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  • 1.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sanfeliu Melia, Cristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Erfaringer med mobile vanntåkeanlegg installert i boliger2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences regarding personal protection water mist systems installed in dwellings. Personal protection water mist systems can produce a water mist that can cool down and limit a fire in a small area in a dwelling. The system is equipped with sensitive detectors which can activate the system in the early stages of the fire and limit the fire spread, and in some cases extinguish the fire. This gives more time for evacuation, which can be especially important for vulnerable people with risk factors, like impaired cognitive and physical functioning. The goal of this study has been to map the experiences in Norway regarding personal protection water mist systems, considering how the municipalities have experienced the work related to the systems and whether the systems have activated and saved lives. This will shed light upon whether mobile water mist systems are appropriate measures for vulnerable people in the society, and the risk factors that determine whether the measure is appropriate or not. This study has used literature studies, questionnaires, and interviews to map the experiences of personal protection water mist systems in Norway. The results showed that personal protection water mist systems installed in Norwegian dwellings have been activated in connection with fire outbreaks, and thus limited or extinguished the fire. This has saved lives on several occasions and reduced the damage potential. There are many people who have risk factors that make it appropriate to install a mobile water mist system in their home, but there are also exceptions. The risk factors that indicate that it is beneficial to install mobile water mist systems in Norwegian dwellings are - Impaired cognitive abilities - Impaired physical abilities - Drug and alcohol problems - Smoking - Living alone The systems are particularly suitable when several of the risk factors are present at the same time. It was also shown that personal protection water mist systems are not suitable for mobile people who spend time in several places in the home and are therefore often outside the system's coverage area. Personal protection water mist systems are not recommended for people who may have the potential to sabotage the system. In questionnaires and interviews, it emerged that there are big differences between how Norwegian municipalities work with assigning, installing, operating, and maintaining personal protection water mist systems. In larger municipalities, there are more people who rely on routines and formal processes for the work, and there is therefore a greater proportion of the larger municipalities who distribute the facilities out to individuals than in the small municipalities where the work is more characterised by informal routines and personal relations. 3 Based on the results from this study, it is our opinion that the following aspects should be covered by future work: • Need for a new and updated cost-benefit analysis for personal protection water mist systems. • Need for a better statistical basis for assessment of the personal protection water mist systems. • Need for a Norwegian test standard for personal protection water mist systems. • Need for clear guidelines for assignment, procurement, installing, operation, and maintenance of personal protection water mist systems.

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  • 2.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Rønning, Birger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sikkerhetsbehov for kullgriller i restauranter2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The RISE report 2019:04 «Charcoal and wood burning ovens in restaurants – Fire safety and documentation requirements» [1] investigated regulations and documental demands tied to charcoal and wood burning ovens in restaurants in Norway. A part of the conclusion in this report emphasized the need for, through physical testing, mapping whether existing test standards covers the safety requirements of charcoal ovens in restaurants. NS-EN 13240:2001 «Roomheaters fired with solid fuel. Requirements and test methods» [2] was chosen as a relevant test standard. Three test ovens (a closed test oven, a dummy oven and an open test oven) was produced at RISE Fire Research. Their construction with regard to insulation capabilities, materials and dimensions was based on existing charcoal ovens placed on the Norwegian marked. This was done to achieve an objective depiction of the issue, without the need for a specific brand of ovens. Restaurant oven charcoal was utilized to achieve as real heat development as possible in the test ovens. The test layout is based on NS-EN 12340:2001, with a test rigg constructed of two «safety walls», ceiling and floor attached with thermocouples. Temperatures from the test oven are registered in the safety walls at several positions according to a standardised grid, and in the ceiling and the floor each have one single measurement position measuring warmest point. Thermocouples in the chimney and exhaust duct measured the flue gas temperatures transported to the exhaust system. Four different tests were conducted, where the first one was a standardized safety test including the closed oven model. The second test was the same safety test setup with the dummy oven besides the closed oven. The dummy contained a built-in propane burner to simulate the heat load from a real oven. The purpose was to simulate two ovens placed next to each other. The third test was an overload test on the closed test oven with 150 % fuel load and higher refuelling frequency. The last test was a test of the open test oven. The safety test method described in NS-EN 13240:2001 is suitable to test the level of stable maximal temperature in the surrounding combustible materials, in the same way as for roomheaters, which the method is designed for. The method addresses safety aspects such as surface temperatures and handles on the oven. Tests show that the temperatures developed in the ovens have the potential to breech the temperature criterion given by the test standard, and therefore contribute to the ignition of surrounding combustible materials. Such situations pose a fire risk and safety measures regarding this aspect must be documented by the producer. NS-EN13240:2001 does not cover temperatures for exhaust duct and the production of sparks and their possible spread to combustible materials. These are important safety aspects which must be addressed when documenting the fire safety of restaurant grills. Tests show that sparks are created in the oven, including from restaurant charcoal fuel, and are transported into the exhaust duct, and out through the opening of the grill door. Together with high flue gas temperatures in the exhaust duct and deposits of soot and cooking oil this pose a fire risk. Documentation must therefore be presented, showing that the oven is equipped with measures (for instance spark screen) which guards the exhaust duct from sparks to a satisfactory degree. Operators of the oven must receive adequate training and must operate the closed oven with caution, as to avoid incidents with sparks being released though the door. The placement of ovens next to each other does not seem to increase the heat load on surrounding walls but may lead to increased temperatures in between the ovens. The consequences of temperature increases must be documented. Tests show that overloading with fuel and intensifying the refuelling intervals can lead to increased temperatures in the oven, which can affect materials and welding seams. Overloading can also affect the temperatures towards surrounding walls and exhaust ducts and therefore may affect fire safety negatively. NS-EN 13240:2001 requires the producer to documents how the oven is constructed and of what materials, and that the welding seams are dimensioned for the materials used. It is recommended that the producer documents the safety level of the oven materials with an overload test. It must also be documented that the exhaust ducts in which the flue gas are transported are constructed to handle the potential temperatures that can arise, including erroneous use.

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  • 3.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    LEARNING FROM FIRE INCIDENTS : Analysis of a devastating fire in a building with municipal housing in Norway2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the 32nd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2022), 2022, s. 1156-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis of a fire in a municipal apartment building used as housing for people with challenges connected to drug addiction. The fire took place in Norway 7th of August 2021. The incident happened during the night and the fire was spreading quickly and intensely via the external wooden balconies. The combination of risk factors both connected to the fire development and the characteristics of the occupants raises the potential for fire fatalities. This analysis seeks to understand why the fire spread with such a speed, and how everyone in the building survived without injuries. The analysis identified both technical and human factors that may help to answer these questions. The findings suggest that there were deficiencies connected to the technical fire safety design that if improved could have reduced the fire damage. Factors promoting the fire spread and fire intensity include the choice of wood material used in the construction of the balconies, no sprinkler system installed on the balconies and a large fire load on the balconies caused by the occupants’ tendency to accumulate possessions on the balconies. Factors contributing to the outcome of no injuries or fatalities included occupants being awake during these late hours, and the strong social network between them. Such a network should be seen as a positive factor regarding robustness against fire and should be encouraged.

  • 4.
    Abdul Hamid, Akram
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    von Platten, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dennis
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bagge, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Determining the Impact of High Residential Density on Indoor Environment, Energy Use, and Moisture Loads in Swedish Apartments-and Measures for Mitigation2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikel-id 5446Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been an increase in apartments with a large number of inhabitants, i.e., high residential density. This is partly due to a housing shortage in general but also increased migration, particularly in suburbs of major cities. This paper specifies issues that might be caused by high residential density by investigating the technical parameters influenced in Swedish apartments that are likely to have high residential density. Interviews with 11 employees at housing companies were conducted to identify issues that might be caused by high residential density. Furthermore, simulations were conducted based on extreme conditions described in the interviews to determine the impact on the energy use, indoor environmental quality, and moisture loads. In addition, the impact of measures to mitigate the identified issues was determined. Measures such as demand-controlled ventilation, increase of a constant ventilation rate, and moisture buffering are shown to reduce the risk for thermal discomfort, mold growth, and diminished indoor air quality; while still achieving a lower energy use than in a normally occupied apartment. The results of this study can be used by authorities to formulate incentives and/or recommendations for housing owners to implement measures to ensure good indoor environmental quality for all, irrespective of residential density conditions.

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  • 5.
    Abrahamsen, Rune
    et al.
    Moelven Limtre, Norway.
    Bjertnaes, Magne A.
    Sweco, Norway.
    Bouillot, Jacques
    Eiffage, France.
    Brank, Bostjan
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Cabaton, Lionel
    Arbonis, France.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    Moelven, Sweden.
    Flamand, Olivier
    CSTB, France.
    Garains, Fabien
    Eiffage, France.
    Gavric, Igor
    InnoRenew, Slovenia.
    Germain, Olivier
    Galeo, France.
    Hahusseau, Ludwig
    Eiffage, France.
    Hameury, Stephane
    CSTB, France.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Moelven, Sweden.
    Ao, Wai Kei
    University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Kurent, Blaz
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Malo, Kjell
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Manthey, Manuel
    CSTB, France.
    Nåvik, Petter
    Sweco, Norway.
    Pavic, Alex
    University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Perez, Fernando
    Smith and Wallwork, United Kingdom.
    Rönnquist, Anders
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Stamatopoulos, Haris
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sustersic, Iztok
    InnoRenew, Slovenia.
    Tulebekova, Salue
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Dynamic Response of Tall Timber Buildings Under Service Load: The DynaTTB Research Program2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind-induced dynamic excitation is becoming a governing design action determin-ing size and shape of modern Tall Timber Buildings (TTBs). The wind actions generate dynamic loading, causing discomfort or annoyance for occupants due to the perceived horizontal sway – i.e. vibration serviceability failure. Although some TTBs have been instrumented and meas-ured to estimate their key dynamic properties (natural frequencies and damping), no systematic evaluation of dynamic performance pertinent to wind loading has been performed for the new and evolving construction technology used in TTBs. The DynaTTB project, funded by the Forest Value research program, mixes on site measurements on existing buildings excited by heavy shakers, for identification of the structural system, with laboratory identification of building elements mechanical features coupled with numerical modelling of timber structures. The goal is to identify and quantify the causes of vibration energy dissipation in modern TTBs and pro-vide key elements to FE modelers.

