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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Larsson, Anders
    SLU, Sweden.
    Malm, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Sörelius, Helene
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Implementering av innovativa systemlösningar för hållbar dagvattenhantering2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Klimatsäkrade systemlösningar för urbana ytor syftar till att stärka städers förmåga att hantera ökad urbanisering och förändrat klimat, bland annat genom att utveckla innovativa systemlösningar för dagvattenhantering. I detta delprojekt har hinder och utmaningar för implementering av innovativa systemlösningar i stadsutvecklingsprocesser identifierats genom intervjuer med sakkunniga teknikexperter samt tjänstepersoner från olika förvaltningar. Som komplement har Svenskt Vattens publikationer P105 (Svenskt Vatten, 2011) och P110 (Svenskt Vatten, 2016) som är branschstandard för dagvattenhantering, samt utvalda kommuners policydokument analyserats för att undersöka hur dessa förhåller sig till innovativa systemlösningar för dagvattenhantering. Teoretisk utgångspunkt har varit studier kring vad som påverkar utveckling och spridning av tekniska innovationssystem (Bergek, 2008; Hellsmark, Bergek, Hellström, & Malmquist, 2014) samt teorier om innovation i offentlig sektor (Mulgan, 2007; Mulgan, 2014; Nählinder, 2013; Nählinder & Fogelberg Eriksson, 2017). De främsta faktorer som har identifierats påverka implementering av systemlösningar för dagvattenhantering är innovationskultur, samverkan vid planering, kunskap och ekonomi. För att överbrygga dessa hinder har rekommendationer för hållbar dagvattenhantering och uppdaterade riktlinjer för utformning av dagvattenstrategi utvecklats. För att underlätta samverkan samt val av dagvattenlösning har även ett beslutsstöd utvecklats för att kunna användas i ett tidigt skede vid planering (Brisvåg, 2017).

  • 2.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Implementation of the Bürger-Diehl settler model on the benchmark simulation platform2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Arnell, Magnus
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Performance assessment of wastewater treatment plants: multi-objective analysis using plant-wide models2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As the knowledge about anthropogenic impacts of climate change has grown, the awareness of the contributions from treatment of wastewater has widened the scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Not only shall ever stricter effluent constraints be met, but also energy efficiency be increased, greenhouse gases mitigated and resources recovered. All under a constant pressure on costs. The main objective of this research has been to develop a plant-wide modelling tool to evaluate the performance of operational strategies for multiple objectives at the plant and for off-site environmental impact.

    The plant-wide model platform Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been modified to improve the evaluation of energy efficiency and include greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, the plant-wide process model has been coupled to a life cycle analysis (LCA) model for evaluation of global environmental impact. For energy evaluation, a dynamic aeration system model has been adapted and implemented. The aeration model includes oxygen transfer efficiency, dynamic pressure in the distribution system and non-linear behaviour of blower performance. To allow for modelling of energy recovery via anaerobic co-digestion the digestion model of BSM2 was updated with a flexible co-digestion model allowing for dynamic co-substrate feeds. A feasible procedure for substrate characterisation was proposed. Emissions of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O were considered. The bioprocess model in BSM2 was updated with two-step nitrification, four-step denitrification and nitrifier denitrification to capture N2O production. Fugitive emissions of the three gases were included from digestion, cogeneration and sludge storage. The models were tested in case studies for the three areas of development: aeration, co-digestion and greenhouse gas production. They failed to reject the hypothesis that dynamic process models are required to assess the highly variable operations of wastewater treatment plants. All parts were combined in a case study of the Käppala WWTP in Lidingö, Sweden, for comparison of operational strategies and evaluation of stricter effluent constraints. The averaged model outputs were exported to an LCA model to include off-site production of input goods and impact of discharged residues and wastes. The results reveal trade-offs between water quality, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and abiotic depletion of elemental and fossil resources.

    The developed tool is generally applicable for WWTPs and the simulation results from this type of combined models create a good basis for decision support.

  • 4.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande. Lund University, Sweden.
    Saagi, Ramesh
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plant-wide modelling and analysis of WWTP temperature dynamics for sustainable heat recovery from wastewater2021Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 84, nr 4, s. 1023-1036Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater heat recovery upstream of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) poses a risk to treatment performance, i.e. the biological processes. In order to perform a sustainability analysis, a detailed prediction of the temperature dynamics over the WWTP is needed. A comprehensive set of heat balance equations was included in a plant-wide process model and validated for the WWTP in Linköping, Sweden, to predict temperature variations over the whole year in a temperate climate. A detailed model for the excess heat generation of biological processes was developed. The annual average temperature change from influent to effluent was 0.78°C with clear seasonal variations, wherein 45% of the temperature change arose from processes other than the activated sludge unit. To address this, plant-wide energy modelling was necessary to predict in-tank temperature in the biological treatment steps. The energy processes with the largest energy gains were solar radiation and biological processes, while the largest losses were from conduction, convection, and atmospheric radiation. Tanks with large surface areas showed a significant impact on the heat balance regardless of biological processes. Simulating a 3°C lower influent temperature, the temperature in the activated sludge unit dropped by 2.8°C, which had a negative impact on nitrogen removal

