koden ”Fryst fisk i.a.n.” i tulltaxan, som exporteras. Figuren nedan visar fördelningen mellan import och inhemsk produktion.Siffran på sillkonsumtion är mycket osäker på grund av att den officiella statistiken håller låg kvalitet. Sill är den volymmässigt och ekonomiskt viktigaste arten i svenskt fiske och den är viktig för svensk konsumtion. Det är därmed anmärkningsvärt att data kring fisket och handeln är så bristfällig.Det är genomförbart att ta fram statistiken på årlig basis för att följa trenden för sjömatskonsumtion över tid, både totalt och utvecklingen av enskilda arter. Metoden som utvecklats här förenklar detta avsevärt, men det krävs fortfarande en del manuell justering och bearbetning av befintliga dataset, samt kunskap om branschen.

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  • 2.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Östlund, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Holtz, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hondo, Haris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Moore, Susanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Småskalighet som ett medel för att bana väg för framtidens livsmedel?2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk livsmedelsproduktion är väl etablerad och gör det svårt för små företag att utveckla nya produkter och ännu hårdare att skapa nya livsmedelsvärdekedjor. Flaskhalsar kan uppstå i början av värdekedjan (primärled och förädlingsprocesser), i andra änden (marknad, konsumenter), eller kan relateras till regelverk som genomsyrar hela kedjan. Små aktörer saknar ofta resurser och nätverk att utveckla sitt område. De har emellertid hög kreativitet, stor innovationsrikedom och ett stort engagemang, vilket krävs för att utveckla hållbara livsmedelsvärdekedjor.

    Projektets mål var att utveckla och applicera en metodik för att utvärdera livsmedelsvärdekedjor med fokus på lönsamhet för svensk, småskalig produktion samt att bidra till en ökad utvecklingstakt. Arbetet innebar även att identifiera livsmedelsråvaror med potential för tillväxt och att identifiera hur dess efterfrågan kan ökas. Projektet kartlade livsmedelsvärdekedjor med hög utvecklingspotential inom Sverige och för export. Tio livsmedelsvärdekedjor identifierades och de huvudsakliga flaskhalsarna i kedjan beskrevs översiktligt. Tre livsmedelsvärdekedjor valdes ut baserat på en potential-svårighets-möjlighets-matris. De valda livsmedelskedjorna var: (i) Humle, (ii) Svenska skogsbär, och (iii) Landbaserad fiskodling. Dessa tre livsmedelsvärdekedjor studerades i detalj med hela värdekedjan inkluderad, från produktion till slutkonsument. Genom litteraturstudier och kontakt med relevanta aktörer (telefonintervjuer, face-to-face-intervjuer eller workshop) bekräftades flaskhalsarna och möjliga lösningar för ökad efterfrågan identifierades.

    Svensk humleproduktion bedrivs med stor passion och stort engagemang av små aktörer, mestadels på hobbynivå. Humlen produceras för att användas som ingrediens i öl. Tyskland och USA står för ca 75 % av världens humleproduktion. Många av dessa humlesorter är inte anpassade för svenskt klimat, vilket resulterar i låga skördevolymer och otillräcklig kvalitet. Inhemska sorter som traditionellt odlats i Sverige ger bättre skördenivåer i svenska klimatförhållanden och tidig mognad. Det finns en efterfrågan på svensk humle hos bryggerier, men på grund av att kvaliteten hos de svenska sorterna är ojämn och bristfälligt karakteriserad med avseende på aromer och beska, vill bryggerierna inte köpa råvaran. I Sverige skördas den mesta humlen för hand, ett tidsödande arbete som gör det i princip omöjligt att uppnå lönsamhet i produktionen. En mekanisering av skörden är nödvändig för att svensk humleproduktion ska ta steget från hobby till kommersiell produktion. Inga kommersiella lösningar finns ännu tillgängliga, RISE kommer i samarbete med SLU utveckla en skördemaskin som uppfyller EU-standard och är anpassad för småskalig humleodling. Ett nytänkande i värdekedjans senare del, såsom att utnyttja humlens aromatiska egenskaper i sitt färska tillstånd, skulle kunna öka efterfrågan på svensk humle. Humle har dessutom antiseptiska egenskaper som skulle kunna utnyttjas för fler produkter än öl.