    The first building, from a list of 8, was modelled and tested at full scale in December 2019. Some results are presented in this paper. Four other buildings will be modelled and tested in spring 2020.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsen, Rune
    et al.
    Moelven Limtre, Norway.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Tulebekova, Saule
    NTNU, Norway.
    DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF TALL TIMBER BUILDINGS UNDER SERVICE LOAD – RESULTS FROM THE DYNATTB RESEARCH PROGRAM2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind-induced dynamic excitation is a governing design action determining size and shape of modern Tall Timber Buildings (TTBs). The wind actions generate dynamic loading, causing discomfort or annoyance for occupants due to the perceived horizontal sway, i.e. vibration serviceability problem. Although some TTBs have been instrumented and measured to estimate their key dynamic properties (eigenfrequencies, mode shapes and damping), no systematic evaluation of dynamic performance pertinent to wind loading had been performed for the new and evolving construction technologies used in TTBs. The DynaTTB project, funded by the ForestValue research program, mixed on site measurements on existing buildings excited by mass inertia shakers (forced vibration) and/or the wind loads (ambient vibration), for identification of the structural system, with laboratory identification of building elements mechanical features, coupled with numerical modelling of timber structures. The goal is to identify and quantify the causes of vibration energy dissipation in modern TTBs and provide key elements to finite element models. This paper presents an overview of the results of the project and the proposed Guidelines for design of TTBs in relation to their dynamic properties.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Lund University, Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Hedmer, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Prieto Rábade, Miguel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Characterization of airborne dust emissions from three types of crushed multi-walled carbon nanotube-enhanced concretes2024Ingår i: NanoImpact, ISSN 2452-0748, Vol. 34, artikel-id 100500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersing Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) into concrete at low (<1 wt% in cement) concentrations may improve concrete performance and properties and provide enhanced functionalities. When MWCNT-enhanced concrete is fragmented during remodelling or demolition, the stiff, fibrous and carcinogenic MWCNTs will, however, also be part of the respirable particulate matter released in the process. Consequently, systematic aerosolizing of crushed MWCNT-enhanced concretes in a controlled environment and measuring the properties of this aerosol can give valuable insights into the characteristics of the emissions such as concentrations, size range and morphology. These properties impact to which extent the emissions can be inhaled as well as where they are expected to deposit in the lung, which is critical to assess whether these materials might constitute a future health risk for construction and demolition workers. In this work, the impact from MWCNTs on aerosol characteristics was assessed for samples of three concrete types with various amounts of MWCNT, using a novel methodology based on the continuous drop method. MWCNT-enhanced concretes were crushed, aerosolized and the emitted particles were characterized with online and offline techniques. For light-weight porous concrete, the addition of MWCNT significantly reduced the respirable mass fraction (RESP) and particle number concentrations (PNC) across all size ranges (7 nm – 20 μm), indicating that MWCNTs dampened the fragmentation process by possibly reinforcing the microstructure of brittle concrete. For normal concrete, the opposite could be seen, where MWCNTs resulted in drastic increases in RESP and PNC, suggesting that the MWCNTs may be acting as defects in the concrete matrix, thus enhancing the fragmentation process. For the high strength concrete, the fragmentation decreased at the lowest MWCNT concentration, but increased again for the highest MWCNT concentration. All tested concrete types emitted <100 nm particles, regardless of CNT content. SEM imaging displayed CNTs protruding from concrete fragments, but no free fibres were detected. 

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  • 8.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Claesson, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Ramböll, Sweden.
    Kardeby, Victor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Digitaliseringens möjligheter och utmaningar inom förvaltning och underhållsplanering av broar: Förstudie2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten behandlar digitalisering – att införa ny digital teknik – i förvaltningsverksamheten av broar. Omfattningen är en förstudie med syftet att identifiera behovet av framtida forskning för en långsiktig utveckling av broförvaltningen. En grundläggande ansats var att en digitalisering ska minska behovet av kostsamma underhållsåtgärder men bibehålla en hög säkerhet för våra broar. Projektets mål var att samla information om digitala informationsmodeller som skapas under investeringsskedet, utvärdera överlämningen av digitala modeller till förvaltningsskedet, och värdera den eventuella nyttan med digital informationsinsamling för tillståndsbedömning och underhållsplanering. En viktig del av detta var beskrivningen av dagens förvaltningssystem och hur det skulle kunna utvecklas. Studierna har bedrivits genom en enkätundersökning med respondenter från konsultfirmor aktiva inom broprojektering, intervjuer med tekniska experter och litteratursökningar. Resultatet visar att projekteringen av broar idag huvudsakligen görs genom byggnads-informationsmodellering (BIM). Inriktningen är mot byggskedet där samordning och kommunikation bedöms vara de största nyttorna. Överlämningen till förvaltningen består dock av relationsritningar i formen av enkla ritningsfiler. Trots att Trafikverkets strategi för BIM beskriver att en informationsmodell bör leva kvar under hela brons livslängd, finns det tveksamheter huruvida en modell från projekteringen är lämplig som förvaltningsmodell. Istället lyfts andra metoder fram för att skapa en modell av det byggda utförandet. Till exempel optiska metoder för skanning och fotogrammetri. Förvaltningssystemen bör utvecklas med funktioner för att lagra och tillgängliggöra stora mängder digital information från sensorer maskinella inspektioner. Syftet är att minska osäkerheterna i det byggda utförandet och graden av nedbrytning, för att slutligen skapa ett bättre underlag för beslut om åtgärder. Ett framtida scenario är en digital tvilling som speglar den verkliga konstruktionen och uppdateras kontinuerligt genom sensordata. Gällande hårdvara för mätningar behöver sensorer och system utvecklas med avseende på energiförbrukning, energiskördning och underhållsåtgärder, t.ex. genom kombinationer av utbytbara komponenter med kort livslängd och andra delar med lång livslängd. Fiberoptiska sensorer visar på lovande egenskaper men utveckling behövs för att göra dem mer kostnadseffektiva i relation till konventionella sensorer.

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  • 9.
    Alam, Naveed
    et al.
    Ulster University, UK.
    Nadjai, Ali
    Ulster University, UK.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Oliver
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Dai, Xi
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Large scale travelling fire tests with open ventilation conditions and their effect on the surrounding steel structure– The second fire test2022Ingår i: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 188, artikel-id 107032Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the frame of the European RFCS (Research Fund for Coal and Steel) TRAFIR (Characterization of TRAvelling FIRes in large compartments) project, three natural fire tests in a large compartment were conducted at Ulster University. The aim of this investigation was to understand the conditions in which the travelling fires develop and to study the impact of such fires on the surrounding steel structure. This paper provides details of the second fire test where the size of the openings was reduced to induce different ventilation conditions in comparison to the first fire test. During the test, behaviour of the travelling fire was observed and the gas temperatures at different levels and locations were recorded. The influence of travelling fires on the surrounding structure is studied in terms of the temperatures recorded in the selected steel columns and beams. The influence of change in the ventilation conditions is presented and highlighted through the comparison of results of the second fire test with those recorded earlier during the first fire test. It was found that the travelling fires produce non-uniform temperatures in the compartment irrespective of the ventilation conditions although the magnitude of this non-uniformity is related with the opening sizes. This non-uniformity exists along the length as well as along the height of the test compartment. It was found that for reduced opening sizes, more heat is retained within the compartment which induces higher temperatures in the surrounding steel structure. The transient heating of the surrounding structure caused by travelling fires should be considered while performing the structural fire design of large compartments. The results obtained during the test are state-of-the-art and will help in understating the behaviour of travelling fires and their influence on the surrounding structure which will help to devise fire design methods for future use.

  • 10.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad.
    Karaxi, E. K.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Kartsonakis, I. A.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Charitidis, C. A.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    De Meyst, L.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Safety and sustainability of new admixtures for durable concrete2019Ingår i: Durable Concrete for Infrastructure Under Severe Conditions: Smart Admixtures, Self-responsiveness and Nano-additions, 2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainability of concrete infrastructures is highly dependent on the durability. A longer service life with low repair work reduces the resource use and hence the greenhouse gas emissions. New admixtures based on nanomaterials have the possibility to increase the service life. However, it is also important to consider the embodied impact of the material and safety issues concerning new nanomaterials. Here we present an overview on the latest developments on the safety and sustainability of some novel admixtures.