  • 5.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019). Lund University, Sweden.
    Astals, Sergi
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jensen, Paul D.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling anaerobic co-digestion in Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2:parameter estimation, substrate characterisation and plant-wide integration2016Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 98, s. 138-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion is an emerging practice at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to improve the energy balance and integrate waste management. Modelling of co-digestion in a plant-wide WWTP model is a powerful tool to assess the impact of co-substrate selection and dose strategy on digester performance and plant-wide effects. A feasible procedure to characterise and fractionate co-substrates COD for the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) was developed. This procedure is also applicable for the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). Long chain fatty acid inhibition was included in the ADM1 model to allow for realistic modelling of lipid rich co-substrates. Sensitivity analysis revealed that, apart from the biodegradable fraction of COD, protein and lipid fractions are the most important fractions for methane production and digester stability, with at least two major failure modes identi fied through principal component analysis (PCA). The model and procedure were tested on bio-methane potential (BMP) tests on three substrates, each rich on carbohydrates, proteins or lipids with good predictive capability in all three cases. This model was then applied to a plant-wide simulation study which confirmed the positive effects of co-digestion on methane production and total operational cost. Simulations also revealed the importance of limiting the protein load to the anaerobic digester to avoid ammonia inhibition in the digester and overloading of the nitrogen removal processes in the water train. In contrast, the digester can treat relatively high loads of lipid rich substrates without prolonged disturbances.

  • 6.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management. Lund University, Sweden.
    Astals, Sergi
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jensen, Paul
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Substrate fractionation for modelling of anaerobic co-digestion with a plant-wide perspective2016Ingår i: 5th IWA/WEF Wastewater Treatment Modelling Seminar (WWTmod2016), 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Lund University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Aeration system modelling - case studies from three full-scale wastewater treatment plants2015Ingår i: 9th IWA Symposium on Systems Analysis and Integrated Assessment (Watermatex 2015), 2015, artikel-id 10.4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The water train of three WWTPs have been modelled following the procedures of the Benchmark Simulation Model (BSM) platform (Gernaey et al., 2014). Additionally the aeration system has been modelled to evaluate airflows and energy performance. The results for the airflow model are presented. The chosen airflow model is shown to be easy to apply and calibrate and robust for practical modelling cases. By simply adjusting the SOTE-polynomial, number of diffusors and airflow limitations the model replicates the real data at a level of detail suitable for most purposes where the evaluation is based on longer time averages. For peak demand evaluation the whole treatment model with influent characterization, model calibration and controllers need to be more detailed than done here. Modelling the airflow is important to allow for evaluation of air consumption, aeration energy performance and for communication of simulation results to plant staff and operators.

  • 8.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Modellering av avloppsreningsverk för multikriteriebedömning av prestanda och miljöpåverkan2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att använda detaljerade dynamiska modeller och kombinera resultat från årslånga simuleringar av ARV (såväl vatten- som slamlinjer) med livscykelanalys kan olika driftstrategier utvecklas och utvärderas utifrån en bred uppsättning hållbarhetskriterier fö att maximera resursutvinning och energieffektivitet samtidigt som vattenkvalitén bibehålls och driftskostnaderna kontrolleras. Metodiken har tillämpats vid en omfattande fallstudie av Käppalaverket.

  • 9.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lund university, Sweden.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Sustainability Analysis forWastewater Heat Recovery - Literature Review2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report describes the literature review conducted on wastewater heat recovery (WWHR). As part of the urban water cycle, domestic hot water consumes the lion share – up to 90 % – of the total energy requirement for water management. Individual energy consumption of 780 to 1 150 kWh/cay/yr has been estimated in Sweden. Energy can be recovered from wastewater, in buildings close to the source or further downstream in the wastewater system. Depending on wastewater flow and temperature heat exchangers or heat pumps (or a combination of both) can be used for extracting heat the energy. Obstacles for utilizing this potential are for example: clogging and fouling of equipment, potentially negative system impacts and economic feasibility. Examples of various WWHR implementations have been found in Sweden, Switzerland and North America. Some installations have been running for a long time and technical function and financial viability has been evaluated and are reviewed in the report. Generally, heat pumps reach a coefficient of performance of 3 to 7, better the higher the wastewater temperature is, i.e. further up-stream.

    WWHR application in a wastewater system can be modelled. The domestic hot water requirement and associated energy use has been modelled previously and concepts can be adapted for modelling the larger system. Equations for calculating performance and output variables from heat recovery equipment have been reviewed and is presented. For the purpose of assessing single WWHR installations in sewers, detailed models have been developed and presented. There are reviewed in the text. Concepts for estimating temperature variations in sewers are essential to assess the impact on wastewater treatment plants. Performance of wastewater treatment plants and their temperature dependence can be modelled with existing process models. Temperature variations along the course of the treatment plant might be important to consider.

    In Sweden, there are currently some regulations related to WWHR. The temperature of hot water systems in buildings are regulated to prevent Legionella outbreaks. Furthermore, the practice of WWHR is limited in extent and requires a permit from the utility as by the contract between the consumer and the utility. Currently, this limits the implementation of WWHR in Sweden.