    Endast fyra procent av bären som växer i svenska skogar plockas varje år. Till de bär som plockas mest hör blåbär, lingon och hjortron. De flesta rensas och fryses ner i Sverige. Förädling av bären har däremot flyttat utomlands och de produkter som tillverkas i Sverige är traditionella, lågprocessade sylter, juicer och krämer. Majoriteten av svenska bär mestadels blåbär för sitt nutritionella värde, exporteras och förädlas vidare till pulver eller extrakt i Asien och Europa. Den typen av värdekedja har inte etablerats i Sverige på grund av bristande kunskap samt en än så länge traditionell marknad. Dock finns ett stort konsumentintresse i bär då de även här anses ha positiva hälsoeffekter. Konsumenter är även mer medvetna om bärens ursprung i produkter som sylt, puré och juice samt kosttillskott. Intresset och efterfrågan av bär som råvara kan bemötas med nya affärsmöjligheter. Denna utveckling skulle underlättas genom att generera och sprida kunskap genom hela värdekedjan (plockning, förädling, produktutveckling och konsumenter), och kan genereras med hjälp av nya innovationer och forskningsprojekt. Det är också viktigt att stödja nätverkande, som i till exempel ”Bärnätverket” (koordinerat av RISE), eftersom nya värdekedjor kräver nya samarbeten i affärsutvecklingen. Även produktutvecklingen behöver stöd i form av produktion i pilotskala och möjligen investeringsstöd för ny utrustning.

    Landbaserad fiskodling är liten i jämförelse med traditionell odling av fisk i Sverige, men flera aktörer ser stor potential med landbaserade system som generellt ger lägre miljöpåverkan än fiskodlingar i sjöar och hav. Exempelvis Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund (LRF) har nyligen investerat i en landbaserad fiskodling. Likt andra EU-medlemsländer har antalet aktiva lantbruksföretag i Sverige minskat, varav några ser en möjlighet att konvertera övergivna djurstallar till bassänger för fiskodling. Den huvudsakliga flaskhalsen i utvecklingen av landbaserad fiskodling består i det regelverk som måste följas, men som utgår från traditionell fiskodling. Det innebär att regelverket inte tar hänsyn till de miljöfördelar som ses med landbaserad fiskodling. Det behövs en öppen dialog och kunskap måste spridas till berörda makthavare och beslutsfattare för att anpassa regelverket. I produktionsfasen finns behov av ett miljömässigt hållbart foder samt ökad teknisk kunskap. Tekniken är kostsam vilket gör det svårt att lära sig genom misslyckade försök till fiskodling i pilotskala. En testbädd anpassad för landbaserad fiskodling kan stödja företag som vill utveckla eller förändra sitt system. Små producenter har svårt att hitta praktiska lösningar för deras produktion, t.ex. vad gäller slakt och filétering. Två möjliga lösningar är att bilda ett kooperativ och/eller mobila system som riktar sig till små producenter. Konkurrensen på marknaden är hård eftersom landbaserad fisk konkurrerar med storskaliga fiskodlingar i Norge och Asien. Problemet kan lösas med en särskild märkning och certifiering samt genom att öka konsumenternas medvetenhet och kunskap.

    Några av dessa lösningar kan användas till samtliga studerade livsmedelsvärdekedjor. Värdekedjorna kan ses som ett pussel med många bitar där alla bitar måste falla på rätt plats för att en utveckling ska ske. Därför är det nödvändigt att öka samarbetet mellan aktörer, men också att ha en drivande aktör som koordinerar samarbetet. Aktörerna inom värdekedjan har ofta inte kapacitet att driva det arbetet, särskilt inte små aktörer. Kooperativ ser ut att vara en möjlig lösning för de studerade livsmedelsvärdekedjorna. Likaså kan logistiken i värdekedjorna förbättras. Det här projektet fokuserade på värdekedjor där slutprodukten utgörs av ett livsmedel, men att undersöka möjligheten att skapa andra typer av produkter kan vara värdefullt.