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  • 11. Alberg, Ingmarie
    et al.
    Berntsson, Britt
    Andersson, Kjell
    Dannestam, Åse
    Persson Boonkaew, Frida
    (Larsson) Gulliksson, Daniel
    Fält, Jenny
    Good, Johanna
    Tiden, Sophie
    Nordin, Mats
    Claesson, Per
    Åhström, Mikael
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Lyne, Åsa Laurell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Kvalitetssäkrade systemlösningar för gröna anläggningar/tak på betongbjälklag med nolltolerans mot läckage: Rapport- Arbetsprocessen2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Nyman, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Staack, Ingo
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Petit, Oliver
    LFV Luftfartsverket, Sweden.
    Infrastrukturmodellering för storskalig introduktion av elflyg och flygtrafikledning (MODELflyg)2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En generisk, flexibel simuleringsmodell utvecklas med syftet att kunna bidra till förståelse samt ge möjligheter att enkelt testa vad elektrifiering (batterielektriskt) av önskade flygtrafikflöden kan förväntas innebära i form av krav på laddinfrastruktur vid flygplatserna. Modellen utvecklas i programspråket Python och innehåller ett flertal olika tillvägagångsätt för att testa elektrifiering såväl baserat på inläsning av historiska flygtrafikdata, som skapande av nya, icke-existerande flygtrafikscheman för elflyg. Eftersom det i dagsläget inte finns några elflygplan i kommersiell linjetrafik, och således inte heller någon data eller statistik gällande dess prestanda eller egenskaper, så utvecklas en modell även för detta, vilken tillåter simulering av önskade flygförbindelser, och resulterar i erhållande av energiförbrukning och flygtid på dessa. Projektet utgår ifrån en elflygplansmodell som är parametersatt i enlighet med certifieringsnivå CS/FAR-23 (19 säten och maxvikt 8618 kg). Logiken i modellen är att följa den fullständiga rörelsekedjan för varje flygplansindivid under en given tidsperiod (typiskt ett dygn), där behovet av laddning för respektive flygplan på respektive flygplats i kedjan ges av vilken energinivå batteriet höll vid påbörjad flygning, hur mycket energi som förbrukades under flygningen, när flygplanet anländer till destination, samt när det behöver påbörja nästa flygning. Även in- och uttaxning på flygplatserna påverkar hur mycket tid som finns tillgänglig för laddning. En inbyggd laddningskurva begränsar hur snabbt det är praktiskt lämpligt för batteriet att laddas. Laddningskurvan definieras genom ett förhållande mellan C-rate (Charging-rate) och SoC (State-of-Charge). Dessutom kan laddare i sig begränsas till en viss maxeffekt och styr således hur snabbt energi kan levereras till flygplanets batterier. För att möjliggöra tillräcklig räckvidd förväntas elflygplanen ha relativt stora batterier som dessutom sannolikt ska laddas upp inom korta tidsintervall på flygplatserna (turnaround-tider). Därmed kan behovet av installerad effektkapacitet förväntas öka drastiskt på flygplatserna om flera elflygplan behöver ladda samtidigt. Projektet lägger därför lite extra vikt vid att utveckla smarta algoritmer för styrning av effektuttag över tid med ambitionen att lastbalansera och sänka effekttoppar vid simultan laddning. Till sist diskuterar projektet vilka implikationer elflyg kan medföra ur perspektivet flygtrafikledning, befintliga och framtida luftrumsstrukturer. Ett flertal fallstudier genomförs för att exemplifiera modelleringsprocessen och de resultat som användaren slutligen får. Projektet syftar inte till att skapa något färdigt kommersiellt verktyg, utan snarare en första version, samt lägga grunden för vidareutveckling av ett analysverktyg som är till nytta för flygplatser och andra aktörer inom flygbranschen nu, och i framtida forskning- och utvecklingssamarbeten.

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  • 13.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Nalin, Kajsa
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Gising, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ferwerda, Bruce
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Guardian Angel: Using Lighting Drones to Improve Traffic Safety, Sense of Security, and Comfort for Cyclists2023Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)Volume 14057 LNCS, Pages 209 - 223, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, Vol. 14057 LNCS, s. 209-223Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Active mobility, such as biking, faces a common challenge in Swedish municipalities due to the lack of adequate lighting during the dark winter months. Insufficient lighting infrastructure hinders individuals from choosing bicycles, despite the presence of well-maintained bike paths and a willingness to cycle. To address this issue, a project has been undertaken in the Swedish municipality of Skara for an alternative lighting solution using drones. A series of tests have been conducted based on drone prototypes developed for the selected bike paths. Participants were invited to cycle in darkness illuminated by drone lighting and share their mobility preferences and perception. This paper summarizes the users’ perception of drone lighting as an alternative to fixed lighting on bike paths, with a special focus on the impact on travel habits and the perceived sense of security and comfort. Most participants were regular cyclists who cited bad weather, time, and darkness as significant factors that deterred them from using bicycles more frequently, reducing their sense of security. With drone lighting, the participants appreciated the illumination’s moonlight-like quality and its ability to enhance their sense of security by illuminating the surroundings. On the technology side, they gave feedback on reducing the drone’s sound and addressing lighting stability issues. In summary, the test results showcase the potential of drone lighting as a viable alternative to traditional fixed lighting infrastructure, offering improved traffic safety, sense of security, and comfort. The results show the feasibility and effectiveness of this innovative approach, supporting transformation towards active and sustainable mobility, particularly in regions facing lighting challenges.

  • 14.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Standardisation of Electric Road Systems: Report from workshop at FIRM192020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric Road System (ERS) is a technology concept that has the potential to dramatically reduce the fossil fuel dependency in the transport system. ERS is defined by electric power transfer from the road to the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion, and could be achieved through different power transfer technologies from the road to the vehicle, such as rail, overhead line, and wireless solutions. The basic technologies for power transfer from the road to vehicles in motion have been developed through various international research projects. In recent years, ERS has moved from conceptual idea to real-world application in countries such as Sweden (2016 and 2018), the United States of America (California 2017), and Germany (2019). In addition, projects are being planned in Italy and China.

    National and international freight transports in Europe are usually determined by national and EU strategies and regulations. The success of ERS implementation, especially when it comes to a transnational roll-out, depends on using regulatory frameworks to identify areas where adaptation is needed.

    The work in the CollERS project has included a consideration of ERS in national and EU transport strategies. The present report relates to identification of areas where standards are missing or have to be adapted, as well a stakeholder dialogue (Germany, Sweden, Denmark and EU), e.g. by means of expert interviews at national and EU-level (industry, science, politics, and road administrations).

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  • 15.
    Amani, Mozhdeh
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Al-Emrani, Mohammad
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Shear behavior of stainless steel girders with corrugated webs2023Ingår i: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 210, artikel-id 108086Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the shear strength of corrugated web girders made of EN 1.4162/LDX 2101 stainless steel is investigated. Four full-scale trapezoidal corrugated web girders were tested under shear. Before conducting the tests, DIC was used to measure the real geometric imperfections in the web panels. Complementary finite element analysis studies were conducted to assess the sensitivity of the shear strength to initial imperfections. The experimental results indicated that all the tested girders with a local slenderness ratio of λ = 0.7 attained the shear yield strength, which was then followed by strain hardening in the material at a level that was 8–18% higher than the yield strength. This implies that the Eurocode's limit of λ = 0.25 to attain the plastic shear strength in corrugated webs can be quite conservative for stainless steel. According to the findings of the imperfection sensitivity studies, an initial geometric imperfection based on the first eigen buckling mode and with a maximum amplitude of amax/200, where amax is the maximum corrugation fold length, yielded ultimate strength within 3% of the test results. When the amplitude was increased to hw/200, where hw is the web height, the ultimate strength was estimated to be 25% lower on average than in the experiments. In three of the studied girders, initial imperfections with other forms than the first buckling mode were found to be more critical. Further, it was found that regardless of mode number, mode shapes that are more extended over the web panel result in a higher degradation of the ultimate shear strength. © 2023 The Authors

  • 16.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Arby, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Verktygslåda för bättre mobilitet på mindre orter – Utvecklingsprojekt med fem stationssamhällen i Småland2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet "Stationssamhällen Småland: Verktygslåda för landsbygdsmobilitet" tog sikte på att möta utmaningar i relation till minskat bilresande i syfte att se till att Agenda 2030- målen kan uppnås samtidigt som tillgänglighet bibehålls. Fokus lades på mindre tätorter med tågstationer. Den övergripande målsättningen var att projektets resultat ska underlätta för kommuner att identifiera och implementera hållbara mobilitetslösningar som möter såväl invånares som näringslivets behov i den typen av samhällen. Projektet involverade fem småländska kommuner. Genom en fallstudiebaserad ansats, med metoder så som platsbesök, intervjuer och workshops med representanter för lokalsamhället och näringslivet kartlades behov, en färdplan för nya mobilitetstjänster togs fram och en verktygslåda som kommunerna kan använda för att själva planera och implementera dessa utvecklades. Projektet resulterade i en verktygslåda, presenterad som en Wiki-hemsida, som erbjuder en process för nulägesanalys, behovskartläggning, kunskapsuppbyggnad, idégenerering och implementering av mobilitetslösningar. Verktygslådan är avsedd att underlätta för andra kommuner att självständigt förbättra mobiliteten baserat på lokala behov. Insikter från projektet inkluderar betydelsen av brett stöd inom kommunen, näringslivets deltagande som en katalysator för förändring, och behovet av att utgå från specifika målgruppers behov. Projektet framhåller även vikten av mjuka åtgärder, kostnadseffektiva lösningar, och samarbete över kommungränser för att förbättra pendlingsresor. Genom att fokusera på marknadsföring av befintlig kollektivtrafik, optimering av kollektivtrafik, och olika former av samordnad mobilitet, inklusive cykling och samåkning, presenteras konkreta lösningar för ökad tillgänglighet och hållbar mobilitet på landsbygden.

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  • 17.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis, France.
    Guillaume, Eric
    Efectis, France.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, UK.
    Hofmann, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Toth, Peter
    EMI, Hungary.
    EUROPEAN APPROACH TO ASSESS THE FIRE PERFORMANCE OF FAÇADES2019Ingår i: Interflam 2019, proceedings / [ed] Stephen Grayson, Interscience Communications, 2019, Vol. 15, s. 213-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several attempts have been made in the past to develop a European harmonized testing and assessment method for façades before the European commission decided to publish a call for tender on the topic. A project consortium from five countries (Sweden, UK, France, Germany and Hungary) applied to the call for tender and was contracted to develop a European approach to assess the fire performance of façades. 24 sub-contractors and 14 stakeholder entities were part of the project.

    The objective of the European project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC. In addressing this objective, the project team was asked to consider a number of issues which are presented and discussed.