  • 10.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Evaluating Environmental Performance of Operational Strategies at Wastewater Treatment Plants2016Ingår i: IWA World Water Congress and Exhibition 2016 (IWA 2016), 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objectiveperformance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluationof modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also, resourceefficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost callsfor assessment methods including both on and off-site effects. In this study amethod combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions and detailed energy models – and life cycle assessment was developed.The method is applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performanceassessment study changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primarytreatment was performed and evaluated. The results show that the primaryobjectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce greenhouse gasemissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the globalwarming potential (GWP) decreased by 28%. However, the LCA revealed that due toincreased consumption of precipitation chemicals and additional carbon sourcedosing (methanol) the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil re-sourcesincreased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasise the importance ofusing plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture thedynamics of the plant – e.g. dynamics of GHG emissions – and the potentialglobal environmental impact.

  • 11.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lunds university, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Multi-objective performance assessment of wastewatertreatment plants combining plant-wide process modelsand life cycle assessment2017Ingår i: Journal of Water and Climate Change, ISSN 20402244, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 715-729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective performance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluation of modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also resource efficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost calls for assessment methods including both on- and off-site effects. In this study, a method combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG), detailed energy models and operational cost – and life cycle assessment (LCA) was developed. The method was applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performance assessment study, changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primary treatment was evaluated. The results show that the primary objectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce GHG emissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the global warming potential decreased by 28%. However, due to increased consumption of chemicals, the operational cost increased by 87% and the LCA revealed that the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil resources increased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasize the importance of using plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture both the dynamics of the plant and the potential environmental impacts.

  • 12.
    Borchling, Alexander
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kroner, Corinna
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Akselli, Basak
    Turkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Arastirma, Turkey.
    Benková, Miroslava
    Cesky Metrologicky Institut, Czech Republic.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Christoffersen, Nikki
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Haack, Søren
    Teknologisk Institut Kongsvang, Denmark.
    Seypka, Veit
    DVGW - Technologiezentrum, Germany.
    Warnecke, Heiko
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Die Welt der Wasserzähler im Wandel2023Ingår i: GWF, Wasser - Abwasser, ISSN 0016-3651, Vol. 2023, nr 6, s. 89-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Like everywhere else, time does not stand still for water meters. The requirements change, whether through technological progress, e.g., through the use of electronic meters, or changes in drinking water consumption. A revision of relevant normative documents is currently taking place at the international level. Against this background, various studies have been carried out in recent years and infrastructure has been built up with which the measurement behaviour of water meters can be examined more closely under real operating conditions, even at the laboratory level. This article presents the infrastructure. Furthermore, two current studies on the measurement behaviour of water meters are presented. In these studies, the effect of water quality and the effect of discrete measurements on the measurement accuracy of electronic water meters were investigated. 

  • 13.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Snow pollution management in urban areas: an idea whose time has come?2021Ingår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, E-ISSN 1744-9006, Vol. 18, nr 10, s. 840-849Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Needs for extending the principles of a sustainable urban drainage approach to the winter season with snow and pollutant accumulations have been so far unanswered. One of the first steps to remedy this situation is to make available a prototype snow management tool (PSMT) described herein. It is a simple empirical spreadsheet tool, as yet untested, which uses generally available input data to simulate accumulation of snow (as snow water equivalent) and pollutants in an urban catchment, intermittent snowmelt episodes, and snow management options including in situ melting, removal from the catchment, treatment of snowmelt by settling, and snow disposal in the receiving waters. The tool output comprises snow and the selected pollutant mass balances, and pollutant concentrations in snowmelt from individual snow deposits. Such data provide decision support for choosing the methods of disposal for individual snow deposits. The testing and refinement of the tool is planned. 

  • 14.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig L
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Harder, Robin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Recovery and reuse of plant nutrients in human excreta and domestic wastewater : Mapping the implementation in practice in Sweden2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 15.
    Karlberg, Marie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Simons, Andrew
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Områdesanalys om hållbar hantering av processvatten i den biobaserade industrin2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vatten är en viktig resurs för den biobaserade industrin och många processer använder stora mängder vatten. Ett proaktivt arbete mot en effektivare processvattenanvändning ger bättre förutsättningar att möta framtida krav på en hållbar resurshushållning. Syftet med områdesanalysen är att kartlägga den biobaserade förädlingsindustrins behov och utmaningar med avseende på industrivattenanvändning och rening.Ökade krav på resurseffektivitet för vatten finns tydligt beskrivet i kommande lagstiftning och kunderna ställer tydligare krav på redovisning av vattenanvändningen.Samtidigt är Sverige ett land med stora vattentillgångar och det finns generellt gott om vatten. Förutsättningarna varierar dock kraftigt och tillgången varierar geografiskt. I sydöstra Sverige har man i många områden begränsade vattentillgångar och vattenbrist är ett faktum under vissa torrår. Ett förändrat klimat kommer att medföra förändringar i vattentillgången. Generellt kommer Sverige att få mer nederbörd i snitt över året. Men i landets sydöstra delar kommer en ökad temperatur och avdunstning medföra längre perioder av torka och lägre vattenflöden.En intressentanalys har genomförts med ett antal intervjuer och två rundabordssamtal. Syftet med intervjuerna är att få verksamhetsutövarnas syn på och inställningen till aspekter så som hållbar vattenanvändning, riskmedvetenhet, andel av vatten som cirkuleras internt i processen, sambanden mellan vattenförbrukning och energi. Vid intressentdialogen framkom behov av att samverka mer med andra aktörer i ens närområde, för att få en större förståelse kring hur förutsättningarna för vattentillgången kommer att förändras och vilken roll som den egna verksamheten spelar i den totala tillgången till vatten. Det framkom även behov av att kunna visa på vinster och risker med att minska vattenanvändningen samt dess påverkan på processer. Ofta saknas tillgång till metoder, tid och/eller kompetens för att på ett överskådligt sätt koppla samman vattenanvändning och energiförbrukning, och kunna visa på incitament och potentialen för effektiviseringar. Det finns en önskan att arbeta mer proaktivt och långsiktigt med fråganän vad man kan idag. Här behövs stöd i form av simuleringsmodeller för vattenanvändning som kopplar vatten- och energianvändning, samt ger en kostnadsanalys och ett investeringsunderlag.Rekommendationen för kommande arbete är att industri och forskare arbetartillsammans med att utveckla och demonstrera tekniker som möjliggör en helhetsförståelse av vatten, energi och kostnadsrelationer. Verktygen behöver vara ändamålsenliga utan att vara dyra att använda. Det finns också behov av tydligare standarder och specifikationer för skadliga ämnens påverkan i massa- och pappersprocesser. Då kan behovet av stora säkerhetsmarginaler med avseende på vattenkvalitet minska, vilket skulle medföra att överdimensionerade system med högre vattenanvändning kan undvikas.

