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  • 1. Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Effects of leaching on Postia placenta decay of acetic anhydride treated wood2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering, 2013, , s. 209-214Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Postia placenta decay of acetic anhydride modified wood: effect of leaching2014Inngår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 162-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that acetylation of wood by the use of acetic anhydride is able to impart a significant degree of decay resistance. The aim of this work was to study how a standardized leaching procedure with water (EN 84) affected the degradation of acetic anhydride modified samples by the brown rot fungi Postia placenta compared to no leaching prior to incubation. Three different levels (low, medium, and high) of acetic anhydride modified Southern yellow pine (SYP; Pinus spp.) were tested. The samples were harvested after 4 and 28 weeks. Wecompared changes in mass loss, wood moisture content, fungal DNA, and gene expression from five genes. If leaching changes the acetylated samples and makes them more susceptible for fungal deterioration, the expected effect would be higher levels of these parameters. Generally, leaching resulted in few differences between leached and nonleached samples at low levels of acetylation, while no changes were found for the highest acetylation level. No differences were found in gene expressions after 28 weeks. The possible protection of acetylated wood against oxidative fungal degradation is suggested to be interpreted in combination with the lowered wood moisture content.

  • 3. Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Hietala, Ari
    A step towards a better understanding of fungal colonization of modified wood - QRT-PCR studies2010Inngår i: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , s. 9Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    New insight regarding mode of action of brown rot decay of modified wood based on DNA and gene expression studies: A review2015Inngår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 5-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modified wood shows resistance against wood deteriorating fungi, but the mechanisms are still not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to summarise the molecular studies performed on modified wood with regard to brown rot decay fungi. The DNA data showed that fungi are present inside the laboratory wood test samples already after two weeks of inoculation. Generally the fungal DNA content reflects mass loss and wood moisture content. The oxidative gene expression seems to be higher in modified wood than in untreated wood and it tend to increase during incubation. Based on the gene expression data we suggest that the hypothesis of lack of substrate recognition by the fungus should be rejected. In the reviewed studies, total wood moisture content in the samples was generally not low enough to inhibit fungal colonisation. Hence, moisture distribution within the wood should be studied more closely.

  • 5. De Vetter, Liesbeth
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Treu, Andreas
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Van Acker, Joris
    Combined evaluation of durability and ecotoxicity: A case study on furfurylated wood2009Inngår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, nr 1-2, s. 30-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modified wood is commercially available and merchandized as a new, environmentally friendly and durable wood species. However, there are no standards focusing on the evaluation of modified wood. Combining resistance against fungal decay and good ecotoxicological properties may be a start. In this study softwood and hardwood species were furfurylated using different treatment processes and treating solutions. The durability was determined by exposing the treated wood to a range of Basidiomycetes and the ecotoxicity was studied on two aquatic organisms. It was the purpose to come to a strategy and how to unite efficacy and ecotoxicity, since this is important in product development. The results show that the selection of fungus used for mass loss determination and the choice of ecotoxicity method is decisive, confirming that a combination of methods is valuable. A tiered approach to find the optimal treatment seems the best option. First, adequate protection against wood-rotting fungi should be attained, followed by ecotoxicity evaluation of the wood leachates. If necessary, the optimization process should be repeated until both durability and ecotoxicity are within satisfactory limits. This process could be extended with other evaluation criteria, e.g. dimensional stability of the modified wood or a risk analysis of its leachate.

  • 6.
    Ehmcke, G.
    et al.
    Technische Universität München, Sweden.
    Koch, G.
    Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Germany.
    Richter, K.
    Technische Universität München, Sweden.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Technische Universität München, Sweden.
    Topochemical and light microscopic investigations of non-enzymatic oxidative changes at the initial decay stage of furfuryl alcohol-modified radiata pine (Pinus radiata) degraded by the brown rot fungus Rhodonia placenta2020Inngår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 154, artikkel-id 105020Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to visualize non-enzymatic oxidative degradation damages in the initial decay stage of the brown rot fungus Rhodonia placenta degradation in furfuryl alcohol (FA) modified wood cell walls and untreated wood cell walls of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sapwood. A decay test with small wood blocks (1.5 × 1.5 × 5 mm³) of untreated and furfurylated radiata pine selected from two different furfurylation processes was performed until the first mass loss occurred. The samples were exposed to the brown rot fungus R. placenta, monitored by light microscopy and analyzed topochemically by cellular UV microspectrophotometry (UMSP). The results showed that the FA modification process directly influenced: i) the fungal colonization and hyphal growth, ii) the spectral UV behavior, and iii) degradation patterns of the entire cell wall layers. For the first time, UMSP area scans and selective line scans of individual cell wall regions provide topochemical insights into oxidative degradation at the initial decay stage of furfuryl alcohol-modified P. radiata visualizing oxidative degradation in situ. Knowledge of the initial decay stage of brown rot degradation in FA-modified wood compared to untreated wood extends our understanding of the brown rot decay processes of cell wall compounds. 

  • 7.
    Ehmcke, Gabriele
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Koch, Gerald
    Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Improvement of a method for topochemical investigations of degraded furfurylated wood2016Inngår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 96-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is an increasing demand for wood protection systems which are based on low environmental impact technologies. The aim of this study was to improve a method for investigating furfurylated Pinus radiata, both in terms of the furfuryl alcohol polymerisation process in the wood cell wall and the detection of initial signs of brown rot degradation. It is an established theory today that brown rot degradation starts with lignin modification in the outermost part of the secondary cell wall and the combined middle lamella. We adapted a method (cellular UV microspectrophotometry, UMSP) which enables direct imaging of the lignin distribution and modification within individual cell wall layers. Furfurylated P. radiata, incubated with Postia placenta, were scanned with monochromatic UV-light at 280 nm. The results showed that USMP is a promising method to study furfurylated wood and early fungal degradation damages in the cell wall of furfurylated wood.