    The initial stages of this project were focused on:

    • establishing a register of the regulatory requirements in all Member States in relation to the fire performance of façade systems, and
    • to identify those Member States who have regulatory requirements for the fire performance façade systems which go beyond the current EN 13501 (reaction to fire and fire resistance) classification systems and to collate the details of these additional requirements. [6]

    After having confirmed the regulatory needs the following steps were discussed:

    • a testing and classification methodology based on BS 8414 - Fire performance of external cladding systems series and DIN 4102-20 - Fire behaviour of building materials and building components - Part 20: Complementary verification for the assessment of the fire behaviour of external wall claddings to address the identified key performance and classification characteristics [4] [5]
    • a verification and validation proposal, in the form of a round robin programme to support the development of the proposed testing and classification methodologies.
    • an alternative test method which was developed on the basis of the comments from stakeholders during the project

    Several hundreds of comments were received during the project and were implemented in the development.

    This paper is a short overview of results the two-year development work, which Final Report published by the European Commission in 2018 [1].

  • 18.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Fire Safety of Façades2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fires do not occur often (in comparison to other major structure fires) but in recent years there have been a number of spectacular façade fires in high rise building such as the recent fire in Grenfell Tower, London.Under-ventilated compartment fires may cause flames to spill out of window openings impinging the façade, thus devastating façade fires may start on one floor leap-frogging to adjacent floors. It is therefore necessary to limit or delay fire spread to higher floors. Requirements built on large scale fire testing may decrease the risk of these types of fires provided that the building is constructed according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer. Different countries have different regulations and tests for façades. New materials and façade systems are continuously introduced which might call for an update of these tests and regulations.This report summarizes experimental and modelling efforts in characterizing the fire safety of façades using the Swedish SP Fire 105 and the British BS 8414 methods. Recent experimental results and modelling is presented exploring the variations in the fire exposure, fire load and the fuel used. The fire source and the heat exposure to the façade are characterized by additional temperatures measured by plate thermometers while some other aspects are only treated in the numerical study such as a change in fuel. It is found that the results from the BS 8414 are largely affected by wind and climate since the experimental test was performed outdoors, moreover fire spread on wooden façades is also briefly discussed.In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the test methods and the results CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Modelling in FDS was used. The models were based on measured input parameters including uncertainties and an assessment of the impact of said uncertainties. The models could often reproduce the experimentally found temperatures qualitatively and quantitatively. A detailed discussion on the regulations and the tests that lead to the SP Fire 105 test method is also presented. Summaries of the façade testing methods and conditions in other European countries are presented in the appendices.Finally possible ways forward in updating the façade testing and regulations are discussed.

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  • 19.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modelling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2017Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 475-483Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparative simulation study on 3 large‐scale facade testing methods, namely,the SP Fire 105, BS 8414‐1, and the ISO 13785‐2 methods, is presented. Generally goodcorrespondence between simulations and experimental data has been found, provided thatthermal properties of the facade material and heat release rates are known; however, thecorrespondence deviates in close proximity of the fire source. Furthermore, a statistical ensemblefor evaluating the effects stemming from uncertainty in input data is used. Here, it wasfound using this statistical ensemble that the variability was smaller in the ISO 13785‐2compared to the BS 8414‐1 method. The heat release rates (HRR) used in the simulations wereadopted from measurements except for the ISO method where the information in the standardwas used to approximate the HRR. A quantitative similarity between the HRR in the ISOmethod and the British method was found.

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  • 20.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Gard, Eric
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Investigating machine learning for fire sciences: literature review and examples2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a review of current literature on artificial intelligence (AI) and more specifically machine learning (ML) is presented. ML is illustrated by two case studies where artificial neural networks are used for regression analysis of 110 spalling experiments and 81 Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) models of tunnel fires. Tunnel fires are often assessed by fire safety engineers using time-consuming simulation tools where a trained model has the potential to significantly reduce time and cost of these assessments.

    A regression model based on a neural net is used to study small scale spalling experiments and similar accuracy compared to least-square fits are obtained. The result is a function based on 14 determining experimental parameters of spalling and result in, spalling times and depths. It is a relatively small effort to get started and set up models, comparably to regular curve fitting. In this first case study the training times are short, it is thus possible to establish how the model performs on average.

    The 81 tunnel fire simulations are trained using a similar neural net however it takes considerable time to organize data, creating input, target data of the desired format and training. Here, it is also crucial to normalize the data in order to have it in a suitable format when training. 

    It should be noted that ML is often an iterative process in such a way that it may be difficult to know what settings will work before starting the process. It is equally important to illustrate and get to know the data, e.g., if there are large differences or orders of magnitude differences in the data. A normalization procedure is most often practical and will give better predictions.

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  • 21.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Sweden.
    Xu, Dai
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    FDS SIMULATIONS AND MODELLING EFFORTS OF TRAVELLING FIRES IN A LARGE ELONGATED COMPARTMENT2019Ingår i: Interflam 2019, proceedings / [ed] Stephen Grayson, Interscience Communications, 2019, Vol. 15, s. 2085-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates a travelling fire scenario in an elongated structure (Length 18 m x width 6 m x height 3 m) with a controlled fire source of six pans filled with diesel (width 4 m x length 0.5 m). The fire spread is controlled manually by initiating fires subsequently in the pools. Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is used to a-priori investigate variations in geometry, material data and fire load whereas simulations using the final design were performed after the test. The input to the model beside fire source and geometry are thermal material data. The FDS simulation were used to determine the appropriate size of the downstands (2 m from the ceiling in the final design) on the side to create a sufficiently one-dimensional fire spread. The post test simulations indicate that although there are a lot of variations not included in the model similar results were obtained as in the test.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    SEBRA Sensor based awareness for bicyclists: FINAL REPORT2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall trend in Sweden is that the number of fatalities and severely injured in traffic is constantly decreasing. However, bicyclists are the group of road-users that often suffer the most severe injuries when involved in accidents.

    In this project we want to investigate if a radar mounted on bicycles can help bicycle riders to get better situational awareness and thereby avoid getting into dangerous situations.

    For active safety in vehicles, the state of art integrates radar-, lidar-, and camera-based sensors to create awareness for the vehicle and driver. To apply this kind of system on a bicycle would be unfeasible, since the cost would in some cases be as much as the entire bicycle. In this project we study and propose a low-cost sensor solution that improves traffic safety for bicycles that consist of only one of these sensors - the radar - it is the cheapest and most robust solution.

    The project first identified the most relevant use-cases and in conjunction to this, identify a business model that can make the safety system attractive for end-users. 

     Secondly, a radarbased safety system for bicycles is developed with both sensor and human interface.

    Finally,the system is evaluated in relevant traffic situations.

    The SEBRA project aims for the following research questions:

    - RQ1: What safety issues can be addressed by a radar-based safety system mounted onbicycles?

    - RQ2: What performance requirements (field-of-view, computational capacity, power consumption, etc.) should such a system fulfil?

    - RQ3: How should the interaction with the bicyclists be designed to give a high level of safety and user experience?

    - RQ4: How can incentives and business models be developed to create a viable utility device for bicycles?

    Within the scope of Open Research at AstaZero, we plan to simulate the selected scenarios from literature in the test track environment to finalize the answer for RQ1 and build answerfor RQ2. The tests also contribute initial insights for RQ3 answer.

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  • 23.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Transportdispenser: Analys av nutid och förslag på framtid2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Some transports considered too wide, too heavy, or too long to be driven on public roads must nevertheless be allowed to take place because of their societal importance. Such transports are granted a formal exception to the traffic rules. In this project, together with industry and national and local authorities we have analysed this process and submitted several proposals for improvement measures for consideration. The focus has been on increased digitalisation and improved legal processes. The analysis is based on interviews with municipal administrators, transporters and clients and representatives from Sweden's municipalities and regions, the Swedish Transport Administration, the Swedish Transport Agency, and the Swedish Police Authority. The interviews show substantial differences between how the Swedish Transport Administration and municipalities work with exemptions. Based on our analysis, we propose several individual measures as well as three design scenarios suggesting future opportunities for an improved process.

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  • 24.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Larsson, Anders
    SLU, Sweden.
    Malm, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Sörelius, Helene
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Implementering av innovativa systemlösningar för hållbar dagvattenhantering2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Klimatsäkrade systemlösningar för urbana ytor syftar till att stärka städers förmåga att hantera ökad urbanisering och förändrat klimat, bland annat genom att utveckla innovativa systemlösningar för dagvattenhantering. I detta delprojekt har hinder och utmaningar för implementering av innovativa systemlösningar i stadsutvecklingsprocesser identifierats genom intervjuer med sakkunniga teknikexperter samt tjänstepersoner från olika förvaltningar. Som komplement har Svenskt Vattens publikationer P105 (Svenskt Vatten, 2011) och P110 (Svenskt Vatten, 2016) som är branschstandard för dagvattenhantering, samt utvalda kommuners policydokument analyserats för att undersöka hur dessa förhåller sig till innovativa systemlösningar för dagvattenhantering. Teoretisk utgångspunkt har varit studier kring vad som påverkar utveckling och spridning av tekniska innovationssystem (Bergek, 2008; Hellsmark, Bergek, Hellström, & Malmquist, 2014) samt teorier om innovation i offentlig sektor (Mulgan, 2007; Mulgan, 2014; Nählinder, 2013; Nählinder & Fogelberg Eriksson, 2017). De främsta faktorer som har identifierats påverka implementering av systemlösningar för dagvattenhantering är innovationskultur, samverkan vid planering, kunskap och ekonomi. För att överbrygga dessa hinder har rekommendationer för hållbar dagvattenhantering och uppdaterade riktlinjer för utformning av dagvattenstrategi utvecklats. För att underlätta samverkan samt val av dagvattenlösning har även ett beslutsstöd utvecklats för att kunna användas i ett tidigt skede vid planering (Brisvåg, 2017).