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  • 16.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    VIVAB Vatten och Miljö i Väst, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    VIVAB Vatten och Miljö i Väst, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lunds university, Sweden.
    New insights on process performance and stability for anaerobic co-digestion through modelling and population analysis2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) allows for underutilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), e.g. food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper focuses on the implementation of codigestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment and OFMSW through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process and an increase of the biomethane production of 20 to 40% with 50% OFMSW and it has an impact on the microbial community. The methanogenic activity increases and changes towards acetate degradation while the community without co-substrate remains unaffected. The modelling results show that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in digester performance due to varying inhibition. Modelling can be successfully used for designing feed strategies and experimental set-ups for anaerobic co-digestion.

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  • 17.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludge and Organic FoodWaste — Performance, Inhibition, and Impact on theMicrobial Community2018Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikel-id 2325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion allows for under-utilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), i.e., food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper investigates the co-digestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment plants and OFMSW, through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling, and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process, and an increase of the biomethane production by 20% to 40%, when codigesting mixed sludge with OFMSW at a ratio of 1:1, based on the volatile solids (VS) content. The introduction of OFMSW also has an impact on the microbial community. With 50% co-substrate and constant loading conditions (1 kg VS/m3/d) the methanogenic activity increases and adapts towards acetate degradation, while the community in the reference reactor, without a co-substrate, remains unaffected. An elevated load (2 kg VS/m3/d) increases the methanogenic activity in both reactors, but the composition of the methanogenic population remains constant for the reference reactor. The modelling shows that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads, and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in the digester performance, due to varying inhibition. The paper demonstrates how modelling can be used for designing feed strategies and experimental setups for anaerobic co-digestion.

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  • 18.
    Klingberg, Josefine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Kusoffsky, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Förstudie för testbädd för dagvattenanläggningar2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness of, and need for, limiting the discharge of pollutants from stormwater to recipients is growing. However, it is a complex decision for customers to choose stormwater facilities as there is a variety of technical solutions on the market that often are marketed by the manufacturer with high levels of purification and little need for maintenance. In Sweden, there is currently no national standard for tests of the purification function of stormwater facilities. There are also no test sites for standardized third-party tests.   

    This project is a prestudy of a testbed for prefabricated compact stormwater facilities. The testbed will, when constructed, be able to ease the decision-making process of selection of measures for sustainable stormwater management. The testbed will also give manufacturers the opportunity to test and verify the function of their solutions under standardized conditions. 

    In parallel with this project, a project has been carried out with the aim of updating the proposed standard for prefabricated compact stormwater facilities with the goal of a new Swedish national standard. The purpose of the planned testbed is to perform tests according to the proposed standard. 

    The prestudy has been carried out through three project objectives: 

    1. Three different options for possible placement of a test bed have been investigated and compared. The alternatives are (1) integrate into the existing test bed for small-scale sewage treatment in Uppsala, (2) construct the test bed next to the RISE office and workshop in Uppsala and (3) construct the test bed as a mobile container solution that can be placed according to alternative 1 or 2 for independent testing, borrowed to technology manufacturers for development work or placed in fields for technology evaluation or research projects. 

    2. Examine how the test bed should be constructed to achieve a layout according to the proposed standard. 

    3. Through an interview study, gather experiences from six existing and/or previous testbeds in the VA technology area to learn lessons/avoid similar mistakes. 

    Together with the parallel project to develop the proposed standard, a workshop with approximately 30 participants and a questionnaire study with 12 participants have been carried out.

