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  • 1.
    Almeida, Cheila
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Vaz, S.
    Cabral, H.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental assessment of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) purse seine fishery in Portugal with LCA methodology including biological impact categories2014Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 297-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purse seine fishery for sardine is the most important fishery in Portugal. The aim of the present study is to assess the environmental impacts of sardine fished by the Portuguese fleet and to analyse a number of variables such as vessel size and time scale. An additional goal was to incorporate fishery-specific impact categories in the case study. Methods: Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied, and data were collected from nine vessels, which represented around 10 % of the landings. Vessels were divided into two length categories, above and below 12 m, and data were obtained for the years 2005 to 2010. The study was limited to the fishing phase only. The standard impact categories included were energy use, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential and ozone depletion potential. The fishery-specific impact categories were overfishing, overfishedness, lost potential yield, mean trophic level and the primary production required, and were quantified as much as possible. Results and discussion: The landings from the data set were constituted mainly by sardine (91 %), and the remainders were other small pelagic species (e.g. horse mackerel). The most important input was the fuel, and both vessel categories had the same fuel consumption per catch 0.11 l/kg. Average greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint) were 0.36 kg CO2 eq. per kilo sardine landed. The fuel use varied between years, and variability between months can be even higher. Fishing mortality has increased, and the spawning stock biomass has decreased resulting in consequential overfishing for 2010. A correlation between fuel use and stock biomass was not found, and the stock condition does not seem to directly influence the global warming potential in this fishery. Discards were primarily non-target small pelagic species, and there was also mortality of target species resulting from slipping. The seafloor impact was considered to be insignificant due to the fishing method. Conclusions: The assessment of the Portuguese purse seine fishery resulted in no difference regarding fuel use between large and small vessels, but differences were found between years. The stock has declined, and it has produced below maximum sustainable yield. By-catch and discard data were missing but may be substantial. Even being difficult to quantify, fishery impact categories complement the environmental results with biological information and precaution is need in relation to the stock management. The sardine carbon footprint from Portuguese purse seine was lower than that of other commercial species reported in. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 2.
    Almeida, Cheila
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Vaz, S.
    Cabral, H.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Erratum: Environmental assessment of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) purse seine fishery in Portugal with LCA methodology including biological impact categories (The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment DOI: 10.1007/s11367-013-0646-5)2014Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 471-472Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Almeida, Cheila
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment. New University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Vaz, Sofia Guedes
    Portuguese Government, Portugal.
    Sevilla Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of a Canned Sardine Product from Portugal2015Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 607-617Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the environmental impacts of canned sardines in olive oil, by considering fishing, processing, and packaging, using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The case study concerns a product of a canning factory based in Portugal and packed in aluminum cans. It is the first LCA of a processed seafood product made with the traditional canning method. The production of both cans and olive oil are the most important process in the considered impact categories. The production of olives contributes to the high environmental load of olive oil, related to cultivation and harvesting phases. The production of aluminum cans is the most significant process for all impact categories, except ozone depletion potential and eutrophication potential, resulting from the high energy demand and the extraction of raw materials. To compare to other sardine products consumed in Portugal, such as frozen and fresh sardines, transport to the wholesaler and store was added. The environmental cost of canned sardines is almost seven times higher per kilogram of edible product. The main action to optimize the environmental performance of canned sardines is therefore to replace the packaging and diminish the olive oil losses as much as possible. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by half when plastic packaging is considered rather than aluminum. Frozen and fresh sardines represent much lower environmental impacts than canned sardines. Nevertheless, when other sardine products are not possible, it becomes feasible to use sardines for human consumption, preventing them from being wasted or used suboptimally as feed.

  • 4.
    Avadí, Angel
    et al.
    UPR Recyclage et Risque, France ; University of Montpellier, France.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Sweden ; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Towards improved practices in Life Cycle Assessment of seafood and other aquatic products2018Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 979-981Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: 

    Aquatic supply chains, based on e.g. fish, molluscs, crustaceans and algae, provide products aimed for direct or indirect human consumption and other uses. Global demand for these products is increasing, but the fact that wild-capture fisheries—supplying inputs for the food and feed industries—have stagnated (FAO 2016), or even declined, has raised questions about the environmental consequences of aquatic supply chains  Research applying LCA to seafood products has emerged since the early years of the century and, until today, dozens of case studies of fisheries and aquaculture systems from all around the world have been published. The body of literature in this field has grown to the extent of allowing systematic reviews to be undertaken on specific production sectors, such as for capture fisheries 

    The lifecycle of seafood commodities differs from that of terrestrial production systems in their diversity, in the case of fisheries, the reliance on extraction of a natural resource (fish stocks), their impacts on often unmapped ecosystems (e.g. seafloors and deep sea fish stocks) and the more complex trophic webs of aquatic ecosystems. To capture also these biotic and fisheries-specific impacts, an increasing number of fisheries and aquaculture LCAs apply novel impact categories such as biotic resource use and benthic ecosystems impacts. Aquaculture systems, in addition, often rely on feed resources from capture fisheries, agriculture and livestock, requiring extensive LCI models.

    Among the existing aquaculture seafood LCA studies, there is a strong focus on salmonids aquaculture in Europe and North America. The globally largest aquaculture sector, carp farming in China, has, however, been poorly covered. Peruvian anchoveta, the world’s largest fishery and the primary source of fishmeal and fish oil, was first modelled in 2014. Consequently, while the number of aquatic LCAs has steadily been increasing, the uniqueness of aquatic production chains and the diversity of species leave many inventories overlooked and some relevant impact categories unaddressed. In response, we initiated this Special Issue (SI), to supplement literature and highlight shortcomings. Thirteen articles were ultimately accepted in the SI

  • 5.
    Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Environmental impacts of alternative antifouling methods and use patterns of leisure boat owners2019Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 725-734Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Leisure boaters in the Baltic Sea apply more copper as antifoulant than needed and permitted. Initiatives have been started to identify efficient means making boat owners comply with regulations through changed consumer behavior. We compare the environmental impacts of conventional and alternative antifouling methods, using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Methods: Two non-toxic methods were compared with biocide paint. To study the influence of boat owner use patterns, paint and brush washer scenarios (e.g., different paints, amounts, and maintenance) were created based on current use and recommendations. The functional unit was an average Swedish leisure boat kept fouling free for 1 year and impact categories studied were freshwater eco-toxicity and greenhouse gas emissions. Production of paints, fuel, electricity, and material used in the non-toxic methods was included. Sensitivity analysis was performed regarding the characterization method for toxicity, the fuel consumption data, and the copper release data. Results and discussion: The non-toxic methods, hull cover and brush washer, performed best, but a trade-off was identified when the brush washer was located further away from the home port, when additional transportation increased greenhouse gas emissions. The resources needed for the non-toxic methods (production of materials and electricity used) cause considerably lower toxic emissions than paint. In the paint scenarios, using less paint and cleaning the boat over a washing pad with water treatment reduces aquatic emissions significantly. Fuel-related emissions were consistently lower than paint-related emissions. In the best-performing paint scenario, fuel- and paint-related emissions represented 26 and 67% of total emissions, respectively. Conclusions: The non-toxic methods hull cover and brush washers lead to lower emissions, especially when brush washers were located close to the home port. Lacking such infrastructure, “painting less” is a way to reduce emissions, by using lower amounts of paint and painting less frequently. More widespread use of these antifouling strategies would considerably reduce copper emissions from leisure boating to the Baltic Sea. We suggest that support to marinas for investments in brush washers and washing pads should be further developed to enable boat owners to choose more sustainable antifouling methods and that information campaigns on the combined economic, health, and ecosystem impacts of antifouling are especially designed for boaters, marinas, market actors, and policy makers for a change to take place towards more sustainable practices.