  • 25.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Selander, Anders
    Cementa, Sweden.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    Effect of High-Pressure Washing on Chloride Ingress in Concrete – Development of an Accelerated Test Method2022Ingår i: Nordic Concrete Research, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 35-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Bridges constitute an important part of the infrastructure. For bridges to have the longest possible service life with minimum repairs, the maintenance is of great importance. One type of bridge maintenance that is rarely researched is the continuous preventive maintenance. The continuous preventive maintenance consists of removal of vegetation, cleaning of bridge joints and drainage systems as well as high-pressure washing of the structure. The effect of washing is discussed but not properly researched. A study on the effectiveness of high-pressure washing on concrete is therefore being conducted. An accelerated test method is being developed to mimic field testing. The method has been developed through tests on small concrete specimens subjected to fluctuating temperature, fluctuating moisture, and repeatable exposure to de-icing salt during several cycles. The specimens are of two recipes where one represents an old concrete bridge with rather high water-cement ratio (0.6) and the other one represents a new concrete bridge with a low water-cement ratio (0.4). The first two versions of the method are described. The second version shows promising results, but the method needs further development to incorporate additional factors.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Digitalt förarstöd vid dispenstransporter2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital driver support for abnormal transports This report describes how the management of permits for abnormal transports could be improved through the development of a mobile digital support system. Insights have been gathered from several existing solutions in other countries as well as technology providers active in Sweden. Together with interviews and workshops with local and national government officials and industry representatives they form the basis of an analysis of digitalization and policy requirements for consideration in an ongoing mission to make abnormal transport permits more efficient led by the Swedish Transport Administration. The project was funded by the Swedish Transport Administration.

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  • 27.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Aras, Silvia
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Riskreducerande åtgärder för dödsbränder i bostäder2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport utgör slutrapport i projektet ”Analys av brandsäkerhetens fysiska bestämningsfaktorer och tekniska åtgärder som stöd till nollvisionen” som har finansierats av MSB. Rapporten sammanfattar projektet i form av förslag på åtgärder som kan införas för att minska antalet omkomna och skadade i bostadsbränder. De rekommenderade åtgärderna baseras på de resultat som framkommit i de underprojekt som genomförts under projektets gång. En kort sammanfattning av de projekten ges, för fullständig information hänvisas läsaren till de olika delprojektsrapporterna.

    För att minska antalet döda och skadade i bränder i bostäder behövs många olika åtgärder, det finns ingen universallösning som kan förhindra alla dödsfall i bostadsbränder. Åtgärderna som rekommenderas inkluderar:

    • Fortsatt satsning på brandvarnare i hemmet, både i form av fler brandvarnare och bättre brandvarnare
    • Informationsspridning genom t.ex. bättre spridning av sidan ”Din säkerhet”
    • Bättre brandskydd för personer som vårdas i hemmet
    • Brandkrav på lös inredning 
    • Fortsatt och förbättrad uppföljning av dödsbränder
    • Mer vikt vid nyttan av brandskyddsåtgärder i regelverk även om det inte går att räkna hem nyttan rent samhällsekonomiskt
    • Fortsatt forskning inom området gällande t.ex. bättre brandvarnare, utvärderingsverktyg olika insatser samt bränder med okänd orsak.
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jandali, Mourhaf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Rosengren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The shipping industry is facing increasing pressure to cut emissions. Diesel-electric hybrid or fully electrical propulsion systems can offer significant savings in fuel consumption and reduce emissions. However, the use of energy storage battery systems on board vessels is introducing new fire hazards and advice on suitable fire extinguishing systems and agents is desired. In a series of tests, both total compartment application water spray and water mist systems and direct injection (using several different agents) into the module were evaluated in fire tests conducted to compare different fire extinguishing approaches for a fire in a battery cell. A test compartment was constructed to simulate a battery room and a commercially available lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cell was positioned inside a cubic box that mimicked a battery module. By heating the battery cell, combustible gases were generated, and these gases were ignited by a pilot flame inside the simulated battery module. The tests indicated that fire extinguishment of a battery cell fire inside a battery module is unlikely when using total compartment water spray or water mist fire protection systems. The water droplets are simply not able to penetrate the battery module and reach to the seat of the fire. Direct injection of the fire extinguishing agent inside the battery module is necessary. The tests also showed that agents such as water and low-expansion foam, with a high heat capacity, provide rapid cooling and fire extinguishment. The reduced water surface tension associated with low-expansion foam may improve the possibilities for water penetration whilst agents with a high viscosity may not be able to spread to the seat of the fire. Agents with less heat capacity, such as high-expansion foam and nitrogen gas, provide less cooling but fire extinguishment can still be achieved if designed correctly.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Wikman, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

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    fulltext
  • 30.
    Anderzén, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Insamling av matavfall i flerbostadshus – goda exempel från kommuner och allmännyttiga bostadsföretag2016Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Insamlingen av matavfall ökar. Över 200 kommuner har infört matavfallsinsamling och många ytterligare är på gång. Plockanalyser har visat att matavfall insamlat i flerbostadshus har sämre kvalitet än matavfall insamlat från villor. Andelen matavfall som sorteras ut är också generellt lägre. En ständigt återkommande frågeställning är därför hur insamling i flerbostadshus kan förbättras, både sett till mängd och kvalitet, men även utvecklingspotential för samarbetet mellan fastighetsägare och avfallsansvariga på kommun. Vilken eller vilka arbetsmetoder är bäst sett ur både avfallsansvariga enheten på kommunen/kommunala bolaget såväl som fastighetsägarens perspektiv?

    I flerbostadshus tillämpas olika insamlingssystem. Dessa är beroende av vilket grundsystem som finns i kommunen. Samlas matavfallet in i ett separat flöde eller samlas det in tillsammans med restavfallet i olikfärgade plastpåsar som sedan sorteras ut optiskt i en sorteringsanläggning?

    I separata system behöver utrymme för en separat fraktion skapas vid hämtstället. Ofta tillämpas en kombination av system utifrån aktuella förutsättningar på hämtstället. Man brukar likna det med en palett av alternativ för att kunna möta fastighetsägarnas behov. Vanligt förekommande är separata kärl i ett rum eller hus för sortering. Då det ofta handlar om större mängder matavfall har även mekaniska system såsom bottentömmande behållare och sopsug blivit allt vanligare för källsortering av matavfall i flerbostadshus, särskilt i storstadsregionerna.

    Vid optisk sortering behöver inte separata insamlingssystem skapas i insamlingsledet utan istället ligger fokus på att skapa förutsättningar för att hela, rena och väl knutna plastpåsar kommer till sorteringsanläggningen. Det är också viktigt att påsar som är avsedda för matavfall inte används till annat då de då sorteras ut som matavfall. Förekomst av löst avfall försämrar sorteringen och ska också undvikas.

    I både separata system och system med olikfärgade påsar för optisk sortering är påsen för sortering av matavfall i hemmet central för att systemet ska fungera. Därför är det viktigt att skapa förutsättningar för hushållen att alltid ha tillgång till rätt påse och utrustning för sin sortering. 

    Ytterligare ett system som börjar bli vanligare i flerbostadshus är köksavfallskvarnar. Här finns det exempel både på kvarnar som är kopplade direkt till ledningsnätet och kvarnar kopplade till en tank/slamavskiljare som töms med sugbil för transport till behandlingsanläggning. Principen för den som källsorterar sitt matavfall är dock densamma och sorteringen görs uteslutande i hushållets kök.

    Ett generellt problem i flerbostadshus och en kommunikativ utmaning är att man ofta är väldigt anonym i systemet. Det är svårt att hålla en direktkommunikation med individen på samma sätt som med en villaägare. Dessutom kan omsättningen av boende vara stor och det kan vara svårt att fånga upp nya källsorterande hushåll i systemet.

    Kvalitén på det matavfall som samlas in från flerbostadshus kontrolleras, men det är svårare att identifiera vem/vilka som bidrar till bristerna. Fastighetsägarna behöver därför vända sig till samtliga boende i fastigheten även fast majoriteten sköter sig. Det handlar då ofta om att generellt skapa bättre förutsättningar för källsortering, skyltning och kommunikation.

    Lyckad matavfallsinsamling för hyresgäster hos det allmännyttiga bostadsföretaget och privata fastighetsägare samt boende i bostadsrättsföreningar bygger ofta på gemensam satsning och god dialog mellan fastighetsägare och avfallsansvariga på kommunen.

  • 31.
    Anderzén, Christina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Hellström, Hanna
    Göteborgsregionens kommunalförbund.
    Blom, Angelika
    NSR.
    Matavfallets väg från bord till jord – en översiktlig kartläggning av olika insamlingssystem för källsorterat matavfall från hushåll2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid förbehandling av matavfall uppstår ofta en balansgång mellan att ta bort föroreningar och att minimera förluster av insamlat matavfall. Fler separeringssteg innebär större förluster. Mer kunskap behövs dock kring vilka faktiska förluster av matavfall som görs vid olika typer av förbehandling samt koppling till olika insamlingssystem. Ett väl sorterat matavfall med så lite ovidkommande material som möjligt underlättar fortsatt behandling och möjligheter till avsättning av biogödsel samtidigt som det skapar förutsättningar för mindre förluster. 

    Syftet med insamling av källsorterat matavfall är i första hand att återvinna växtnäring, vilket även kommer att säkerställa produktionen av biogas. I denna rapport följer vi påsen med matavfall från hushållet hela vägen till åkermarken. Projektet har gjort en ansats att försöka beskriva vad som händer längs vägen och utifrån detta bedöma hur det påverkar kvalitén samt vilka förluster som görs i olika steg. Resonemang förs även avseende skillnader mellan de i Sverige vanligaste insamlingssystemen för källsorterat matavfall; fyrfackskärl, separata kärl och olikfärgade påsar för optisk sortering.