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  • 19.
    Lindahl, Lina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Simons, Andrew
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Gervind, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Vattenanvändning och möjligheter till vattenbesparing hos kemiklustret i Stenungsund2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Water use and opportunities for water savings at the chemical industry cluster in Stenungsund Water scarcity is a growing problem in Sweden, as well as internationally, due to increasing demand for water and the impact of climate change. This is the case in Stenungsund where the ability for the municipality and industry to expand is limited by the availability of water from the local lake, Stora Hällungen. Working with the four largest industrial sites in the Stenungsund industrial cluster, Perstorp, Nouryon, Borealis and INOVYN, this project focused on mapping water use in the cluster by testing and further developing a tool for mapping of water use in industry. The flow of water through the industrial sites, its uses, treatment approaches and aggregated water quality data were included in the mapping and is presented using visual outputs generated from the tool. A methodology for water quality assessment and grouping was also developed and included in the tool. Results of the mapping were used as foundation to investigate opportunities for water savings through improved efficiency and reuse of wastewater streams. Measures to improve water efficiency include minimisation of the volume of reject water in treatment processes, sequence optimisation for reducing water use in cleaning and optimisation of steam and cooling systems. Opportunities for water reuse include the reuse of wastewater or stormwater for cooling at Perstorp and the Borealis PE site, and the recirculation of wastewater from the Borealis Cracker. Critically, the incentives for individual companies to implement water savings and reuse measures are a decisive factor in their implementation. Given this, a next step from this work would be to conduct a more comprehensive risk analysis to investigate future needs of the various stakeholders with respect to water and water supply risks. From these results a pinch analysis considering water quality could also be conducted to find further opportunities for water reuse.

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  • 20.
    Lindblom, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Vatten, Swden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Modellering av lustgasemissioner från SBR- och anammoxprocesser för rejektvattenbehandling2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Macura, Biljana
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Thomas, James
    UCL Institute of Education, UK.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    McConville, Jennifer
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Seddon, Dan
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Harder, Robin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Technologies for recovery and reuse of plant nutrients from human excreta and domestic wastewater: a protocol for a systematic map and living evidence platform2021Ingår i: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research and development on the recovery and reuse of nutrients found in human excreta and domestic wastewater has intensified over the past years, continuously producing new knowledge and technologies. However, research impact and knowledge transfer are limited. In particular, uptake and upscaling of new and innovative solutions in practice remain a key challenge. Achieving a more circular use of nutrients thus goes beyond technological innovation and will benefit from a synthesis of existing research being readily available to various stakeholders in the field. The aim of the systematic map and online evidence platform described in this protocol is threefold. First, to collate and summarise scientific research on technologies that facilitate the recovery and reuse of plant nutrients and organic matter found in human excreta and domestic and municipal wastewater. Second, to present this evidence in a way that can be easily navigated by stakeholders. Third, to report on new relevant research evidence to stakeholders as it becomes available. Methods: Firstly, we will produce a baseline systematic map, which will consist of an extension of two previous related syntheses. In a next stage, with help of machine learning and other automation technologies, the baseline systematic map will be transformed into ‘living mode’ that allows for a continually updated evidence platform. The baseline systematic map searches will be performed in 4 bibliographic sources and Google Scholar. All searches will be performed in English. Coding and meta-data extraction will include bibliographic information, locations as well as the recovery and reuse pathways. The living mode will mostly rely on automation technologies in EPPI-Reviewer and the Microsoft Academic database. The new records will be automatically identified and ranked in terms of eligibility. Records above a certain ‘cut-off’ threshold will be manually screened for eligibility. The threshold will be devised based on the empirically informed machine learning model. The evidence from the baseline systematic map and living mode will be embedded in an online evidence platform that in an interactive manner allows stakeholders to visualise and explore the systematic map findings, including knowledge gaps and clusters. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 22.
    McConville, J. R.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Niwagaba, C. B.
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Possibilities for changing to resource recovery in Kampala's on-site sanitation regime2022Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 181, artikel-id 106275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressure is growing to develop innovative decentralized sanitation systems that protect public health and recover resources. This study evaluates the opportunities for niche technologies focusing on nutrient resource recovery to enter the market in Greater Kampala, Uganda. It applies methodology from sustainability transition studies in a novel way to provide new insights into possibilities for change in the on-site sanitation sector. The study 1) characterizes the existing socio-technical regime for on-site sanitation, 2) identify stress points in the regime and 3) possible advantages for the niches. Assessment of the regime covers technology, epistemic practice, sector values, organisational modes, policy and financing. The niches include urine diversion toilets, on-site resource recovery, and container-based models. The on-site sanitation regime is under performing and the niches all offer advantages for improved service and resource use. However, it will be difficult for the niches to break into a sector in which epistemic practice, organisational modes and financing are heavily dominated by the sewage regime. Recommendations for creating a more open environment for innovation are provided for specific stakeholders. © 2022 The Authors

  • 23.
    Nicolaidis Lindqvist, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fornell, Rickard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Prade, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Khalil, Sammar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tufvesson, Linda
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kopainsky, Birgit
    University of Bergen, Sweden.
    Impacts of future climate on local water supply and demand – A socio-hydrological case study in the Nordic region2022Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, E-ISSN 2214-5818, Vol. 41, artikel-id 101066Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study region: Fårö island, part of Region Gotland, Sweden. Study focus: Despite its importance for proactive planning and management, understanding of how future climate and socioeconomic trends may interact to influence water supply and demand at sub-regional scale remains limited for the Nordic region. We aim to close this knowledge gap by developing a combined social and hydrological simulation model for Fårö island in the Baltic Sea. We use multivariate Monte Carlo simulations to explore the effects of future climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) on local groundwater supplies, and subsequent impacts on the housing sector, tourism sector, and municipal water supply system in the period 2020–2050. New hydrological insights for the region: Our results suggest that groundwater storage will remain critically low in the coming 30 years, with a 60–70% probability of the groundwater head falling to lower levels than experienced in the past 60 years. Low water availability and widespread saltwater intrusion will constrain housing and tourism development by up to 11% and 30% respectively. To sustain growth, the tourist sector will become increasingly reliant on water from private wells, and supplementary water deliveries from neighboring regions will be required to meet water demand on the municipal grid. © 2022 The Authors

  • 24.
    Nilsson Påledal, Sören
    et al.
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Moestedt, Jan
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Engelbrektsson, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Stensen, Katarina
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG)2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 145, s. 424-430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty.Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L.