    Metodiken som användes i det här projektet kan användas för andra värdekedjor med potential att utvecklas. Det skulle hjälpa aktörerna att få en tydlig bild över förekommande flaskhalsar och underlätta kontakten mellan aktörer. Listan över flaskhalsar kan följas upp och användas som indikator för att utvärdera om utvecklingen av värdekedjan går åt rätt håll.

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  • 3.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Follow the herring – A case study on the interplay between management and markets for marine resource utilization2023Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 158, artikel-id 105874Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood offers opportunities for more sustainable diets through having a generally high nutritional value at lower environmental pressures relative to other animal protein. Opportunities for, and challenges of, seafood production and consumption are however context dependent. Here, a case study of Swedish fisheries for Atlantic herring Clupea harengus in the Baltic Sea is added to the scientific discourse. Motivated from a heated public debate in Sweden, the purpose is to provide a first sustainability assessment of current value chains: direct consumption versus fish meal and oil production. The case study highlights the importance of taking a value chain perspective for seafood from capture fisheries – i.e., the prerequisites, constraints and opportunities for different actors – and pay attention to misaligned economic incentives that may conflict sustainable use. Although lower greenhouse gas emissions, higher nutritional value, more affordable seafood for consumers and higher economic value for fishermen may be achieved by direct consumption of herring, several challenges exist. These include above all an urgent need to safeguard sustainable and equitable fisheries exploitation; current management is increasingly eroding opportunities for value chains producing herring for food. It is also vital with realistic expectations; redirecting more herring to direct consumption also requires strategies for how potential health risks can be reduced and consumer interest could increase. Overall, the study illustrates net-effects on marine resource utilization from interplay between actors along the value chain in various ways – with implications and insights of importance for a long-term sustainable Blue Economy. 

  • 4.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Driver svensk konsumtion av odlad lax ökat svenskt industrifiske i Östersjön?2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Does Swedish consumption of farmed salmon drive increase in industrial fisheries in the Baltic Sea?

    Swedish fishing in the Baltic Sea with large vessels to produce fish meal and oil, and the deteriorating conditions for small-scale fishing and herring stocks, has in recent years been heavily debated in media. A link between current large-scale fishing and Swedish consumption of Norwegian salmon is often made, i.e., that Norwegian salmon farming is a driver behind the recent development. The Swedish Fishing Industry Association has therefore commissioned this report with the aim to improve current knowledge. The overarching questions are whether i) there is a dependency, and ii) if Norwegian salmon farming can be considered a driver for Swedish large-scale fishing of herring in the Baltic Sea. It is found that the development from the 1950s needs to be taken into account to fully understand today's situation. The current Swedish fishing fleet in the Baltic Sea is in line with national fisheries’ objectives to make pelagic fishing more efficient, and the development of stocks is in turn governed by the EU Common Fisheries Policy – both independent to both Swedish consumption and Norwegian salmon farming. Several factors affect destination of landings, where an important aspect is quality of the catch. Current fishing pattern, with fewer and larger boats, have resulted in considerably larger landing volumes per vessel – compromising opportunities for processing for direct consumption. The exact link between Swedish fisheries and Norwegian salmon farming is however complicated. The different traceability systems for fish caught for feed versus direct consumption are not integrated, although detailed information "one step forward, one step back" is available from individual actors. This challenge an effective tracing of a certain fish volume caught for fish meal and oil production to the final use. Overall, available data find that the total share of herring (from all waters) in one kilo Norwegian salmon feed is small (3.77%), and a very small fraction is based on fisheries directly destined for fish meal and oil production (0.8%) – the largest share is based on trimmings from processing for direct consumption. However, most of the Swedish landings of herring from the Baltic Sea is directly destined for fishmeal and oil production in Denmark. The largest share of the total production in Denmark goes to aquaculture, mainly to Norway. Conclusions are that i) Norwegian salmon farming does not appear to use herring from the Baltic Sea to a large extent, although a large share of the fish meal and oil production from the Baltic Sea are destined to aquaculture, and ii) it is the fisheries management (EU and Swedish) that has shaped the fishing that exists today by creating the basic conditions. The report concludes with recommendations for follow-up measures to reduce conflict between fishing for feed and direct consumption, and to better ensure full traceability even for fish intended for feed production.