    Målet är att kommunerna efter genomläsning ska få en bättre förståelse för hela kedjan ”från bord till jord”. Därmed också att utformningen av egna mål och val av insamlingssystem, i större utsträckning än idag, baseras på en helhetssyn avseende biologisk återvinning där även kvalitetssäkring och förutsättningar för återföring av växtnäring vägs in. Förhoppningen är även att kommuner som redan är igång med insamling av matavfall, ska finna stöd i arbetet med att säkra kvaliteten och mängder då ”från bord till jord” ger en överblick över de olika stegen. 

    Det är så klart önskvärt att så stor andel matavfall som möjligt samlas in och att det är rätt sorterat. Rapporten konstaterar att andra faktorer än typ av insamlingssystem, bl.a. hur man arbetar med information, är viktiga för vilket insamlingsresultat som uppnås. Därmed föreslås att informationsmodeller beaktas vid jämförande studier avseende utsorteringsgrad, mängd och kvalitet. Även resultat vid källsortering av matavfall i större mekaniska system såsom sopsug och underjordsbehållare anpassade för flerbostadshus/tätbebyggda områden bör utvärderas. Detta eftersom dessa system blir allt vanligare särskilt i storstadsregionerna. Förlust av biogaspotential då matavfall mellanlagras har inte utretts vidare i denna rapport och bör också studeras närmare. Vilken påverkan har exempelvis hämtningsintervall och transportsträcka mellan insamling och behandling?

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att det behövs mer kunskap och konkreta siffror längs hela kedjan för biologisk återvinning - från insamling till återföring av växtnäring – för att kunna sätta resultat och kostnader i ett systemperspektiv.

  • 32.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Juntikka, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Nedev, Georgi
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Reza, Haghani
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The Re-use of End-of-Life Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites in Construction2022Ingår i: CICE 2021: 10th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering pp 1183-1195|, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, s. 1183-1195Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a more resource-efficient society and a future with reduced carbon dioxide emissions, new technological challenges must be dealt. One way to reach a more sustainable world is to start re-using end-of-life structures and waste and give them a “Second Life” with new functions in the society. As fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are lightweight, strong, stiff and durable materials, there is great potential to re-use decommissioned FRP structures for new resource-efficient solutions in the building and infrastructure sectors. The present paper investigates innovative solutions in re-using wind turbine blades and glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) pipes as structural elements in new bicycle and pedestrian bridges. Specifically, a concept design for decking system made of GFRP pipes is developed and discussed. The main design requirements for pedestrian bridges are considered and assumptions regarding end-of-life GFRP quality and their mechanical properties have been addressed. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a sustainable use of GFRP waste and at the same time provide a more cost-effective solution for short span pedestrian bridges. In a larger perspective, the authors would like to highlight the economically profitable potential of recovering and reusing/re-manufacturing end-of-life GFRP composites. © 2022, The Author(s)

  • 33.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Delreparation av tätskiktssystem – del 2 - Fältundersökning2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial repair of waterproofing systems – Part 2 - Field survey

    This research project has been terminated prematurely at the request of the funder. The decision to terminate was made as the project has not received suitable objects to the extent required for the project to be carried out as it was planned and promised in the application. It has been unexpectedly difficult to get suitable objects for the project. The idea was that the insurance companies represented in the project team would provide the project with suitable objects. Only four objects have been received for the project. In these objects, humidity sensors have been deployed and measurements have begun. With the Invisense system, only starting measurements to be used as a reference to the next measurement have been carried out. This means that there are no trends to ana-lyse. For the other measurement systems (iioote and Talkpool), the measurements have been ongoing for about six and nine months respectively. In some of the objects, the measurements do not start after installation. It is likely that the sensors do not have contact with the internet via the LoRaWAN technology used. At the objects where measurements start, the moisture level appears to be at a normal level, there does not seem to be any leakage.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    RISE rapport
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    NCC rapport
  • 34.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lufttäta klimatskal under verkligaförhållanden2017Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beständigheten hos klimatskalets lufttäthetsystem är helt avgörande för om näranollenergihus, passivhus och plushus kommer att fungera som det var tänkt över tid. Eftersom produkterna som säkerställer lufttätheten oftast befinner sig inuti konstruktionen kan det därför innebära stora ingrepp i byggnader om de behöver bytas ut i förtid. Att i laboratorium i förväg kunna utvärdera beständigheten hos det lufttätande systemet är viktigt och för detta behövs en provningsmetod.

    Det överordnade syftet med hela projektet är att utveckla en metod där hela system för lufttäthet kan undersökas. Detta så att god lufttäthet och låg energianvändning kan erhållas under lång tid hos framtidens lufttäthetssystem. Denna etapp av projektet har innehållit utveckling och provkörning av en ny provningsmetod. Provningsmetodiken har dokumenterats i SP-metod 5264, utgåva 2, bilaga 2 till denna rapport. Provningsmetoden har fungerat ypperligt vid pilotprovningarna. Man ser en förändring av lufttätheten vid mätningar före respektive efter värmebehandlingen. Provningsmetoden är mycket noggrann och känslig på så sätt att förändring i lufttätheten kan registreras.

    Provningsmetoden är ett mycket bra verktyg för producenter av lufttäthetssystem vid produktutveckling. Metoden är också lämplig för användning vid utvärdering av lufttäthetssystem för olika godkännandesystem och certifiering. Samtliga provade lufttäthetssystem var mycket lufttäta före värmebehandlingen. Alla systemen visar på resultat under 0,1 l/(s∙m²). Efter värmebehandlingen visar alla undersökta lufttäthetssystem dock en ökande luftgenomsläpplighet, i varierande grad.

    I projektet har även montage av lufttäthetssystem gjorts i miljöer som valts för att efterlikna realistiska byggarbetsplatsförhållanden. Alla de undersökta lufttäthetssystemen visar på förändringar i lufttätheten då montaget har skett i kall och fuktig miljö och vid montage i dammig miljö. Variationen mellan de olika systemen har dock varit ganska stor.

    Det är vår uppfattning om alla lufttäthetsystem i framtiden undersöks med hjälp av denna provningsmetod så kommer man att få en stark förbättring av lufttätheten och därmed lägre energianvändning.

    .

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    fulltext
  • 35.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Berntsson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Sjöqvist, Mia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem för våtutrymmen 20222022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing of waterproofing systems for use behind ceramic tiling based on flexible sheets 2022 This research project is a repetition of previously completed projects. These projects span a long period of time, 12 years. The projects were completed during the period 2010 to 2022. Functional testing The result is better than before. 2022 2019 (1) 2016 (2) 2014 (3) 2010 (4) Result Result Result Result Result Result No leakage 9 (47 %) 6 (32 %) 8 (40 %) 3 (15 %) 0 (0 %) Leakage 10 (53 %) 13 (68 %) 12 (60 %) 17 (85 %) 5 (100 %) In this investigation, most of the leaks are located to penetrations of large and small sewer pipes. In this investigation, we have on several occasions seen that the pipe sleeves have had substandard quality. This has manifested itself in the fact that the polymeric material which is to seal around the pipe during the test has lost its sealing ability. It is probable that the material has developed a residual deformation (settling) which means that the material has lost its ability to seal around the pipe. We have also noticed that pipe cuffs have delaminated, the layers in the cuff during the test have been divided into their components. Leakage has also occurred at inner corners, outer corners and at chafing. Only a few, two, leaks at connections to floor drains have been noted. Better yet, none of the examined waterproofing systems showed leaks that were so extensive that one can speak of a total damage. Water vapour resistance and mass per unit area The vast majority of investigated waterproofing foils have a water vapour resistance of between 2.5 and 4.5 million s m, which is a high or very high value. Results for five waterproofing foils fall below 2.5 million s / m. Based on the determinations of water vapor resistance and basis weight, it can be concluded that probably six of the waterproofing suppliers have developed new or changed foils since the last survey. The trend of wanting to make thinner foils seems to have been broken. Most of the waterproofing foils have a higher vapor passage resistance now than in the previous survey. It is also noteworthy that the PVC sealing layer has a low water vapor passage resistance. The waterproofing foil has basically the same basis weight now compared to the previous survey. Indication of long-term properties To obtain an indication of the amount of added antioxidants that improve the long-term properties of the materials, DSC analyses of the waterproofing foils have been performed. Compared with the previous study, the induction temperatures are at about the same level as before, only small differences occur. The average induction temperature for all polyethylene films is 216 ° C and, in summary, the materials appear to be stabilized at the same level as the previous study. In the same way as in the survey, 2016, most materials seem to be more stabilized for long-term use compared with the previous study, 2014. However, for all analysed materials, to make a reliable service life prediction of the material, a more comprehensive aging study is recommended

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Sjöqvist, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem förvåtutrymmen 20192018Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing of waterproofing systems for use behind ceramic tiling based on flexible sheets 2019

    Functional testing

    The result is worse than before.

    Six (32%) of the nineteen tested waterproofing systems passed the function test without leakage. Thirteen (68%) tests resulted in leakage.

    This result is worse than that obtained in the previous project in 2016, (1) when eight (40%) of twenty tested waterproofing systems passed the functional test without leakage. There has therefore been some deterioration in the as constructed systems.

    The result, however, is better than in the project performed in 2014 (2) when only three (15%) of twenty tested waterproofing systems passed without leakage.

    In this project, several leakages are localised around the penetrations of large and small drainpipes. This is an increase compared to previous studies. We have seen on several occasions that pipe collars have had poor quality. This has been noticed by that the polymer material used for sealing around the tube has lost its water tightness ability during the test. It is most probable that the material has a residual deformation (from setting) that causes the material to lose its ability to seal around the tube. We have also noted that the pipe collars have delaminated i.e. the layers in the collars have been divided into their individual constituents during the test.

    Leakages have also been caused by connections to gullies, inside corners, outside corners and in joints of foils.

    Fortunately, none of the investigative systems showed leakage that was so extensive that one could describe it as total damage.