  • 25.
    Pettersson Skog, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Johansen, Ann
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Farquharson, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Stenbeck, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Kvalitetskriterier för regnbäddssubstrat2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality criteria for rainbed substrates

    Rainbeds are an increasingly common feature of the urban environment, managing stormwater while greening the cityscape and reducing impervious surfaces. The function of rainbeds can be both to retain and purify stormwater before the water is further infiltrated or led to a recipient. However, rainbeds can also leach nutrients, as shown by previous projects that have looked at the quality of outgoing water from rainbeds. Today, there are no quality criteria to ensure the functionality of rainbeds and rainbed substrates. In an interview study, and in a questionnaire study, different professional groups (designers, clients, stormwater experts and researchers, etc.) who work with rainbeds were asked how they see the need for quality criteria, which criteria are most important, how guideline values and reduction factors can be developed and desirable channels for communicating quality criteria. It has been clear that guidance is in demand by the industry and that it is desirable to have some form of industry standard that can be published in AMA or as a publication by Svenskt Vatten, or similar. The criteria that were considered most important varied with different professional groups, but they agreed that different requirements should be set for different purposes of the rain garden. In an international analysis, international representatives were also interviewed about how possible quality criteria are applied in each country. Four Swedish substrate producers also contributed a total of 10 different samples of their rainbed substrates. These were sent for analysis together with a substrate developed according to recommendations from research on rainbed substrates, which was used as a reference. One purpose of the analyses was to characterize the rainbed substrates. Another aim was to see how the different methods correlate - whether more complicated and timeconsuming analyses can be replaced by simpler ones. The analytical methods to be performed were decided after discussions with routine labs about suitable and available methods. The methods chosen were two different nutrient analyses: AL analysis and Spurway analysis, and two different leaching tests, namely shake tests and column tests. The shake tests were done at L/S 2 and L/S 10 and repeated twice with the leachate. The column tests were performed on three substrates at L/S 0.1; 0.2; 0.5; 1, 2, 5 and 10. The focus of the evaluation was on nutrient content and leaching. The nutrient content was evaluated based on guideline values for nutrient content according to AMA and Hässelby-Skälby garden laboratory. The leaching was evaluated based on guideline values for the city of Gothenburg and guideline values according to the guideline group, level 3VU. The elements that exceeded the guideline values were mainly cadmium, copper, phosphorus and nitrogen. The phosphorus leaching exceeded the guideline values in all substrates at L/S 2 and only the reference substrate was below the guideline values at L/S 10. In the repeated leaching, the phosphorus content gradually decreased but did not fall below the detection limit in any of the substrates except in the reference substrate at the last leaching. It should be emphasized that although the leached content was above the guideline limits, the leached amounts were in the order of mg/kg DM, which corresponds to g/ton DM substrate. One conclusion is that the substrates available on the market today have been developed mostly to contribute to the retention of stormwater and to get the vegetation to grow. The substrates have a completely different character than what is recommended by research. Another conclusion is that it has not yet been established which analysis method is best suited to form the basis of quality criteria.

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  • 26.
    Saagi, R.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Reyes, D.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Jeppsson, U.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling temperature dynamics in sewer systems – Comparing mechanistic and conceptual modelling approaches2021Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 84, nr 9, s. 2335-2352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of the energy consumed for urban water services is used to heat tap water. Heat recovery from wastewater is consequently an area of rapidly growing concern, both in research and by commercial interest, promoting the path towards a circular economy. To facilitate a system-wide evaluation of heat recovery from wastewater, this paper compares two one-dimensional models (mechanistic and conceptual) that can describe wastewater temperature dynamics in sewer pipe systems. The models are applied to successfully predict downstream wastewater temperature for sewer stretches in two Swedish cities (Linköping and Malmö). The root mean squared errors for the mechanistic model (Linköping Dataset1 – 0.33 °C; Linköping Dataset2 – 0.28 °C; Malmö – 0.40 °C) and the conceptual model (Linköping Dataset1 – 0.32 °C; Linköping Dataset2 – 0.20 °C; Malmö – 0.44 °C) indicate that both models have similar predictive capabilities, encouraging the use of conceptual models to reduce data requirements and model calibration efforts. Both models are freely distributed and can be easily integrated with wastewater generation and treatment models to facilitate system-wide wastewater temperature dynamics analysis. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 27.
    Saagi, R.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande. Lund University, Sweden.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande. Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Jeppsson, U.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    City-wide model-based analysis of heat recovery from wastewater using an uncertainty-based approach2022Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 820, artikel-id 153273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 90% of the energy requirement for urban water systems management is for heating domestic tap water. In addition, the energy content of wastewater is mainly in the form of heat (85%). Hence, there is an obvious interest in recovering a large portion of this heat. However, city-wide scenario analyses that evaluate heat recovery at various locations while considering impacts on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) performance are currently very limited. This study presents a comprehensive model-based city-wide evaluation considering four different heat recovery locations (appliance, household, precinct and WWTP effluent) for a Swedish city with varying degrees of implementation using an uncertainty-based approach. Results show that heat recovery at the appliance level, with heat exchangers installed at 77% of the showers at domestic households, leads to a mean energy recovery of 127 MWh/day with a 0.25 °C reduction in mean WWTP inlet temperature compared to the default case without heat recovery. The highest mean temperature reduction compared to the default case is 1.5 °C when heat is recovered at the precinct level for 77% of the domestic wastewater flow rate. Finally, the impact on WWTP nitrification capacity is negligible in this case due to its large existing capacity and design. © 2022 The Authors