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  • 5.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bastardie, Francois
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ritzau Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Greenhouse gas emissions of seafood from Danish capture fisheries in the Skagerrak, Kattegat, and western Baltic2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in finding sustainable diets is increasing where more attention has been paid to the role of seafoods in recent years. Danish fisheries’ producer organisations are interested in better understanding the carbon footprint and nutritional content of different species caught in Danish fisheries and how they compare to other types of animal-source food. The aim of this report is to place a selection of seafood products from Danish capture fisheries in a sustainable nutrition context. This is done by quantifying their greenhouse gas emissions, inferred from fishing effort, as well as nutritional content and relate findings to previous estimates of other common animal-source foods (farmed salmon, chicken, pork and beef). Furthermore, attempts to identify important drivers and improvement potentials are made. It is found that in terms of nutritional value, fatty fish (herring and farmed salmon) have a higher combined nutrient density than other foods included. Overall, herring and plaice caught in Danish fisheries in the Skagerrak, Kattegat and western Baltic are animal-source foods with lower greenhouse gas emissions than pork, beef, chicken, and farmed salmon. The same results are found for cod compared to pork and beef. Variability within and between gears, fishing areas and over time is however found, indicating improvement potentials. In the Skagerrak and Kattegat, shifting from demersal trawling to Danish seine/other gear types would lower fisheries greenhouse gas emissions considerably, while this potential is smaller in the western Baltic Sea. This partly reflects different targeting patterns, where cod is the main target species in the western Baltic Sea, while it is more a by-catch in crustacean fisheries in the other fishing areas. When results are compared with other fisheries targeting the same species, Danish plaice fisheries are associated with considerably lower fuel use relative to other fisheries for plaice. Results for Danish herring and cod vary depending on fishery, with some fisheries being less efficient than found elsewhere. The outcome for Danish fisheries is in part reflecting the different gears used but could also indicate different stock status, in particular for cod, and different methodological approaches. More detailed analysis, with collection of actual fuel use data for these fisheries instead of using modelled data, would be of interest to allow for further understanding of drivers as well as validation of results.

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  • 6.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensk konsumtion av sjömat2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood has gained increasing attention in discussions on sustainable and healthy diets. This is based on a generally high nutrient content in combination with a comparatively low environmental impact. But there are major differences between different seafoods. Furthermore, information available on Swedish seafood consumption is lacking or associated with uncertainties. Baselines on current consumption are needed to guide consumers and other seafood value chain actors in Sweden. Here Swedish seafood consumption in 2019 is presented, the third RISE report on the topic since 2017. Figures are based on available official statistics on production, import and export supplemented with collected data. The statistics have also been processed, such as grouped by species and recalculated to live weight and edible part by using general conversion factors. Both the previous two RISE reports identified data gaps. This report has therefore strived to reduce the uncertainties and use more data sources as they have been discovered. The methods and data thus differ somewhat between the reports, which implies that the results are not fully comparable. There are also still data gaps. Results show that Swedish consumption of seafood still does not reach the dietary advice by the National Food Agency in Sweden of 2-3 times per week. Furthermore, the overall trend is stable or possibly declining. In 2019, it is estimated that 123 777 tonnes of seafood were available for Swedish consumption in edible form (fillets, peeled and prepared products). This corresponds to an average of 12 kg per person per year (or 230 grams per week, 96 portions per capita). Converted to live weight, this is the equivalent of approximately 276 367 tonnes (or 27 kg per capita). The ten most common species or species groups contributed with over 75 % of the total volume, dominated by salmon, cod, herring and shrimps. The theoretical degree of self-sufficiency is low, 74 % of the volume was imported. Swedish production consists mainly of seafood from commercial fisheries (74 %), of which 3 % came from inland fisheries. Aquaculture contributed 16 % and the remaining from kept catches in recreational fishing. To this end, value chain perspectives – from sea to table – are essential for the sustainable development of the seafood sector. There are opportunities to diversify consumption towards more low impact and nutritious seafoods and increase self-sufficiency, but these shifts need concerted efforts. Consumer studies has shown that many Swedish consumer plan to increase their seafood consumption, and acceptance of more species is increasing. This interest, in combination with the current investments made in research in boosting seafood in Sweden, may offer a momentum to develop more sustainable seafood habits in Sweden.