    Water vapour resistance and mass per unit area

    Thirteen tested waterproofing on flexible sheet systems show a result between 2,5 and 4,5 million s/m, which is a high or very-high water vapour resistance. Six flexible sheet systems have a result below 2,5 million s/m.

    In the determination of water vapour resistance and mass per unit area, we can clearly see that some manufacturers have made changes in or replaced their flexible sheet with a new one, compared with the previous investigation (1).

    We further note that 10 out of 14 flexible sheets have a lower water vapor resistance than in the previous investigation (1). It is also notable that the PVC sealing layer has a low water vapor resistance.

    Indication of long-term properties

    In order to obtain an indication of the amount added antioxidants that improves the long-term properties of the materials, the DSC analysis of flexible sheets have been performed. In the same way as in the previous project, 2016, (1) it seems that the flexible sheets to be more stabilized for long-term use compared to the previous study in 2014, (2). However, for all analysed materials, to make a reliable service life prediction of the material, an accelerated ageing at moderate temperature is recommended.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Antypa, D.
    et al.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Petrakli, F.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Gkika, A.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Voigt, P.
    Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Kahnt, A.
    Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Böhm, R.
    Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Araújo, A.
    INETI, Portugal; LAETA, Portugal.
    Sousa, S.
    INETI, Portugal; LAETA, Portugal.
    Koumoulos, E. P.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Advanced Building Components towards NZEBs2022Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, nr 23, artikel-id 16218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector accounts for 40% of the total energy consumed in Europe at annual basis, together with the relevant Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In order to mitigate these impacts, the concept and establishment of the Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) is under continuous and intensive research. In fact, as the energy used for buildings’ operation becomes more efficient, impacts resulting from the buildings’ embodied energy become of more importance. Therefore, the selection of building materials and components is of high significance, as these affect the energy performance and potential environmental impacts of the building envelopes. The objective of this study is to perform a preliminary Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on advanced multifunctional building components, aiming to achieve lower embodied emissions in NZEBs. The advanced components analyzed are composite panels for facade elements of building envelopes, providing thermal efficiency. The design of sustainable building envelope systems is expected to upgrade the overall environmental performance of buildings, including the NZEBs. The findings of this study constitute unambiguous evidence on the need for further research on this topic, as substantial lack of data concerning embodied impacts is presented in literature, adding to the growing discussion on NZEBs at a whole life cycle perspective across Europe. This research has shown that the electricity required from the manufacturing phase of the examined building components is the main contributor to climate change impact and the other environmental categories assessed. Sensitivity analysis that has been performed indicated that the climate change impact is highly depended on the electricity grid energy mix across Europe. Taking into account the current green energy transition by the increase of the renewable energy sources in electricity production, as well as the future upgrade of the manufacturing processes, it is expected that this climate change impact will be mitigated. Finally, the comparison between the CLC thermal insulator and other foam concretes in literature showed that the materials of the building components examined do not present any diversions in terms of environmental impact. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 38.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Implementation of the Bürger-Diehl settler model on the benchmark simulation platform2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Arnell, Magnus
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Performance assessment of wastewater treatment plants: multi-objective analysis using plant-wide models2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As the knowledge about anthropogenic impacts of climate change has grown, the awareness of the contributions from treatment of wastewater has widened the scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Not only shall ever stricter effluent constraints be met, but also energy efficiency be increased, greenhouse gases mitigated and resources recovered. All under a constant pressure on costs. The main objective of this research has been to develop a plant-wide modelling tool to evaluate the performance of operational strategies for multiple objectives at the plant and for off-site environmental impact.

    The plant-wide model platform Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been modified to improve the evaluation of energy efficiency and include greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, the plant-wide process model has been coupled to a life cycle analysis (LCA) model for evaluation of global environmental impact. For energy evaluation, a dynamic aeration system model has been adapted and implemented. The aeration model includes oxygen transfer efficiency, dynamic pressure in the distribution system and non-linear behaviour of blower performance. To allow for modelling of energy recovery via anaerobic co-digestion the digestion model of BSM2 was updated with a flexible co-digestion model allowing for dynamic co-substrate feeds. A feasible procedure for substrate characterisation was proposed. Emissions of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O were considered. The bioprocess model in BSM2 was updated with two-step nitrification, four-step denitrification and nitrifier denitrification to capture N2O production. Fugitive emissions of the three gases were included from digestion, cogeneration and sludge storage. The models were tested in case studies for the three areas of development: aeration, co-digestion and greenhouse gas production. They failed to reject the hypothesis that dynamic process models are required to assess the highly variable operations of wastewater treatment plants. All parts were combined in a case study of the Käppala WWTP in Lidingö, Sweden, for comparison of operational strategies and evaluation of stricter effluent constraints. The averaged model outputs were exported to an LCA model to include off-site production of input goods and impact of discharged residues and wastes. The results reveal trade-offs between water quality, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and abiotic depletion of elemental and fossil resources.

    The developed tool is generally applicable for WWTPs and the simulation results from this type of combined models create a good basis for decision support.

  • 40.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande. Lund University, Sweden.
    Saagi, Ramesh
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plant-wide modelling and analysis of WWTP temperature dynamics for sustainable heat recovery from wastewater2021Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 84, nr 4, s. 1023-1036Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater heat recovery upstream of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) poses a risk to treatment performance, i.e. the biological processes. In order to perform a sustainability analysis, a detailed prediction of the temperature dynamics over the WWTP is needed. A comprehensive set of heat balance equations was included in a plant-wide process model and validated for the WWTP in Linköping, Sweden, to predict temperature variations over the whole year in a temperate climate. A detailed model for the excess heat generation of biological processes was developed. The annual average temperature change from influent to effluent was 0.78°C with clear seasonal variations, wherein 45% of the temperature change arose from processes other than the activated sludge unit. To address this, plant-wide energy modelling was necessary to predict in-tank temperature in the biological treatment steps. The energy processes with the largest energy gains were solar radiation and biological processes, while the largest losses were from conduction, convection, and atmospheric radiation. Tanks with large surface areas showed a significant impact on the heat balance regardless of biological processes. Simulating a 3°C lower influent temperature, the temperature in the activated sludge unit dropped by 2.8°C, which had a negative impact on nitrogen removal

  • 41.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019). Lund University, Sweden.
    Astals, Sergi
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jensen, Paul D.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling anaerobic co-digestion in Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2:parameter estimation, substrate characterisation and plant-wide integration2016Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 98, s. 138-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion is an emerging practice at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to improve the energy balance and integrate waste management. Modelling of co-digestion in a plant-wide WWTP model is a powerful tool to assess the impact of co-substrate selection and dose strategy on digester performance and plant-wide effects. A feasible procedure to characterise and fractionate co-substrates COD for the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) was developed. This procedure is also applicable for the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). Long chain fatty acid inhibition was included in the ADM1 model to allow for realistic modelling of lipid rich co-substrates. Sensitivity analysis revealed that, apart from the biodegradable fraction of COD, protein and lipid fractions are the most important fractions for methane production and digester stability, with at least two major failure modes identi fied through principal component analysis (PCA). The model and procedure were tested on bio-methane potential (BMP) tests on three substrates, each rich on carbohydrates, proteins or lipids with good predictive capability in all three cases. This model was then applied to a plant-wide simulation study which confirmed the positive effects of co-digestion on methane production and total operational cost. Simulations also revealed the importance of limiting the protein load to the anaerobic digester to avoid ammonia inhibition in the digester and overloading of the nitrogen removal processes in the water train. In contrast, the digester can treat relatively high loads of lipid rich substrates without prolonged disturbances.

  • 42.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management. Lund University, Sweden.
    Astals, Sergi
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jensen, Paul
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Substrate fractionation for modelling of anaerobic co-digestion with a plant-wide perspective2016Ingår i: 5th IWA/WEF Wastewater Treatment Modelling Seminar (WWTmod2016), 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Lund University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Aeration system modelling - case studies from three full-scale wastewater treatment plants2015Ingår i: 9th IWA Symposium on Systems Analysis and Integrated Assessment (Watermatex 2015), 2015, artikel-id 10.4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The water train of three WWTPs have been modelled following the procedures of the Benchmark Simulation Model (BSM) platform (Gernaey et al., 2014). Additionally the aeration system has been modelled to evaluate airflows and energy performance. The results for the airflow model are presented. The chosen airflow model is shown to be easy to apply and calibrate and robust for practical modelling cases. By simply adjusting the SOTE-polynomial, number of diffusors and airflow limitations the model replicates the real data at a level of detail suitable for most purposes where the evaluation is based on longer time averages. For peak demand evaluation the whole treatment model with influent characterization, model calibration and controllers need to be more detailed than done here. Modelling the airflow is important to allow for evaluation of air consumption, aeration energy performance and for communication of simulation results to plant staff and operators.

  • 44.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Modellering av avloppsreningsverk för multikriteriebedömning av prestanda och miljöpåverkan2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att använda detaljerade dynamiska modeller och kombinera resultat från årslånga simuleringar av ARV (såväl vatten- som slamlinjer) med livscykelanalys kan olika driftstrategier utvecklas och utvärderas utifrån en bred uppsättning hållbarhetskriterier fö att maximera resursutvinning och energieffektivitet samtidigt som vattenkvalitén bibehålls och driftskostnaderna kontrolleras. Metodiken har tillämpats vid en omfattande fallstudie av Käppalaverket.