  • 6.
    Borthwick, Louisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensk konsumtion av sjömat2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten visar att det är möjligt att få fram tillförlitlig statistik över svensk sjömatskonsumtion för alla arter utom sill och skarpsill på en detaljgrad som tidigare saknats, trots de dataluckor som finns.Sjömatskonsumtionen i Sverige beräknas ligga på 25 kg per capita hel sjömat, vilket motsvarar 12,5 kg ätlig sjömat eller knappt två portioner i veckan. Vi äter mindre sjömat än för fem år sedan.Upp mot 80 olika sjömatsarter finns på den svenska marknaden, men de tio vanligaste står för 80 procent av konsumtionen. Mest äter svenskar av lax, sill, torsk och räkor.Knappt 30 procent av det som äts kommer från den inhemska produktionen av sjömat från yrkes- och fritidsfiske, samt odling. Den inhemska produktionen kan ses som Sveriges teoretiska självförsörjningsgrad av sjömat. Drygt 70 procent importeras alltså och då främst med Norge, Danmark och Kina som avsändarland. Från den svenska produktionen är det främst sill, skarpsill, regnbåge och den fisk som rapporteras under koden ”Fryst fisk i.a.n.” i tulltaxan, som exporteras. Figuren nedan visar fördelningen mellan import och inhemsk produktion.Siffran på sillkonsumtion är mycket osäker på grund av att den officiella statistiken håller låg kvalitet. Sill är den volymmässigt och ekonomiskt viktigaste arten i svenskt fiske och den är viktig för svensk konsumtion. Det är därmed anmärkningsvärt att data kring fisket och handeln är så bristfällig.Det är genomförbart att ta fram statistiken på årlig basis för att följa trenden för sjömatskonsumtion över tid, både totalt och utvecklingen av enskilda arter. Metoden som utvecklats här förenklar detta avsevärt, men det krävs fortfarande en del manuell justering och bearbetning av befintliga dataset, samt kunskap om branschen.

  • 7.
    Cashion, Tim
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Review and advancement of the marine biotic resource use metric in seafood LCAs: a case study of Norwegian salmon feed2016Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 1106-1120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Seafood life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have adopted the primary production required (PPR) indicator to account for the impact of these production systems (e.g., capture fisheries or aquaculture) on the ecosystems they harvest wild inputs from. However, there exists a large diversity in the application of methods to calculate PPR, and current practice often does not consider species- and ecosystem-specific factors. Here, we critically examine current practice and propose a refined method for applying the PPR metric in seafood LCAs. Methods: We surveyed seafood LCAs that quantify PPR, or its derivatives, to examine the diversity of practice. We then defined and applied a refined method to a case study of the average Norwegian salmon feed in 2012. This refined method incorporates species-specific fishmeal and oil yields, source ecosystem-specific transfer efficiencies and expresses results as a percentage of total ecosystem production that PPR represents. Results were compared to those using previously applied methods based on the literature review, and the impact of uncertainty and natural variability of key input parameters was also assessed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results and discussion: From the literature review, most studies do not incorporate species-specific fishmeal and oil yields or ecosystem-specific transfer efficiencies when calculating PPR. Our proposed method, which incorporated source species- and ecosystem-specific values for these parameters, provides far greater resolution of PPR than when employing global average values. When alternative methods to calculate PPR were applied to marine inputs to Norwegian salmon feeds, resulting PPR values were similar for some sources of fishmeal and oil. For other species, such as Atlantic herring from ecosystems with low transfer efficiencies, there was a large divergence in resulting PPR values. For combined inputs to Norwegian salmon feeds in 2012, the refined method resulted in a total PPR value that is three times higher than would result using the currently standard method signaling that previous LCA research may have substantially underestimated the marine biotic impacts of fishery products. Conclusions: While there exists a great diversity of practice in the application of the PPR indicator in seafood LCA, the refined method should be adopted for future LCA studies to be more specific to the context of the study.

  • 8.
    Emanuelsson, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Pihl, L.
    Skold, M.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Accounting for overfishing in life cycle assessment: New impact categories for biotic resource use2014Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 1156-1168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Overfishing is a relevant issue to include in all life cycle assessments (LCAs) involving wild caught fish, as overfishing of fish stocks clearly targets the LCA safeguard objects of natural resources and natural ecosystems. Yet no robust method for assessing overfishing has been available. We propose lost potential yield (LPY) as a midpoint impact category to quantify overfishing, comparing the outcome of current with target fisheries management. This category primarily reflects the impact on biotic resource availability, but also serves as a proxy for ecosystem impacts within each stock. Methods: LPY represents average lost catches owing to ongoing overfishing, assessed by simplified biomass projections covering different fishing mortality scenarios. It is based on the maximum sustainable yield concept and complemented by two alternative methods, overfishing though fishing mortality (OF) and overfishedness of biomass (OB), that are less data-demanding. Results and discussion: Characterization factors are provided for 31 European commercial fish stocks in 2010, representing 74 % of European and 7 % of global landings. However, large spatial and temporal variations were observed, requiring novel approaches for the LCA practitioner. The methodology is considered compliant with the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) standard in most relevant aspects, although harmonization through normalization and endpoint characterization is only briefly discussed. Conclusions: Seafood LCAs including any of the three approaches can be a powerful communicative tool for the food industry, seafood certification programmes, and for fisheries management. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  • 9. Ford, J.S.
    et al.
    Pelletier, N.L.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.J.
    Tyedmers, P.H.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Proposed Local Ecological Impact Categories and Indicators for Life Cycle Assessment of Aquaculture: A Salmon Aquaculture Case Study2012Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 254-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we discuss impact categories and indicators to incorporate local ecological impacts into life cycle assessment (LCA) for aquaculture. We focus on the production stages of salmon farming-freshwater hatcheries used to produce smolts and marine grow-out sites using open netpens. Specifically, we propose two impact categories: impacts of nutrient release and impacts on biodiversity. Proposed indicators for impacts of nutrient release are (1) the area altered by farm waste, (2) changes in nutrient concentration in the water column, (3) the percent of carrying capacity reached, (4) the percent of total anthropogenic nutrient release, and (5) release of wastes into freshwater. Proposed indicators for impacts on biodiversity are (1) the number of escaped salmon, (2) the number of reported disease outbreaks, (3) parasite abundance on farms, and (4) the percent reduction in wild salmon survival. For each proposed indicator, an example of how the indicator could be estimated is given and the strengths and weaknesses of that indicator are discussed. We propose that including local environmental impacts as well as global-scale ones in LCA allows us to better identify potential trade-offs, where actions that are beneficial at one scale are harmful at another, and synchronicities, where actions have desirable or undesirable effects at both spatial scales. We also discuss the potential applicability of meta-analytic statistical techniques to LCA. © 2012 by Yale University.

  • 10.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Troell, Max
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Combined climate and nutritional performance of seafoods2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 230, s. 402-411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    National authorities in many countries advise their populations to eat more seafood, for health and sometimes for environmental purposes, but give little guidance as to what type of seafood should be consumed. The large diversity in species and production methods results in variability both in the nutritional content and in the environmental performance of seafoods. More targeted dietary advice for sustainable seafood consumption requires a better understanding of the relative nutritional benefits against environmental costs of various types of seafood. This study analyzes the combined climate and nutritional performance of seafood commonly consumed in Sweden, originating all over the world. Nutrient density scores, assessed by seven alternative methods, are combined with species- technology- and origin-specific greenhouse gas emission data for 37 types of seafood. An integrated score indicates which seafood products provide the greatest nutritional value at the lowest climate costs and hence should be promoted from this perspective. Results show that seafoods consumed in Sweden differ widely in nutritional value as well as climate impact and that the two measures are not correlated across all species. Dietary changes towards increased consumption of more seafood choices where a correlation exists (e.g. pelagic species like sprat, herring and mackerel)would benefit both health and climate. Seafoods with a higher climate impact in relation to their nutritional value (e.g. shrimp, Pangasius and plaice)should, on the other hand, not be promoted in dietary advice. The effect of individual nutrients and implications of different nutrient density scores is evaluated. This research is a first step towards modelling the joint nutritional and climate benefits of seafood as a concrete baseline for policy-making, e.g. in dietary advice. It should be followed up by modelling other species, including environmental toxins in seafood in the nutrition score, and expanding to cover other environmental aspects.