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  • 7.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Troell, Max
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Frisk med fisk utan risk?: Betydelsen av svensk konsumtion av sjömat för hälsa och miljö2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood is a diverse food commodity, comprising of over 2 500 species from capture fisheries and over 600 species from farming, with vast differences between production methods. Dietary advice often includes recommendations to increase consumption of seafood, based on health benefits and that seafood may be produced with less environmental impacts and resources use compared to many other animal-based foods. However, at the same time, there are frequent media alarms related to potential health risks (some species have diet restrictions) and destructive production practices from both fisheries and aquaculture. As a result, there is often confusion on which seafood to eat or not to eat.The aim of this report is primarily to collate available information on health risks and benefits of Swedish seafood consumption, and to combine this with environmental aspects (focus on carbon footprint).Around 40 seafood products consumed in Sweden were included in the analysis. Potential health risks could only be included qualitatively, since the collected data is risk-based and thus not all products are sampled. It was found that the nutritional content and carbon footprint vastly differ between species. There were also several data gaps identified, such as the need for more detailed data on performance from different production systems. The combined assessment of nutritional value and carbon footprint categorised some species as win-win in terms of nutritional content and environmental pressures (such as small pelagic fish), while others could be more categorised as having less nutritional value and with high environmental costs (such as Northern prawn) respectively.The report provides decision support for further data collection needed to enable combined assessment of nutritional risks, benefits and environmental sustainability of seafood products. Results may be used to discuss suitable level of details of dietary advice.

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  • 8.
    Langeland, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Wocken, Yannic
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Greenhouse gas emissions of rainbow troutfed conventional and novel feeds from Balticregion, evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture production set a new record in 2020, with over 120 million tonnes of production, whichcorresponds to about half of the global seafood consumption. However, Swedish aquacultureproduction is currently low, but slowly increasing. The global aquaculture sector is predicted tocontinue to grow but needs to reduce its environmental footprint. In intensive aquaculture in whichfeed is used, feed inputs often account for the largest share of environmental impacts, thus feeddevelopment is a priority to increase the sustainability of fed aquaculture.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental sustainability implications of shiftingto more regional and circular feed inputs for rainbow trout, by, as a first step, estimating thegreenhouse gas emissions – or carbon footprint- of the novel feed and fish raised on it compared toconventional production. Fish were produced in net pens in Sweden and fed either a conventionalfeed (reference), or an experimental feed in which 60% of the protein content derives from novelingredients (insects, blue mussels, sea squirts and fava bean protein isolate) sourced from the Nordiccountries to replace land animal by-products (i.e. blood meal and poultry by product meal) and soyprotein concentrate.Results show that the novel feed reduces greenhouse gas emissions of one kg of rainbow troutby around 63 %. Fish fed the experimental feed maintained the same growth and economic feedconversion ratio (eFCR) as fish fed the control feed. The reduction is mainly due to the almost 70%lower emissions of the experimental feed; 1.6 kg CO2eq./kg feed compared to 5.4 kg CO2eq./kg feedof the conventional feed. Feeding fish insects reared on plant-based waste streams from the foodindustry, increases the circularity and reduces emissions. However, the modelling choice that somefeed inputs based on side streams with no economic value are free of environmental burden, has astrong influence on the results. Despite shorter transport distances no lower impact of transportscould be found for the experimental feed due to the utilisation of more climate intensive transportmeans/modes. Further, the novel feed ingredients used in the study come from pilot or test scaleproduction plants, with potential to further decrease emissions with optimised processing. Atpresent, the available volumes of these feed inputs are limited which prevents a rapid large-scaleshift of the aquaculture industry. Other sources of uncertainty include the fact that the FCR is basedon a four-month growth trial which might not reflect a complete production cycle. This studyindicates that there is a potential to reduce the carbon footprint of intensive aquaculture by usingalternative protein sources, an important step that shows that it is worthwhile to continue expandingthe analysis to cover also other environmental aspects to avoid shifting burdens between differenttypes of environmental impact.