  • 45.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lund university, Sweden.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Sustainability Analysis forWastewater Heat Recovery - Literature Review2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report describes the literature review conducted on wastewater heat recovery (WWHR). As part of the urban water cycle, domestic hot water consumes the lion share – up to 90 % – of the total energy requirement for water management. Individual energy consumption of 780 to 1 150 kWh/cay/yr has been estimated in Sweden. Energy can be recovered from wastewater, in buildings close to the source or further downstream in the wastewater system. Depending on wastewater flow and temperature heat exchangers or heat pumps (or a combination of both) can be used for extracting heat the energy. Obstacles for utilizing this potential are for example: clogging and fouling of equipment, potentially negative system impacts and economic feasibility. Examples of various WWHR implementations have been found in Sweden, Switzerland and North America. Some installations have been running for a long time and technical function and financial viability has been evaluated and are reviewed in the report. Generally, heat pumps reach a coefficient of performance of 3 to 7, better the higher the wastewater temperature is, i.e. further up-stream.

    WWHR application in a wastewater system can be modelled. The domestic hot water requirement and associated energy use has been modelled previously and concepts can be adapted for modelling the larger system. Equations for calculating performance and output variables from heat recovery equipment have been reviewed and is presented. For the purpose of assessing single WWHR installations in sewers, detailed models have been developed and presented. There are reviewed in the text. Concepts for estimating temperature variations in sewers are essential to assess the impact on wastewater treatment plants. Performance of wastewater treatment plants and their temperature dependence can be modelled with existing process models. Temperature variations along the course of the treatment plant might be important to consider.

    In Sweden, there are currently some regulations related to WWHR. The temperature of hot water systems in buildings are regulated to prevent Legionella outbreaks. Furthermore, the practice of WWHR is limited in extent and requires a permit from the utility as by the contract between the consumer and the utility. Currently, this limits the implementation of WWHR in Sweden.

  • 46.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Evaluating Environmental Performance of Operational Strategies at Wastewater Treatment Plants2016Ingår i: IWA World Water Congress and Exhibition 2016 (IWA 2016), 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objectiveperformance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluationof modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also, resourceefficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost callsfor assessment methods including both on and off-site effects. In this study amethod combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions and detailed energy models – and life cycle assessment was developed.The method is applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performanceassessment study changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primarytreatment was performed and evaluated. The results show that the primaryobjectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce greenhouse gasemissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the globalwarming potential (GWP) decreased by 28%. However, the LCA revealed that due toincreased consumption of precipitation chemicals and additional carbon sourcedosing (methanol) the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil re-sourcesincreased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasise the importance ofusing plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture thedynamics of the plant – e.g. dynamics of GHG emissions – and the potentialglobal environmental impact.

  • 47.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lunds university, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Multi-objective performance assessment of wastewatertreatment plants combining plant-wide process modelsand life cycle assessment2017Ingår i: Journal of Water and Climate Change, ISSN 20402244, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 715-729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective performance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluation of modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also resource efficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost calls for assessment methods including both on- and off-site effects. In this study, a method combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG), detailed energy models and operational cost – and life cycle assessment (LCA) was developed. The method was applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performance assessment study, changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primary treatment was evaluated. The results show that the primary objectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce GHG emissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the global warming potential decreased by 28%. However, due to increased consumption of chemicals, the operational cost increased by 87% and the LCA revealed that the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil resources increased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasize the importance of using plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture both the dynamics of the plant and the potential environmental impacts.

  • 48.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    En not om att mäta kapacitet på järnväg2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande rapport introducerar ett nytt kapacitetsmått för trafik på järnväg. Syftet med det föreslagna måttet är att det skall vara användbart vid förplanering av järnvägstrafik, innan järnvägsföretag och andra sökanden lämnar in sina ansökningar om trafik och kapacitetstilldelningen slutförs. Kapacitetsmåttet utgår från det gängse sättet att presentera en tågplan, den så kallade tidtabellsgrafen, eller i branschen refererad till som bara ”grafen”. För varje spårsträcka som tågläget belägger så utgör kapacitetskonsumtionen ytan som upptas i grafen. Denna yta är summan av varje individuell signalsträckas längd multiplicerat med tiden som tågläget belägger hela spårsträckan. Detta utgör kapacitetskonsumtionen för tågläget. Måttet blir intressant i de tidigare processtegen innan ansökan om kapacitet. Då ansökan ännu inte är genomförd så finns inga sökta avgångs- och ankomsttider, däremot en prognos vad som kommer sökas (t.ex. genom den i TTR angivna händelsen Capacity Needs Announcement). Genom att lägga på ett tidsfönster kan varje prognosticerat tågläge abstraheras att avgå/ankomma inom detta tidsfönster. Kapacitetskonsumtionen är dock konstant, och denna fördelas över tidsfönstret. Genom att för varje tidsögonblick ackumulera den fördelade kapacitetsåtgången fås en kapacitetsanvändningsplan. Denna är en abstraktion av det tänkta framtida schemat (tågplanen) och kräver således inte en konfliktfri tågplan som utgångspunkt. En kapacitetsanvändningsplan kan således realiseras av många olika scheman som realiserar den. Tanken är att kapacitetsanvändningsplanen, om prognosen för framtida trafik är rätt, på ett korrekt sätt lyckats abstraherat den framtida tågplanens konkreta schema. Hänsyn måste tas till de tidsmässiga kostnader som uppstår för att tåglägen har olika hastighet och på enkelspår går i olika riktning. Detta hanteras i analogi med andra industrisektorer med ställtid, vilket också är kapacitetskonsumtion och således ingår i kapacitetsanvändningsplanen. Utöver detta måste hänsyn i kapacitetsanvändnings-planen tas till tid som behövs för att reglera möten och förbigångar på omgivande driftplatser och ger upphov till ytor som inte längre kan nås i ett konkretiserat schema. Då denna kapacitetskonsumtion adderas till den övriga beskrivna kapacitets-konsumtionen har en kapacitetsbudget skapats vars syfte är att klargöra förutsättningarna för vilken trafik som kan bedrivas och som skall kunna realiseras i ett schema (tågplan) efter att ansökan om kapacitet skett. Det i denna rapport beskrivna måttet för kapacitetskonsumtion utgör en brygga mellan de tidigare processtegen i kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen och de senare.

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  • 49.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Reservkapacitet i tågplaneprocessen: Förstudie2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för tilldelningsprocessen är att den mest samhällsnyttiga trafiken, tolkat som den mest samhällsekonomiska, är den som skall genomföras varje dygn. De sökande av tåglägen för nästkommande år lämnar in sina ansökningar i april året före, vilket sedan sammanställs och planeras av infrastrukturhållaren.  Såsom i all planering så är inte alla fakta kända i förväg då de sökande lämnar in sina ansökningar. Av det skälet har svensk järnvägslag ett moment om ”reservkapacitet”, kapacitet som avsätts för att möjliggöra även tilldelning av effektiva tåglägen under pågående genomförande av tågplanen. Målet för projektet Reservkapacitet i tågplanen, RIT, är att finna modeller, metoder och verktyg för hantering av reservkapacitet genom tilldelningsprocessen. Syftet är också att i allmänhet studera hur reservering av kapacitet kan göras då diskussioner förs internationellt om en utvecklad tilldelningsprocess där möjligheten till både långsiktigt stabil trafik och effektiva tåglägen med kort framförhållning skall kunna planeras och genomföras. Skillnad görs mellan tilldelad kapacitet, reserverad kapacitet och restkapacitet, där den senare enbart är sådan kapacitet som inte efterfrågades och således är ”över”. Rapporten presenterar resultaten från förstudien där olika aspekter av reserverad kapacitet belyses, en diskussion rörande hur stort behovet av reservkapacitet är samt innehåller en genomgång av vad som finns gjort inom området både nationellt och internationellt. En principiell ansats för hantering av reserverad kapacitet presenteras, där en bärande princip är att tåglägen måste ha jämförbara värden genom hela tilldelningsprocessen för att mängden och typen av reserverad kapacitet skall bli korrekt formulerad.

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  • 50.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Transporttillgänglighet och tillgänglighetsnyckeltal för järnvägsnät och banunderhåll2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    På infrastrukturförvaltaren Trafikverket åligger det att skapa en kapacitetstilldelning som både leder till punktligt genomförande av trafik och samtidigt bibehållen anläggningsstatus. Detta skall genomföras på ett sådant sätt att anläggningen används på ett optimalt samhällsnyttigt sätt. Den årliga tågplanen beskriver kapacitetsfördelningen av infrastrukturen mellan tåg och underhållsåtgärder för ett år i taget, men är slutresultatet av flera års förberedelser. Cirka 8 månader innan tågplanen börjar gälla söker järnvägsföretagen och underhållentreprenörerna kapacitet för tåglägen och banarbeten, men processen börjar avsevärt tidigare. Denna rapport beskriver hur ett transportutbud och produktions-estimat kan formuleras, beräknas och värderas som ett verktyg och underlag för dels ansökan av banarbeten, dels som ett underlag för kapacitetsfördelningsstrategier. Huvudresultatet är en frikoppling av tågläget med dess precist formulerade väg genom järnvägsnätet till ett nytt begrepp, transportläget, som definierar de huvudegenskaper som utgör viktiga leveranskvaliteter och leveransegenskaper hus transporttjänsten. Basen för ett transportläge utgör utgångsstation, slutstation samt eventuellt andra stationer med kommersiella aktiviteter såsom av/påstigande eller av/påkoppling av godsvagnar. Transportlägen med samma egenskaper formar Transporttjänsteklasser. Genom att använda prioriteringsklasserna från de i järnvägsnätsbeskrivningen beskrivna prioriteringskriterierna kan en värdering kopplas till transportlägena och transporttjänsteklasserna. Denna värdering gör det möjligt att jämföra olika transportjänsteklasser och låta transportlägen byta klass om det vid samordning och beräkning av produktions-estimatet visar sig nödvändigt på grund av exempelvis trängsel på infrastrukturen. Värderingen är också nyckeln för att värdera den påverkan trafikpåverkande åtgärder såsom banarbeten får på produktions-estimatet, dels enskilda trafikpåverkande åtgärder men kanske framför allt kombinatoriska effekter av dessa åtgärder.

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