  • 11.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Belgrano, A.
    Bartolino, V.
    Valentinsson, D.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Trophic indicators in fisheries: A call for re-evaluation2013Inngår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 1050-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mean trophic level (MTL) of landings and primary production required (PPR) by fisheries are increasingly used in the assessment of sustainability in fisheries. However, in their present form, MTL and PPR are prone to misinterpretation. We show that it is important to account for actual catch data, define an appropriate historical and spatial domain, and carefully consider the effects of fisheries management, based on results from a case study of Swedish fisheries during the past century. © 2012 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Troell, Max
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Frisk med fisk utan risk?: Betydelsen av svensk konsumtion av sjömat för hälsa och miljö2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood is a diverse food commodity, comprising of over 2 500 species from capture fisheries and over 600 species from farming, with vast differences between production methods. Dietary advice often includes recommendations to increase consumption of seafood, based on health benefits and that seafood may be produced with less environmental impacts and resources use compared to many other animal-based foods. However, at the same time, there are frequent media alarms related to potential health risks (some species have diet restrictions) and destructive production practices from both fisheries and aquaculture. As a result, there is often confusion on which seafood to eat or not to eat.The aim of this report is primarily to collate available information on health risks and benefits of Swedish seafood consumption, and to combine this with environmental aspects (focus on carbon footprint).Around 40 seafood products consumed in Sweden were included in the analysis. Potential health risks could only be included qualitatively, since the collected data is risk-based and thus not all products are sampled. It was found that the nutritional content and carbon footprint vastly differ between species. There were also several data gaps identified, such as the need for more detailed data on performance from different production systems. The combined assessment of nutritional value and carbon footprint categorised some species as win-win in terms of nutritional content and environmental pressures (such as small pelagic fish), while others could be more categorised as having less nutritional value and with high environmental costs (such as Northern prawn) respectively.The report provides decision support for further data collection needed to enable combined assessment of nutritional risks, benefits and environmental sustainability of seafood products. Results may be used to discuss suitable level of details of dietary advice.

  • 13.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Hobday, Alistair J
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Smith, Anthony DM
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Green, Bridget S
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Gibbs, Mark
    Shaping sustainability of seafood from capture fisheries integrating the perspectives of supply chain stakeholders through combining systems analysis tools2018Inngår i: ICES Journal of Marine Science, artikkel-id fsy081Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood from capture fisheries can be assessed in many ways and for different purposes, with sometimes divergent views on what characterizes “sustainable use”. Here we use two systems analysis tools—Ecological Risk Assessment for Effects of Fishing (ERAEF) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)—over the historical development of the Australian Patagonian toothfish fishery at Heard and McDonald Islands since the start in 1997. We find that ecological risks have been systematically identified in the management process using ERAEF, and with time have been mitigated, resulting in a lower risk fishery from an ecological impact perspective. LCA inventory data from the industry shows that fuel use per kilo has increased over the history of the fishery. Our results suggest that LCA and ERAEF may provide contrasting and complementary perspectives on sustainability and reveal trade-offs when used in combination. Incorporation of LCA perspectives in assessing impacts of fishing may facilitate refinement of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such as improved integration of the different perspectives of supply chain stakeholders.

  • 14.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nilsson, P.
    Valentinsson, D.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Integrated environmental assessment of fisheries management: Swedish Nephrops trawl fisheries evaluated using a life cycle approach2012Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 1193-1201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management needs to broaden its perspective to achieve sustainable resource use. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an ISO standardized method to evaluate the environmental impacts of products using a broad and systematic approach. In this study, the outcome of a management regime promoting species-selective trawling in Swedish Nephrops trawl fisheries was studied using LCA methodology by quantifying the impacts per kilogram of landing using two different fishing methods. Demersal trawling has previously been found to be both energy intensive and destructive in terms of seafloor impact and discards. It is demonstrated that species-selective trawling fulfils management objectives, although with tradeoffs in terms of fuel consumption and associated GHG emissions. To prioritize between impacts, one must be aware of and quantify these potential tradeoffs. LCA could be an important tool for defining sustainable seafood production as it can visualize a broad range of impacts and facilitate integrated, transparent decision making in the seafood industry. It is also concluded that, with current LCA methodology, use of total discarded mass could increasingly be distinguished from potential impact by applying two new concepts: primary production requirements and threatened species affected. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 15.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Svensson, M.
    Nilsson, P.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    By-catch impacts in fisheries: Utilizing the iucn red list categories for enhanced product level assessment in seafood LCAS2013Inngår i: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1239-1248Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species' vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  • 16.
    Latka, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Heckelei, Thomas
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Batka, Miroslav
    IIASA International Institute for Applies Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Boere, Esther
    IIASA International Institute for Applies Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Chang, Chiao-Ya
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Cui, David
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Geleijnse, Marianne
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Havlik, Petr
    IIASA International Institute for Applies Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Kuijsten, Anneleen
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Kuiper, Marijke
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Leip, Adrian
    European Commission, Belgium.
    vant Veer, Pieter
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Witzke, Heinz-Peter
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    The potential role of producer and consumer food policies in the EU to sustainable food and nutrition security2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    EU sustainable food and nutrition security is no sure-fire success. The future of<br/>the agro-food system is uncertain and subject to different macro-level trends.<br/>Previous analysis revealed the role of food system drivers creating challenges and<br/>opportunities for dietary and environmental improvements under certain future<br/>constellations. However, these challenges and opportunities need to be addressed by policies to allow for actual improvements in the sustainability<br/>performance of EU food systems, for people, planet and profit. In this deliverable,<br/>an assessment and pre-test of potential policy measures is carried out. The policy<br/>analyses are contrasted to a &#8216;business-as-usual&#8217; baseline scenario with current<br/>trends of food system drivers. We apply the SUSFANS modelling toolbox in order<br/>to test relevant policy measures in four distinct aqua-agro-food policy sectors.<br/>Regarding health and nutrition of the EU population, we provide a ranking of<br/>potential dietary policies and interventions based on their effectiveness,<br/>implementation costs and restrictiveness for consumers and producers. Based on<br/>this overview, options for health and nutrition policy are designed containing a<br/>mixture of different policy instruments. These apply &#8211; in line with the allocation<br/>of policy responsibilities in the EU - at the level of individual member states and<br/>not at the realms of an EU policy. In the context of the Common AgriculturalPolicy (CAP), we assess the impact of a livestock density restriction on EU Agricultural areas. Results indicate a reduction of soil nutrient surpluses (-9 to -13%) and of greenhouse gas emissions (-9%) at EU average and considerably stronger in the livestock density and over-fertilization hotspots. Trade openness restricts the impact on food consumption and dietary change of EU consumers. Three Common Fisheries Policies (CFP) are tested with the newly developed fish modules of GLOBIOM and CAPRI: Directing capture in EU waters to levels that keep fish stocks at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY), or at the maximum economic yield (MEY), and the implementation of national aquaculture growth plans composed by EU member states. Our results show limited policy impacts due to the rlatively small size of the EU fish producing sector with some trade but<br/>limited consumption changes. Finally, different storage policies are tested with the new short-term volatility module of GLOBIOM. The scenarios reveal that storage availability and intervention prices reduce price volatility caused by yield shocks. The assessments illustrate that individual, yet unaligned policy measures can already contribute significantly to reaching sustainable food and nutrition<br/>security. On the way to the final foresight assessment extensions are require regarding a) metrics quantifiability, b) the harmonization of metrics computation<br/>approaches, and c) smaller model improvements