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  • 9.
    Philis, Gaspard
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Dverdal Jansen, Mona
    Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Norway.
    Gansel, Lars C
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hansen Aas, Grete
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Stene, Anne
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Quantifying environmental impacts of cleaner fish used as sea lice treatments in salmon aquaculture with life cycle assessment2022Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 1992-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing pressure of sea lice, development of multi-resistance to chemotherapeutants, and alternative delousing strategies have been raising concerns about the environmental impacts of salmon farming. Ectoparasitic sea lice and its treatments represent a major bottleneck for the development of the Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. The environmental impacts of different treatments and their contribution to the salmon footprint remain unknown; these processes have been excluded from life cycle assessment (LCA) of farmed salmon. In this work, we apply LCA to quantify the impacts of three different value chains expressed per ton of cleaner fish farmed/fished, distributed, and used. The impacts of farmed lumpfish, farmed wrasse, and fished wrasse are then combined to calculate the footprint of the Norwegian biological lice treatment mix, expressed per ton of salmon produced. We found that wrasse fishing generates considerably lower impacts than farmed lumpfish and, a fortiori, farmed wrasse. The direct comparison of these value chains is compromised since LCA is unable to quantify ecosystem impacts and because cleaner fish delousing efficiencies remain unknown. Overall, the impacts of biological lice treatments have a low contribution to the salmon footprint, suggesting that using this treatment type could be a sound approach to treat salmon. However, such favorable results depend on three critical factors: (1) the efficiency of biological lice treatments needs to be confirmed and quantified; (2) ecosystem impacts should be accounted for; and (3) cleaner fish welfare issues must be addressed. This article met the requirements for a gold-gold JIE data openness badge described at http://jie.click/badges. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 10.
    van Hal, Ollie
    et al.
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    van Zanten, Hannah H.E.
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Schrama, Johan W.
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Kuiper, Kiki
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    de Boer, Imke J.M.
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    The role of fisheries and fish farming in a circular food system in the European Union2023Ingår i: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 43, s. 113-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies that demonstrated animals can contribute to resource efficient food supply, by upcycling low-opportunity-cost feed (LCF), into valuable animal-source food, focussed solely on livestock (ruminants, pigs and poultry). Aquatic animals, however, also make valuable contributions to food supply, especially as they are our main natural source of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) ω-3 fatty acids. Our aim, therefore, was to assess the contribution of capture fisheries and fish farming (salmon and tilapia) to human nutrient supply in EU-28 (before Brexit), when feeding no biomass from arable land or waterbodies but only LCF to livestock and farmed fish. To this aim, we deployed an optimisation model allocating available LCF in the EU under various scenarios, to that combination of fish and livestock that maximises human digestible protein supply, while meeting human requirements of vitamin B12 and EPA + DHA. We found that capture fisheries could fulfil maximally around 40 % of daily per capita EPA + DHA requirements in EU28. This contribution would already require rebuilding fish stocks and prioritising edible fish for human consumption. To meet our EPA + DHA requirements we, thus, need to additionally farm fatty fish (salmon). Our results show that, when feeding only LCF, these fatty fish depend on by-products from fisheries to meet their own EPA + DHA requirements and on livestock slaughter by-products to meet their high protein requirements. Feeding livestock by-products to farmed fish, however, is not common practice due to concerns about consumer acceptance. We also demonstrate that upcycling LCF into valuable human food requires a proper balance of different farmed fish and livestock systems, tailored to the available LCF and desired nutrient supply to the human population. Overall, our results provide insights into the role of aquatic animals across land and water to human nutrient supply and give a direction for strategic sustainability development of both capture fisheries and fish farming. 