  • 28.
    Saagi, Ramesh
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Arnell, Magnus
    Upstream heat recovery impacts on Käppala WWTP performance - Model-based analysis combining sewer tunnel and WWTP2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 29.
    Schade, Jutta
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Borris, Matthias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    von Scherling, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lönnqvist, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stenvall, Brita
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Miljöinvestering och återbetalning av gröna tak – verktyg och jämförelser med ett livscykelperspektiv2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bygg- och anläggningssektorn står för 20% av Sveriges klimatutsläpp. Klimatpåverkan kommer främst från tillverkningen av material och produkter samt från utsläppen relaterade till driftsfasen. Enligt färdplanen för bygg- och anläggningssidan är målen 50% minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser för 2030 och för 2045 är målen en netto noll utsläpp. För att nå framtidens klimatmål är det viktigt att verifiera att material och tekniker som används för byggnader är hållbara och har minimal miljöpåverkan. Målet med detta projekt har varit att lägga till ett brett livscykelperspektiv för att kvantifiera byggnaders energi-och och växthusgasutsläpp. Detta inkludera hållbara material från uppströmsflödet av byggprocessen och energi från driftsfasen. Detta inkludera även hållbara tekniker, så som gröna tak och träbaserade byggande och hållbar infrastruktur, så som dagvattensystem på distriktsnivå. Hypotesen var att gröna tak kan ha en högre miljöpåverkan och utsläppen av växthusgaser eftersom det behövs mer material för gröna tak jämfört med ett standardtak. Däremot kan gröna tak minska dagvattenflöde genom upptag och avdunstning av dagvatten vilket kan minska risken för hydraulisk överbelastning i anslutna dagvattensystem. Detta kan leda till mindre miljöpåverkan och utsläpp av växthusgaser eftersom det behövs mindre material för dagvattenledningar. Detta an leda till betydligt minskade klimatutsläpp om en uppgradering av befintliga system inte är nödvändig. För att utvärdera denna komplexa fråga utvecklades ett ramverk som kombinerar konstruktionsmodellering, energisimulering, modellering av dagvattensystem och livscykelanalys. Ramverket har testades på en väl isolerad byggnad med gröna tak och dess dagvattenhantering. Resultatet av denna teoretiska studie indikerar att gröna tak minskar och fördröja dagvatten vid lågintensiva regn, men vid en intensive regn är gröna tak i de flesta fall inte tillräckliga för att minska risken för hydraulisk överbelastning i anslutna dagvattensystem. Undersökning visar att en väl isolerade byggnad med ett grönt tak i skandinaviskt kallt klimat leder till en försumbar energibesparing. Resultaten visar även att gröna tak har i dag ett lika stort klimatavtryck som konventionella tak, så som tak med betongpannor. Utbyte av dagvattenledningar har ett relativt stort klimatavtryck; till exempel utgör 250 m av dagvattenledningar med diameter 1m lika stor klimatpåverkan som att bygga ett hus på 140 m2 . Därför rekommenderas samordning och samförläggning av ledningar för teknisk infrastruktur för en resurseffektiv planering och för att minska klimatavtryck genom grävning.

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  • 30.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Klingberg, Josephine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Zadeh, Noor
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Rosén, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindhe, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The value of water—estimating water-disruption impacts on businesses2021Ingår i: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, nr 11, artikel-id 1565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As water serves as a necessary and often irreplaceable input in a range of goods and services, a disruption in water supply can cause lost production and sales for businesses. Thus, large benefits may be generated by reducing the risk of water disruptions. To enable selection of economically viable risk mitigation measures, the investment costs should be weighed against the benefits of risk mitigation. Consequently, quantitative estimates of the consequences of disruptions need to be available. However, despite the importance of water to businesses, the literature on their financial losses due to short and long-term water disruptions is still scarce. The aim of this paper is to estimate time-dependent water supply resiliency factors for economic sectors, i.e., a metric focusing on the level of output that businesses can uphold during a disruption, to contribute to better decision support for water supply planning and risk management. An online survey was used to gather data from 1405 companies in Sweden on consequences of complete and unplanned water supply outages. Results show that Food and beverage Manufacturing and Accommodation and food services are the two most severely affected sectors over all analyzed disruption durations. © 2021 by the authors