  • 17. Nilsson, P.
    et al.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Spatial distribution of fishing effort in relation to seafloor habitats in the Kattegat, a GIS analysis2007Inngår i: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 421-440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. High-resolution fishing effort data from the Kattegat, an important fishing ground for Swedish and Danish fishermen, was analysed in a Geographical Information System (GIS). Data were based on position data for individual tows reported by Swedish fishermen during 2001-2003. 2. Gear dimension and towing speed data were used to calculate an index for area swept per hour for each main gear type in use in the area. These indexes were multiplied by fishing effort and a grid theme of fishing intensity was created after GIS analysis. 3. Around 44% of the entire area was affected by Swedish fisheries during the study period, hence 56% was not affected. 4. Effort was highly concentrated in certain areas and 10% of the total area was covered more than twice per year. 5. Overlaying the effort data set with habitat maps classified according to the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) showed that the fishing pressure differed between habitats. For deep rocky and muddy habitats, almost the entire area was affected by fisheries during the study period, while both intensity and proportion affected were lower in sandy sediments and gravels. 6. Around 55% of the deep rocky habitats were trawled more than twice per year. Of the muddy seafloor areas, 41% were covered more than twice per year and 4% more than once a month by trawls. 7. The biological effects of the fishing intensities found were analysed using a database (MarLIN) containing assessments of marine habitat recoverability. All habitats except muds are probably in a nearly or fully recovered condition (as defined by MarLIN). A considerable part of the muddy habitats are in a permanently altered condition owing to fishing disturbance taking place more frequently than the indicated recovery time. 8. Danish fishermen report more fishing effort in the area than do Swedes. Owing to differences in reporting fishing positions, Danish fisheries could not be included in the present study. Scaling up the results to include Danish fisheries is discussed. 9. The results of the present study could be used to target habitat management goals more precisely, while minimizing the negative impact of restrictions on the fishing sector. 10. A prerequisite for performing similar studies is the availability of high-resolution fishing effort data and high-resolution benthic habitat maps. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 18.
    Parodi, A.
    et al.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Leip, A.
    European Commission, Italy.
    De Boer, I. J. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Slegers, P. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Temme, E. H. M.
    RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands.
    Herrero, M.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Tuomisto, H.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Valin, H.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Van Middelaar, C. E.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Van Loon, J. J. A.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Van Zanten, H. H. E.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    The potential of future foods for sustainable and healthy diets2018Inngår i: Nature Sustainability, ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 1, nr 12, s. 782-789Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Altering diets is increasingly acknowledged as an important solution to feed the world’s growing population within the planetary boundaries. In our search for a planet-friendly diet, the main focus has been on eating more plant-source foods, and eating no or less animal-source foods, while the potential of future foods, such as insects, seaweed or cultured meat has been underexplored. Here we show that compared to current animal-source foods, future foods have major environmental benefits while safeguarding the intake of essential micronutrients. The complete array of essential nutrients in the mixture of future foods makes them good-quality alternatives for current animal-source foods compared to plant-source foods. Moreover, future foods are land-efficient alternatives for animal-source foods, and if produced with renewable energy, they also offer greenhouse gas benefits. Further research on nutrient bioavailability and digestibility, food safety, production costs and consumer acceptance will determine their role as main food sources in future diets.

  • 19. Peacock, N.
    et al.
    De Camillis, C.
    Pennington, D.
    Aichinger, H.
    Parenti, A.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Towards a harmonised framework methodology for the environmental assessment of food and drink products2011Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 189-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction "Food and drink" products are the basis of life. However, it is recognised that their supply also contributes to the environmental impacts associated with production and consumption. Recently, an increasing number of food chain partners and public authorities have introduced a widening range of initiatives to provide information about the environmental performance of food and drink products. These initiatives show a high degree of diversity in terms of their chosen scope, assessment methodologies and means of communication, which has the potential to confuse or even mislead consumers and other stakeholders. In this context, the European Food Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Round Table was launched by food supply chain partners and the European Commission with the vision of promoting a science-based, coherent approach to sustainable consumption and production in the European food sector. Objectives This article presents this European initiative by introducing its Guiding Principles and summarizing the proceedings of the scientific workshop held in Ispra on 14-15 June 2010. The aim of the workshop was to identify scientific inputs for developing the harmonised framework methodology for assessing the environmental issues of food and drink products. In this context, the main purpose was to provide a common understanding of what is involved in reliable and robust environmental assessments of the food chain, current limitations, and how to go from detailed assessments to more focused criteria, guidance and tools. Conclusion The current experiences presented in the workshop demonstrate that much advancement has already been made towards the measurement and management of the environmental performance of food and drink products. Detailed methodologies and tools are already being used by various players. According to the workshop speakers, the definition of methodological choices concerning the functional unit, systemboundaries, cut-off criteria, allocation rules and environmental impact categories are some of the key issues to be fixed in the harmonised framework methodology. The Round Table process has the potential to make a substantial contribution to the sustainable consumption and production of food and drink products. This model might be proposed and reiterated for other sectors as well. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  • 20. Peacock, N
    et al.
    De Camillis, C
    Pennington, D
    Aichinger, H
    Parenti, A
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Towards a harmonised framework methodology for the environmental assessment of food and drink products2011Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 189-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction "Food and drink" products are the basis of life. However, it is recognised that their supply also contributes to the environmental impacts associated with production and consumption. Recently, an increasing number of food chain partners and public authorities have introduced a widening range of initiatives to provide information about the environmental performance of food and drink products. These initiatives show a high degree of diversity in terms of their chosen scope, assessment methodologies and means of communication, which has the potential to confuse or even mislead consumers and other stakeholders. In this context, the European Food Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Round Table was launched by food supply chain partners and the European Commission with the vision of promoting a science-based, coherent approach to sustainable consumption and production in the European food sector. Objectives This article presents this European initiative by introducing its Guiding Principles and summarizing the proceedings of the scientific workshop held in Ispra on 14-15 June 2010. The aim of the workshop was to identify scientific inputs for developing the harmonised framework methodology for assessing the environmental issues of food and drink products. In this context, the main purpose was to provide a common understanding of what is involved in reliable and robust environmental assessments of the food chain, current limitations, and how to go from detailed assessments to more focused criteria, guidance and tools. Conclusion The current experiences presented in the workshop demonstrate that much advancement has already been made towards the measurement and management of the environmental performance of food and drink products. Detailed methodologies and tools are already being used by various players. According to the workshop speakers, the definition of methodological choices concerning the functional unit, systemboundaries, cut-off criteria, allocation rules and environmental impact categories are some of the key issues to be fixed in the harmonised framework methodology. The Round Table process has the potential to make a substantial contribution to the sustainable consumption and production of food and drink products. This model might be proposed and reiterated for other sectors as well. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  • 21. Pelletier, N.
    et al.
    Tyedmers, P.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Flysjö, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Not all salmon are created equal: Life cycle assessment (LCA) of global salmon farming systems2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 23, s. 8730-8736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a global-scale life cycle assessment of a major food commodity, farmed salmon. Specifically, we report the cumulative energy use, biotic resource use, and greenhouse gas, acidifying, and eutrophying emissions associated with producing farmed salmon in Norway, the UK, British Columbia (Canada), and Chile, as well as a production-weighted global average. We found marked differences in the nature and quantity of material/energy resource use and associated emissions per unit production across regions. This suggests significant scope for improved environmental performance in the industry as a whole. We identify key leverage points for improving performance, most notably the critical importance of least-environmental cost feed sourcing patterns and continued improvements in feed conversion efficiency. Overall, impacts were lowest for Norwegian production in most impact categories, and highest for UK farmed salmon. Our results are of direct relevance to industry, policy makers, eco-labeling programs, and consumers seeking to further sustainability objectives in salmon aquaculture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 22. Pelletier, N.L.
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tyedmers, P.H.
    Kruse, S.A.
    Flysjö, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Impact categories for life cycle assessment research of seafood production systems: Review and prospectus2007Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 414-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. In face of continued declines in global fisheries landings and concurrent rapid aquaculture development, the sustainability of seafood production is of increasing concern. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) offers a convenient means of quantifying the impacts associated with many of the energetic and material inputs and outputs in these industries. However, the relevant but limited suite of impact categories currently used in most LCA research fails to capture a number of important environmental and social burdens unique to fisheries and aquaculture. This article reviews the impact categories used in published LCA research of seafood production to date, reports on a number of methodological innovations, and discusses the challenges to and opportunities for further impact category developments. Main Features. The range of environmental and socio-economic impacts associated with fisheries and aquaculture production are introduced, and both the commonly used and innovative impact categories employed in published LCA research of seafood production are discussed. Methodological innovations reported in agricultural LCAs are also reviewed for possible applications to seafood LCA research. Challenges and options for including additional environmental and socioeconomic impact categories are explored. Results. A review of published LCA research in fisheries and aquaculture indicates the frequent use of traditional environmental impact categories as well as a number of interesting departures from the standard suite of categories employed in LCA studies in other sectors. Notable examples include the modeling of benthic impacts, by-catch, emissions from anti-fouling paints, and the use of Net Primary Productivity appropriation to characterize biotic resource use. Socio-economic impacts have not been quantified, nor does a generally accepted methodology for their consideration exist. However, a number of potential frameworks for the integration of such impacts into LCA have been proposed. Discussion. LCA analyses of fisheries and aquaculture call attention to an important range of environmental interactions that are usually not considered in discussions of sustainability in the seafood sector. These include energy use, biotic resource use, and the toxicity of anti-fouling paints. However, certain important impacts are also currently overlooked in such research. While prospects clearly exist for improving and expanding on recent additions to environmental impact categories, the nature of the LCA framework may preclude treatment of some of these impacts. Socio-economic impact categories have only been described in a qualitative manner. Despite a number of challenges, significant opportunities exist to quantify several important socio-economic impacts. Conclusion. The limited but increasing volume of LCA research of industrial fisheries and aquaculture indicates a growing interest in the use of LCA methodology to understand and improve the sustainability performance of seafood production systems. Recent impact category innovations, and the potential for further impact category developments that account for several of the unique interactions characteristic of fisheries and aquaculture will significantly improve the usefulness of LCA in this context, although quantitative analysis of certain types of impacts may remain beyond the scope of the LCA framework. The desirability of incorporating socio-economic impacts is clear, but such integration will require considerable methodological development. Recommendations and Perspectives. While the quantity of published LCA research for seafood production systems is clearly increasing, the influence this research will have on the ground remains to be seen. In part, this will depend on the ability of LCA researchers to advance methodological innovations that enable consideration of a broader range of impacts specific to seafood production. It will also depend on the ability of researchers to communicate with a broader audience than the currently narrow LCA community. © 2007 ecomed publishers (Verlagsgruppe Hüthig Jehle Rehm GmbH).