  • 11.
    Warwas, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Langeland, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Roques, Jonathan A. C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Montjouridès, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smeets, Jolie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundh, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Elisabeth
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundell, Kristina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fish processing side streams are promising ingredients in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) – Effects on growth physiology, appetite, and intestinal health2023Ingår i: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the growth of aquaculture and the finite supply of fishmeal and oil, alternative marine protein and lipid sources are highly sought after. Particularly promising is the use of side streams from the fish processing industry, allowing for the recovery and retention of otherwise lost nutrients in the food production chain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of three fish processing side streams as fish feed ingredients. The side streams originated from different stages of the production chain, were used without further processing, and included sprat trimmings (heads, frames, viscera), marinated herring (fillets) and mackerel in tomato sauce (fillets and sauce). The three side streams contained moderate levels of protein (28–32% dry matter) and high levels of lipid (34–43%). The sprat trimmings included ca. 29% ash and 1.5% phosphorous which may add value due to the high level of essential minerals but needs to be considered in feed formulations. Three diets were formulated to include 50% of each side stream replacing all fishmeal and ca. 80% of the fish oil of the control diet, which contained 35% fishmeal and 10% fish oil. The diets were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish fed the sprat diet displayed the highest feed intake and growth, and showed no negative effects on the intestinal health. The mackerel side stream displayed a good digestibility but resulted in lower growth rates compared to the sprat trimmings. Fish fed the herring diet, displayed the lowest performance regarding growth, feed intake and digestibility. They further exhibited a reduction in nutrient uptake in both proximal and distal intestine, likely contributing to the observed lower digestibility and growth, and a reduction in plasma ghrelin levels. As part of a circular approach to increase marine lipid and protein production for fish feed, the tested sprat and mackerel side streams are promising raw materials however additional studies using more commercial-like feed formulations are encouraged.

  • 12.
    Warwas, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Veide Vilg, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Langeland, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Roques, Jonathan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hinchcliffe, James
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundh, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Undeland, Ingrid
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundell, Kristina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marine yeast (Candida sake) cultured on herring brine side streams is a promising feed ingredient and omega-3 source for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2023Ingår i: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 571, artikel-id 739448Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for the aquaculture industry is the supply of sustainable feeds. A promising model to achieve this is to utilize circular flows where feed ingredients, such as single cell protein, are cultivated using side streams of the food industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the marine yeast Candida sake, produced on herring brine side streams, as a source of protein and immune stimulant in feed for salmonid fish. The dry C. sake product contained 54% protein (3.3% lysine and 0.8% methionine) and 13% lipids (1.1% eicosapentaenoic, EPA, and 1% docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Four experimental diets were designed and tested in a 9-week feeding trial using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A control diet containing both fish and plant-based ingredients constituted the base feed to which 20% (to evaluate effects on digestibility, growth and intestinal physiology), 20% heat-treated (to evaluate effects of downstream processing) and 3% (to evaluate immune stimulatory properties, replacing 3% soy protein concentrate) C. sake was added. The apparent digestibility coefficient of C. sake for protein, fat and gross energy was above 80%, and for amino acids above 90% regardless of treatment, suggesting a high bioavailability of C. sake. All three yeast containing diets performed equally to the control regarding specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and functional intestinal health. These results suggest that C. sake is a promising alternative protein source for circular feeds in the salmonid industry. The presence of EPA and DHA represents an added value. The heat treatment increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter by 8% but decreased amino acid digestibility by on average 3%, indicating that heat treatment may not be the optimal downstream processing technique. Furthermore, the inclusion of 3% C. sake increased the intestinal lamina propria width and TGF-β transcription, indicating an immune stimulating effect. Future research is needed to understand these immune modulatory effects of C. sake supplementation. © 2023 The Authors

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