  • 31.
    Ulinder, Elin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Englund, Maja
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. VA-guiden, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Bodil
    Örebro kommun, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Melinda
    Örebro kommun, Sweden.
    Metodutveckling för effektiv slutinspektion2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Örebro municipality, Sweden, the municipal environmental organization performs an inspection of on-site wastewater treatment systems after receiving a control report and photo documentation from the homeowner. In this project 57 soil treatment systems and 50 systems with prefabricated treatment plants were inspected to evaluate the methods and instruments of the inspection, and to draw conclusions of the applicability of different checkpoints in the inspection. Furthermore, deficiencies of the treatment systems were complied, and suggestions were made of how to develop the control report, permit process and the follow-up of the permits. Some of the checkpoints, methods and instruments of the inspections were concluded to be suitable without changes, but some changes were also suggested and some of the checkpoints were considered not to be recommended as a standard in every inspection. When it comes to recommended changes, the size of the soil treatment system was one example that was hard to measure in the field. It is therefore important to make sure that the homeowner provides photo documentation with a measuring tape that show the size of the soil treatment system. Örebro municipality also needs to be tougher on requiring photo documentation on precipitation units and phosphorus traps as well as photo documentation that shows whether new pipes have been connected. The other suggested changes include service contracts, measurements of water levels in vent pipes and drainage pipes, general improvements of the control report and the photo documentation etc. Among the checkpoints that was not recommended as a standard in every inspection was testing the ventilation with a smoke cartridge, to measure the pH and temperature in prefabricated treatment plants and septic tanks, to measure and compare the depth of the distribution well with the depth of the drainage pipe at soil treatment systems and to measure groundwater level in the field. The connection between pH/temperature and functional problems needs to be clarified – preferably through a future study. The other checkpoints were considered difficult to perform in the field and was therefore recommended to be performed when there are signs of functional problems and not as a standard part of inspection. For the permit process, it was proposed to review the conditions, to clarify requirements for documentation on groundwater and service and to provide information on how the conditions are followed up. Among other suggestions for improvement were that it would be desirable to have access to a database or other documentation in the field with quick access to product information about different types of prefabricated treatment plants.

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  • 32.
    von Scherling, Mathias
    et al.
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Stenvall, Brita
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Utvärdering av gröna taks effekt att minska flödesbelastningen på ledningsnätet2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the effect of green roofs to reduce the risk of flooded networks

    A short study has been performed in order to assess the potential effect of green roofs concerning reduced demands for pipe dimension. The study has been performed using hydraulic models of the stormwater network. The stormwater model is fictitious even though it is a model of a real network the amount of impermeable surfaces connected to the network are augmented to make them critical to changes i.e. that increased loads causes flood. Two different types of roofs have been tested at two different climate conditions from Sweden. The study was performed with mike urban (Dhigroup.com) a market leading modeling software in Sweden. The modeling software has tools for supporting calculations of different SUDS (sustainable urban drainage systemes) such as green roofs, bio retention cells and infiltration trenches. The tools are quite similar to the tools included in another software SWMM (EPA) The build-up of the roofs in the model are modelled after a real roof in Kiruna. One roof consists of a thicker sedum-herbs-grassroof with a thickness of approximately 110-140 mm and the other 40 mm thick. None of the roofs had any technical constructions under in order to delay the runoff. Only water absorbing mats for the vegetation. Two different climates were simulated using precipitation, and temperature calculated evaporation using open data from the Swedish Meterological and Hydrologic Institute, SMHI. The locations chosen was from Kiruna in the north of Sweden and from Malmö. Only summer periods were studied. The main mechanisms for stormwater reduction and detention are 1. Reduction of the total runoff due to wetting of the materiel. When the water content in the soil is under the field capacity there will be an additional loss for saturating the material to make it drip through. 2. Slowing the runoff for more intense rains by detention. Green roof substrates are quite permeable but for heavier rains it can be limiting and thus leading to temporary storage in the pores. Sometimes there can be underlaying constructions for detention. First yearly simulations were performed for the two different types of roofs at two locations. In the study yearly runoff was evaluated which differs between different roofs and different climates. Furthermore, the variation of saturation of the roofs were analysed. Secondly development was simulated by increasing the connected impermeable surfaces connected to the model by 10% and 40%. Then design rains with a return time of 10 year was simulated with floodings as a result (since the models were altered to be critical). Then the number of green roofs were increased until the flooding vanished. Different initial saturations were tested. For 30-70% of all rains >6mm in summertime in Kiruna no runoff was calculated. For Malmö the result was between 50-95%. The cause of the reduction is due to storage in unsaturated soils which has been dried up between rains. The increased area connected impermeable surfaces had to be matched with a little more than an equal number of green roofs. The main and in a way an obvious conclusion was that a warmer climate results in a roof that dries up more often thus allowing it to absorb all water from many smaller rain events. Another conclusion was that a thicker roof has more capacity than a thinner roof to absorb water. It is also quite logical that an increase of permeable surfaces has to be matched against the same number of green roofs to remain at status quo.

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  • 33.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    et al.
    Sweden Water Research, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Berbeyer Cuevas, M.
    Gemit Solutions AB, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Jonas
    Gemit Solutions AB, Sweden.
    A tool to support upstream work2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Theupstream work at utilities can be facilitated by a tool for calculatingpollution loads. A web application for mapping sources and performing substanceflow analysis is being developed. It aims to support location of sources,planning of measurement campaigns and evaluation of specific measures.

  • 34.
    Åmand, Linda
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sofia
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Junestedt, Christian
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    Nya utsläppskrav för svenska reningsverk – effekter på reningsverkens totala miljöpåverkan2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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