  • 23.
    Philis, Gaspard
    et al.
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Gansel, Lars
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Jansen, Mona
    Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Norway.
    Gracey, Erik
    BioMar Group, Norway.
    Stene, Anne
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Comparing life cycle assessment (LCA) of salmonid aquaculture production systems: Status and perspectives2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikkel-id 2517Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector worldwide, mostly driven by a steadily increasing protein demand. In response to growing ecological concerns, life cycle assessment (LCA) emerged as a key environmental tool to measure the impacts of various production systems, including aquaculture. In this review, we focused on farmed salmonids to perform an in-depth analysis, investigating methodologies and comparing results of LCA studies of this finfish family in relation to species and production technologies. Identifying the environmental strengths and weaknesses of salmonid production technologies is central to ensure that industrial actors and policymakers make informed choices to take the production of this important marine livestock to a more sustainable path. Three critical aspects of salmonid LCAs were studied based on 24 articles and reports: (1) Methodological application, (2) construction of inventories, and (3) comparison of production technologies across studies. Our first assessment provides an overview and compares important methodological choices. The second analysis maps the main foreground and background data sources, as well as the state of process inclusion and exclusion. In the third section, a first attempt to compare life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) data across production technologies was conducted using a single factor statistical protocol. Overall, findings suggested a lack of methodological completeness and reporting in the literature and demonstrated that inventories suffered from incomplete description and partial disclosure. Our attempt to compare LCA results across studies was challenging due to confounding factors and poor data availability, but useful as a first step in highlighting the importance of production technology for salmonids. In groups where the data was robust enough for statistical comparison, both differences and mean equalities were identified, allowing ranking of technology clusters based on their average scores. We statistically demonstrated that sea-based systems outperform land-based technology in terms of energy demand and that sea-based systems have a generally higher FCR than land-based ones. Cross-study analytics also strongly suggest that open systems generate on average more eutrophying emissions than closed designs. We further discuss how to overcome bottlenecks currently hampering such LCA meta-analysis. Arguments are made in favor of further developing cross-study LCA analysis, particularly by increasing the number of salmonid LCA available (to improve sample sizes) and by reforming in-depth LCA practices to enable full reproducibility and greater access to inventory data. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 24.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Krewer, Christoffer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Scholten, Jesper
    Blonk Consultants, The Netherlands.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Seafood Life Cycle Inventory database : Methodology and Principles and Data Quality Guidelines2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En växande insikt om betydelsen av livsmedel för global miljöpåverkan, särskilt animaliska livsmedel inklusive sjömat, har lett till ett behov hos producenter såväl som handeln att kommunicera miljöpåverkan av råvaror och produkter genom livsmedelskedjan. Detta visar sig i form av nya krav på att dokumentera produkters miljöavtryck, t ex vid certifiering och i regelverk. EU initiativet inom hållbar utveckling med en "inre marknad för gröna produkter" är ett exempel, med målet att dokumentera miljöavtrycket av produkter på EU marknaden enligt metoden Product Environmental Footprinting (PEF). Målet är att göra det möjligt för konsumenter, handel, producenter och lagstiftare att göra medvetna val och att etablera drivkrafter mot reducerad miljöpåverkan i produkters värdekedja.

    För att kunna leva upp till dessa nya krav, krävs tillgång på representativ data av hög kvalitet, något som i stort sett har saknats för sjömatsprodukter. För att göra högkvalitativa, representativa data kring resursåtgång och miljöpåverkan av sjömatsprodukter (inklusive biomassa som direkt eller indirekt används till foder) tillgängliga, initierade den norska sjömatsbranschen ett pilotprojekt. Projektet definierade en rekommenderad metod och struktur för datainsamling och använde denna metod för att samla in tillgängliga data för ett antal pilotfall. Metoden för datainsamling presenteras i detta dokument och kan, tillsammans med pilotdataseten som gjorts tillgängliga i projektet, användas av näringen som grund för en bredare datainsamling för att skapa en utbyggd sjömats-LCI-databas.

  • 25. Thrane, M.
    et al.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Eco-labelling of wild-caught seafood products2009Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 416-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several eco-labels for wild-caught seafood have been developed during the last decade. This article describes and analyses the criteria applied by four different eco-labelling schemes for seafood products from capture fisheries, and discusses the criteria in terms of environmental impacts, based on the ISO 14040 standard for life cycle assessment. It is concluded that the most widespread eco-label, the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), mainly addresses the fishing stage, in particular the overexploitation of marine resources. LCA studies confirm that the fishing stage represents the most significant environmental burden, but energy consumption and emissions of anti-fouling agents at the fishing or harvesting stage contribute with significant impacts that are not being addressed by international labelling initiatives for wild-caught seafood. LCA studies show that significant environmental impacts are related to the life cycle stages after landing. This includes fish processing, transport, cooling and packaging (especially for highly processed seafood products). Hence, another challenge would be to include criteria related to the post-landing consumption of energy, certain materials and chemicals, waste handling and wastewater emissions. Minimizing product losses throughout the product chain would also be an important area for future criteria in order to avoid fishing at high environmental costs only to produce something that is later wasted. The analysis shows that the Swedish KRAV is the only one that currently addresses a range of issues that include energy and chemicals in the whole life cycle of the products. International initiatives such as MSC cover fish products from many parts of the world emphasizing 'overexploitation of fish resources'. It is recommended, however, that international initiatives such as MSC develop criteria related to energy use and chemicals - at least at the fishing stage. Over time, other life cycle stages could be addressed as well to the extent that this is manageable. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Tlusty, Michael
    et al.
    University of Massachusetts, US.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Bailey, Megan
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Béné, Christophe
    International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Colombia.
    Bush, Simon
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Newton, Richard
    University of Stirling, UK.
    Asche, Frank
    University of Florida, US.
    Little, David
    University of Stirling, UK.
    Troell, Max
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Reframing the sustainable seafood narrative2019Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 59, artikkel-id 101991Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant sustainable seafood narrative is one where developed world markets catalyze practice improvements by fisheries and aquaculture producers that enhance ocean health. The narrow framing of seafood sustainability in terms of aquaculture or fisheries management and ocean health has contributed to the omission of these important food production systems from the discussion on global food system sustainability. This omission is problematic. Seafood makes critical contributions to food and nutrition security, particularly in low income countries, and is often a more sustainable and nutrient rich source of animal sourced-food than terrestrial meat production. We argue that to maximize the positive contributions that seafood can make to sustainable food systems, the conventional narratives that prioritize seafood's role in promoting ‘ocean health’ need to be reframed and cover a broader set of environmental and social dimensions of sustainability. The focus of the narrative also needs to move from a producer-centric to a ‘whole chain’ perspective that includes greater inclusion of the later stages with a focus on food waste, by-product utilization and consumption. Moreover, seafood should not be treated as a single aggregated item in sustainability assessments. Rather, it should be recognized as a highly diverse set of foods, with variable environmental impacts, edible yield rates and nutritional profiles. Clarifying discussions around seafood will help to deepen the integration of fisheries and aquaculture into the global agenda on sustainable food production, trade and consumption, and assist governments, private sector actors, NGOs and academics alike in identifying where improvements can be made.

  • 27.
    Tlusty, Micheal
    et al.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Newton, Richard
    Stirling University, UK.
    Little, Dave
    Stirling University, UK.
    Fry, Jillian
    John Hopkins University, USA.
    Love, Dave
    John Hopkins University, USA.
    Cao, Ling
    Stanford University, USA.
    Commentary: Comparing efficiency in aquatic and terrestrial animal production systems2018Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9318, Vol. 13, nr 12, artikkel-id 128001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is receiving increased attention from a variety of stakeholders. This is largely due to its current role in the global food system of supplying more than half of the seafood consumed, and also because the industry continues to steadily expand (UN Food and Agriculture Organization 2018). A recent article in Environmental Research Letters, 'Feed conversion efficiency in aquaculture: Do we measure it correctly?', by Fry et al (2018a) found that measuring feed conversion efficiency of selected aquatic and terrestrial farmed animals using protein and calorie retention resulted in species comparisons (least to most efficient) and overlap among species dissimilar from comparisons based on widely used weight-based feed conversion ratio (FCR) values. The study prompted spirited discussions among researchers, industry representatives, and others. A group assembled to write a standard rebuttal, but during this process, decided it was best to engage the study's original authors to join the discourse. Through this collaboration, we provide the resultant additional context relevant to the study in order to advance conversations and research on the use of efficiency measures in aquatic and terrestrial animal production systems.

  • 28.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental assessment of a Swedish, frozen cod product with a life-cycle perspective: a data report2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental impact assessment of seafood products2003Inngår i: Environmentally-Friendly Food Processing, s. 70-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental life cycle assessment of seafood products from capture fisheries2007Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 61-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensk konsumtion av sjömat - en växande mångfald2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska sjömatsmarknaden har kartlagts i syfte att identifiera och kvantifiera de vanligaste arterna av fisk och skaldjur, eller "sjömat", som säljs och konsumeras i Sverige. Offentlig statistik kring volym av import, export och produktion i fiske och vattenbruk för 2015 har utgjort grunden för analysen och kombinerats till att ge en översiktsbild av vad som säljs och konsumeras i Sverige. Merparten företag i fiskbranschen kontaktades och har levererat både kvantitativa och kvalitativa uppgifter.

    Biodiversiteten i den svenska sjömatsimporten visade sig vara hög och omfatta ett hundratal arter eller artgrupper. Volym och viktigaste ursprungsländer presenteras för dessa. Svensk konsumtion av sjömat domineras inte oväntat av lax, torsk och sill. Mer överraskande var att en kategori bestående av oidentifierade torskfiskar, bl a från tropiska vatten, hamnar så högt som på plats 13. Av varje kategori av sjömat (torskfisk, laxfisk, plattfisk, räka, krabba, musslor, tonfisk) redovisas en del ospecifikt tillhörande "Övrigt". Längre ner på listan hamnar nya importerade, odlade arter som guldsparid, havsabborre, men även fiskade arter som nilabborre, tandnoting och ett antal arter av tonfisk, varav flera är kraftigt överfiskade. Exempelvis konsumerades fyra ton av den akut hotade blåfenade tonfisken i Sverige. De här arterna har etablerat sig på den svenska sjömatsmarknaden på senare år. Runt 15 ton ål konsumeras per år i Sverige, både från svenskt fiske och från import, och även den är akut hotad.

    Den totala svenska sjömatskonsumtionen för 2015 är 109 000 ton filé och skaldjur utan skal, vilket motsvarar 11 kg per person eller runt 25 kg hel fisk per person. Av detta är 60 % vildfångat och 40 % odlat. Cirka en fjärdedel av den totala volymen är certifierad av antingen MSC eller ASC. Närmare 75 % av det vi äter är importerat, medan svenskt fiske står för drygt 20 % och svenskt vattenbruk står för runt 6 %. På grund av osäkerheter i rapporteringen av import och export så är dock dessa siffror något osäkra. Den totala konsumtionen har mellan 2011 och 2015 ökat. Kartläggningen har gett nya insikter om diversiteten i den svenska sjömatskonsumtionen och fördelningen mellan arter, trots de osäkerheter som finns.

    Sjömat har en stor potential som både hälsosam och hållbart producerad mat, och Livsmedelsverket rekommenderar att vi äter fisk och skaldjur 2-3 gånger per vecka. För stora grupper betyder detta att de bör äta mer sjömat. Det har dock stor betydelse vilken typ av sjömat man väljer att äta både för hälsa och miljö. Därför är det viktigt med bra kunskap om vad som konsumeras och var och hur det har producerats.

    Genomgången har gett insyn i vad statistiken kan användas till och vilka osäkerheter som finns. Rapporten ger även en rad förslag på hur statistiken skulle kunna förbättras, både genom att ställa krav på att nuvarande rutiner för datainsamling om handel och konsumtion av sjömat i större utsträckning följs och genom att mer långsiktigt arbeta för att förbättra dessa rutiner.

  • 32.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Eigaard, Ole
    NTU Technical University of Denmark,, Sweden.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Hognes, Erik
    Asplan Viak, Norway.
    Jafarzadeh, Sepideh
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Adding perspectives to: “Global trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion in marine fisheries from 1950 - 2016"2019Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 107, artikkel-id 103488Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A contribution in this issue, Greer et al. (2019), models carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion in global fisheries. This is done based on a method using data on fishing effort, presenting results for two sectors: small-scale and industrial fisheries. The selection of these sectors is not motivated in relation to studying fuel use, and it is well-documented that other factors more accurately predict fuel use of fisheries and would constitute a more useful basis for defining sub-sectors, when the goal of the study is to investigate fuel use. Weakly grounded assumptions made in the translation of fishing effort into carbon dioxide emissions (e.g. the engine run time per fishing day for each sector) systematically bias results towards overestimating fuel use of “industrial” vessels, underestimating that of “small-scale”. A sensitivity analysis should have been a minimum requirement for publication. To illustrate how the approach used by Greer et al. (2019) systematically misrepresents the fuel use and emissions of the two sectors, the model is applied to Australian and New Zealand rock lobster trap fisheries and compared to observed fuel use. It is demonstrated how the approach underestimates emissions of small-scale fisheries, while overestimating emissions of industrial fisheries. As global fisheries are dominated by industrial fisheries, the aggregate emission estimate is likely considerably overestimated. Effort-based approaches can be valuable to model fuel use of fisheries in data-poor situations, but should be seen as complementary to estimates based on direct data, which they can also help to validate. Whenever used, they should be based on transparent, science-based data and assumptions.

  • 33.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Emanuelsson, Andreas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Eichelsheim, J.L.
    Flysjö, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ndiaye, V.
    Thrane, M.
    Extended Life Cycle Assessment of Southern Pink Shrimp Products Originating in Senegalese Artisanal and Industrial Fisheries for Export to Europe2011Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 527-538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis) are an important Senegalese export commodity. Artisanal fisheries in rivers produce 60%. Forty percent are landed in trawl fisheries at sea. The shrimp from both fisheries result in a frozen, consumer-packed product that is exported to Europe. We applied attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare the environmental impact of the two supply chains and identify improvement options. In addition to standard LCA impact categories, biological impacts of each fishery were quantified with regard to landed by-catch, discard, seafloor impact, and size of target catch. Results for typical LCA categories include that artisanal fisheries have much lower inputs and emissions in the fishing phase than does the industrial fishery. For the product from artisanal fisheries, the main part of the impact in the standard LCA categories occurs during processing on land, mainly due to the use of heavy fuel oil and refrigerants with high global warming and ozone depletion potentials. From a biological point of view, each fishery has advantages and drawbacks, and a number of improvement options were identified. If developing countries can ensure biological sustainability of their fisheries and design the chain on land in a resource-efficient way, long distance to markets is not an obstacle to sustainable trading of seafood products originating in artisanal fisheries. © 2011 by Yale University.

  • 34.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Groen, Evelyne A.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bokkers, Eddie A. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Karlsen, Kine M.
    Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Norway.
    de Boer, Imke J. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Assessing broad life cycle impacts of daily onboard decision-making, annual strategic planning, and fisheries management in a northeast Atlantic trawl fishery2018Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 1357-1367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Capture fisheries are the only industrial-scale harvesting of a wild resource for food. Temporal variability in environmental performance of fisheries has only recently begun to be explored, but only between years, not within a year. Our aim was to better understand the causes of temporal variability within and between years and to identify improvement options through management at a company level and in fisheries management. Methods: We analyzed the variability in broad environmental impacts of a demersal freeze trawler targeting cod, haddock, saithe, and shrimp, mainly in the Norwegian Sea and in the Barents Sea. The analysis was based on daily data for fishing activities between 2011 and 2014 and the functional unit was a kilo of landing from one fishing trip. We used biological indicators in a novel hierarchic approach, depending on data availability, to quantify biotic impacts. Landings were categorized as target (having defined target reference points) or bycatch species (classified as threatened or as data-limited). Indicators for target and bycatch impacts were quantified for each fishing trip, as was the seafloor area swept. Results and discussion: No significant difference in fuel use was found between years, but variability was considerable within a year, i.e., between fishing trips. Trips targeting shrimp were more fuel intensive than those targeting fish, due to a lower catch rate. Steaming to and from port was less important for fuel efficiency than steaming between fishing locations. A tradeoff was identified between biotic and abiotic impacts. Landings classified as main target species generally followed the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) framework, and proportions of threatened species were low, while proportions of data-limited bycatch were larger. This improved considerably when reference points were defined for saithe in 2014. Conclusions: The variability between fishing trips shows that there is room for improvement through management. Fuel use per landing was strongly influenced by target species, fishing pattern, and fisheries management. Increased awareness about the importance of onboard decision-making can lead to improved performance. This approach could serve to document performance over time helping fishing companies to better understand the effect of their daily and more long-term decision-making on the environmental performance of their products. Recommendations: Fishing companies should document their resource use and production on a detailed level. Fuel use should be monitored as part of the management system. Managing authorities should ensure that sufficient data is available to evaluate the sustainability of exploitation levels of all harvested species.

  • 35.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Groen, Evelyne
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Bokkers, Eddie
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Karlsen, Tine
    Nofima, Norway.
    de Boer, Imke
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Life cycle environmental impacts of a northeast Atlantic trawler on a fishing trip basis, including a novel approach to assess biotic impacts of fishing2016Inngår i: 10th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment of Food 2016: Book of Abstracts, 2016, artikkel-id 118Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Capture fisheries is the only industrial-scale harvesting of a wild resource for food. Temporal variability in environmental performance of fisheries has only recently begun to be explored, but only between years, not within a year. Our aim was to better understand the causes of temporal variability within and between years and to identify improvement options through management at a company level and in fisheries management

  • 36.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Emissions from fuel combustion in Swedish cod fishery2003Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 303-314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents emission data (CO2, NOx, CO, HC and SOx) for fishing vessels, calculated per kg of cod landed by Swedish fishermen. Three scenarios are included; one reflecting the fishery and fleet of 1999, one assuming modern engine technology and, finally, a future scenario assuming a slight increase in the use of passive gear (seines and long-lines) and pair trawls instead of single trawls, lower fishing effort and lower emission levels. The effects on the results of different allocation strategies for landed by-catches are evaluated. Data was gathered from official fishery statistics and engine emission data from one of the major manufacturers of marine diesels. Fuel consumption data for otter trawling and gillnet fishing was obtained by having fishermen fill out a questionnaire. The results include emission calculations for gillnet fishing and trawling, and indicate lower emissions per kg of cod caught for gillnet fishing, due to lower fuel consumption. Considerable options for decreasing fuel consumption and emissions produced in cod fisheries through changes in technology and fisheries policy were concluded from this work. Choosing allocation method was shown to be important for the final results, especially in mixed, high-value target fisheries. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stock size matters more than vessel size: The fuel efficiency of Swedish demersal trawl fisheries 2002-20102014Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 44, s. 72-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management determines how much of each stock can be landed when, where and how fishing is permitted. It has been identified to strongly influence the environmental performance of the fishing industry, including fuel use. As fuel data for fisheries is scarce, especially on a detailed level, the aim of this study was to develop an approach for utilizing fleet-wide fuel data to estimate the fuel use of individual fisheries and mapping how fuel efficiency in Swedish fisheries is influenced by management. Swedish demersal trawl fisheries were studied between 2002 and 2010. Results show that the overall fuel efficiency has improved and interesting patterns between different fisheries and vessel sizes emerged. The difference in fuel efficiency per kilo landing between large and small trawlers was generally small, unless catch capacity was lowered e.g. by selective grids. Stock rebuilding was shown to be highly important for fuel efficiency, as fuel use was inversely correlated to the biomass of eastern Baltic cod. However, rebuilding can also lead to trade-offs e.g. in the case of selective trawling, where protection of depleted stocks comes at the cost of higher fuel intensity per landing. Finally, tax exemption of fuel use in fisheries was shown to maintain inefficient fisheries. These results could be used to reduce overall environmental impacts of fishing further by incorporating fuel use as an additional aspect into the fisheries management system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 38.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Green, Bridget S.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Ritzau Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Farmery, Anna K.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Hammar, Linus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hartmann, Klaas
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Parker, Robert W. R.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Vázques-Rowe, Ian
    Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, Peru; University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Smith, Anthony D. M.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Expanding the concept of sustainable seafood using Life Cycle Assessment2016Inngår i: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 1073-1093Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global-scale environmental impacts. In parallel, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has emerged as a widely used and recommended framework to assess environmental impacts of products, including global-scale impacts. For over a decade, LCA has been applied to seafood supply chains, leading to new insights into the environmental impact of seafood products.

    We present insights from seafood LCA research with particular focus on evaluating fisheries management, which strongly influences the environmental impact of seafood products. Further, we suggest tangible ways in which LCA could be taken up in management. By identifying trade-offs, LCA can be a useful decision support tool and avoids problem shifting from one concern (or activity) to another. The integrated, product-based and quantitative perspective brought by LCA could complement existing tools. One example is to follow up fuel use of fishing, as the production and combustion of fuel used dominates overall results for various types of environmental impacts of seafood products, and is also often linked to biological impacts of fishing. Reducing the fuel use of fisheries is therefore effective to reduce overall impacts. Allocating fishing rights based on environmental performance could likewise facilitate the transition to low-impact fisheries. Taking these steps in an open dialogue between fishers, managers, industry, NGOs and consumers would enable more targeted progress towards sustainable fisheries.

  • 39.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Valentinsson, Daniel
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Sövik, Guldborg
    Institute of Marine Research, Norway.
    Ritzau Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Same stock, different management: Quantifying the sustainability of Skagerrak shrimp fisheries from a product perspective2016Inngår i: LCA Food 2016: 10th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment of Food 2016, 2016, artikkel-id 119Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Valentinsson, Daniel
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Søvik, Guldborg
    Institute of Marine Research, Norway.
    Ritzau Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Same stock, different management: Quantifying the sustainability of three shrimp fisheries in the Skagerrak from a product perspective2016Inngår i: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 73, nr 7, s. 1806-1814Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis L.) stock in the Skagerrak is shared by Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Although the fishery is regulated by an annual agreement between the EU and Norway, there are also national regulations as well as differences in fleet composition and shrimp markets. In early 2014, the World Wildlife Fund gave all Skagerrak shrimp a red light in their seafood consumer guide, which led to an extensive debate, especially in Sweden, about the sustainability of this fishery. The aim of this study was to quantify a set of indicators that together give a broad picture of the sustainability of the three fisheries to provide an objective basis for a discussion on needed measures. The different indicators concerned environmental, economic or social aspects of sustainability and were quantified per tonne of shrimp landed by each country in 2012. The Danish fishery was most efficient in terms of environmental and economic indicators, while the Swedish fishery provided most employment per tonne of shrimp landed. Fuel use in all fisheries was high, also when compared with other shrimp fisheries. Interesting patterns emerged, with smaller vessels being more fuel efficient than larger ones in Sweden and Norway, with the opposite trend in Denmark. The study also demonstrated major data gaps and differences between the countries in how data are collected and made available. Various improvement options in the areas data collection and publication, allocation of quotas and enforcement of regulations resulted. Product-oriented studies could be useful to follow-up performance of fisheries over time and to identify how to best utilize the Skagerrak shrimp stock. This could involve evaluating novel solutions in terms of technology and management, based on current and future scenarios aiming to maximize societal benefits generated from this limited resource, at minimized environmental impacts.

  • 41.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nilsson, P.
    Mattsson, Berit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Walther, Y.
    Life Cycle Assessment of frozen cod fillets including fishery-specific environmental impacts2003Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 39-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. The purpose of the present study was to perform an environmental assessment for the entire life cycle of a seafood product and to include fishery-specific types of environmental impact in inventory and assessment. Environmental data for a frozen block of cod fillets was collected and used for a Life Cycle Assessment, including the fishery-specific environmental aspects seafloor use and biological extraction of target, by-catch and discard species. The fishery takes place in the Baltic Sea where cod is mainly fished by benthic trawls and gillnets. Methods. The functional unit was a consumer package of frozen cod fillets (400 g) reaching the household. Data was gathered from fishermen, fishery statistics, databases, companies and literature. Fishery-specific issues like the impact on stocks of the target and by-catch species, seafloor impact and discarding were quantified in relation to the functional unit and qualitative impact assessment of these aspects was included. Results. Findings include the fact that all environmental impact categories assessed (Global Warming Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Acidification Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential and Aquatic Ecotoxiciy) are dominated by the fishery. Around 700 m2 of seafloor are swept by trawls and around 50 g of under-sized cod and other marine species are discarded per functional unit. The phases contributing most to total environmental impact following fishery were transports and preparation in the household. The process industry and municipal sewage treatment cause considerable amounts of eutrophying emissions. Conclusions. Conclusions are that there are considerable options for improvement of the environmental performance of the seafood production chain. In the fishery, the most important environmental measure is to fish sustainably managed stocks. Speed optimisation, increased use of less energy-intensive fishing gear and improved engine and fuel technology are technical measures that would considerably decrease resource use and environmental impact caused by fishery. Due to the importance of fishery for the overall results, the most important environmental improvement option after landing is to maintain high quality and minimise product losses. Recommendations and Outlook. The need for good baseline data concerning resource use and marine environmental impact of fisheries in order to perform environmental assessment of seafood products was demonstrated. LCA was shown to be a valuable tool for such assessments, which in the future could be used to improve the environmental performance of the seafood production chain or in the development of criteria of eco-labelling of seafood products originating in capture fisheries.

  • 42.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Valentinsson, D.
    Environmental life cycle assessment of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) caught along the Swedish west coast by creels and conventional trawls: LCA methodology with case study2008Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 487-497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope: Two fishing methods, creeling and conventional trawling, are used to target Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), economically the second most important species in Swedish west coast fisheries. The goal was to evaluate overall resource use and environmental impact caused by production of this seafood with the two different fishing methods using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Materials and methods: The inventory covered the entire chain starting by production of supply materials and the fishery itself, through seafood auctioning, wholesaling, retailing, to the consumer. That portion of the life cycle occurring on land was assumed to be identical for Norway lobsters regardless as to how they were caught. The functional unit was 300 g of edible meat (i.e., Norway lobster tails), corresponding to 1 kg of whole, boiled Norway lobsters. The seafloor impact of trawling was quantified using a recently developed methodology. Results: Major differences were found between the fishing methods with regard to environmental impact: creeling was found to be more efficient than conventional trawling in all traditional impact categories and in the two additional fishery-related categories involving seafloor impact and discarding. Since the quality of the creel-caught Nephrops was higher, the difference was probably even higher than indicated here. Discussion: Major improvement potential was identified in the more widespread use of creels and species-selective trawls. The only deficiencies of creel fishing were poorer working environment and safety, and a potentially higher risk of recruitment overfishing. However, these issues could be handled by technological development and fisheries regulations and should not hamper the development of creel fishery. Conclusions: Improvement options were identified and quantified for the Swedish Nephrops fishery. The study demonstrates how LCA can be used to compare the environmental performance of different segments of a fishery. Recommendations and perspectives: Shifting to creeling and species-selective trawling would lead to considerably lower discard, fuel use, and seafloor impact while providing consumers with the same amount of Norway lobsters. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  • 43.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Winther, U.
    Hognes, E.S.
    Emanuelsson, Andreas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sund, Veronica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ellingsen, H.
    The Carbon Footprint of Norwegian Seafood Products on the Global Seafood Market2013Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 103-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gas emissions caused by food production are receiving increased attention worldwide. A problem with many studies is that they only consider one product; methodological differences also make it difficult to compare results across studies. Using a consistent methodology to ensure comparability, we quantified the carbon footprint of more than 20 Norwegian seafood products, including fresh and frozen, processed and unprocessed cod, haddock, saithe, herring, mackerel, farmed salmon, and farmed blue mussels. The previous finding that fuel use in fishing and feed production in aquaculture are key inputs was confirmed. Additional key aspects identified were refrigerants used on fishing vessels, product yield, and by-product use. Results also include that product form (fresh or frozen) only matters when freezing makes slower transportation possible. Processing before export was favorable due to the greater potential to use by-products and the reduced need for transportation. The most efficient seafood product was herring shipped frozen in bulk to Moscow at 0.7 kilograms CO2 equivalents per kilogram (kg CO2-eq/kg) edible product. At the other end we found fresh gutted salmon airfreighted to Tokyo at 14 kg CO2-eq/kg edible product. This wide range points to major differences between seafood products and room for considerable improvement within supply chains and in product choices. In fisheries, we found considerable variability between fishing methods used to land the same species, which indicates the importance of fisheries management favoring the most resource-efficient ways of fishing. Both production and consumption patterns matter, and a range of improvements could benefit the carbon performance of Norwegian seafood products. © 2012 by Yale University.

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