  • 8. Ehmcke, Gabriele
    et al.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Richter, Klaus
    Improvement of a cytochemical method for localization of hydrogen peroxide and adaptation to furfurylated wood2014Inngår i: Proceedings of 10th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science & Engineering (WSE 2014), Edinburgh Napier University , 2014, , s. 180-186Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Ehmcke, Gabrielle
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Koch, Gerald
    Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Topochemical analyses of furfuryl alcohol-modified radiata pine (Pinus radiata) by UMSP, light microscopy and SEM2017Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 71, nr 10, s. 821-831Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Furfurylation is one of the wood modification techniques via catalytic polymerization of the monomeric furfuryl alcohol (FA) in the impregnated cell wall. Little is known about the topochemistry of this process. Brown rot degradation begins with lignin modification and therefore, the reactions between FA and lignin was one focus of this research. Furfurylated radiata pine (Pinus radiata) with three different weight percent gains (WPGs of 57%, 60% and 70%) after FA uptake was observed by cellular ultraviolet microspectrophotometry (UMSP) to analyze chemical alterations of the individual cell wall layers. Moreover, light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed. The ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of the modified samples increased significantly compared to the untreated controls, indicating a strong polymerization of the aromatic compounds. Highest UV absorbances were found in areas with the highest lignin concentration. The UMSP images of individual cell wall layers support the hypothesis concerning condensation reactions between lignin and FA.

  • 10.
    Füchtner, Sophie
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Brock-Nannestad, Thies
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Smeds, Annika
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Thygesen, Lisbeth
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Extractives in Norway Spruce and Kurile Larch and Their Role in Brown-Rot Degradation2020Inngår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 855Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extractives found in the heartwood of a moderately durable conifer (Larix gmelinii var. japonica) were compared with those found in a non-durable one (Picea abies). We identified and quantified heartwood extractives by extraction with solvents of different polarities and gas chromatography with mass spectral detection (GC-MS). Among the extracted compounds, there was a much higher amount of hydrophilic phenolics in larch (flavonoids) than in spruce (lignans). Both species had similar resin acid and fatty acid contents. The hydrophobic resin components are considered fungitoxic and the more hydrophilic components are known for their antioxidant activity. To ascertain the importance of the different classes of extractives, samples were partially extracted prior to subjection to the brown-rot fungus Rhodonia placenta for 2–8 weeks. Results indicated that the most important (but rather inefficient) defense in spruce came from the fungitoxic resin, while large amounts of flavonoids played a key role in larch defense. Possible moisture exclusion effects of larch extractives were quantified via the equilibrium moisture content of partially extracted samples, but were found to be too small to play any significant role in the defense against incipient brow-rot attack.

  • 11. Johansson, Sanne
    et al.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    The activity of a wood-decaying fungus during drying and rewetting cycles measured by isothermal calorimetry2013Inngår i: s. 10-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Kölle, Martina
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Nowrousian, Minou
    Ruhr University Bochum, Germany.
    Ohm, Robin A.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Benz, J. Philipp
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Degradative Capacity of Two Strains of Rhodonia placenta: From Phenotype to Genotype2020Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 1338Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brown rot fungi, such as Rhodonia placenta (previously Postia placenta), occur naturally in northern coniferous forest ecosystems and are known to be the most destructive group of decay fungi, degrading wood faster and more effectively than other wood-degrading organisms. It has been shown that brown rot fungi not only rely on enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, but also use low molecular weight oxidative agents in a non-enzymatic degradation step prior to the enzymatic degradation. R. placenta is used in standardized decay tests in both Europe and North America. However, two different strains are employed (FPRL280 and MAD-698, respectively) for which differences in colonization-rate, mass loss, as well as in gene expression have been observed, limiting the comparability of results. To elucidate the divergence between both strains, we investigated the phenotypes in more detail and compared their genomes. Significant phenotypic differences were found between the two strains, and no fusion was possible. MAD-698 degraded scots pine more aggressively, had a more constant growth rate and produced mycelia faster than FPRL280. After sequencing the genome of FPRL280 and comparing it with the published MAD-698 genome we found 660,566 SNPs, resulting in 98.4% genome identity. Specific analysis of the carbohydrate-active enzymes, encoded by the genome (CAZome) identified differences in many families related to plant biomass degradation, including SNPs, indels, gaps or insertions within structural domains. Four genes belonging to the AA3_2 family could not be found in or amplified from FPRL280 gDNA, suggesting the absence of these genes. Differences in other CAZy encoding genes that could potentially affect the lignocellulolytic activity of the strains were also predicted by comparison of genome assemblies (e.g., GH2, GH3, GH5, GH10, GH16, GH78, GT2, GT15, and CBM13). Overall, these mutations help to explain the phenotypic differences observed between both strains as they could interfere with the enzymatic activities, substrate binding ability or protein folding. The investigation of the molecular reasons that make these two strains distinct contributes to the understanding of the development of this important brown rot reference species and will help to put the data obtained from standardized decay tests across the globe into a better biological context. © Copyright © 2020 Kölle, Horta, Nowrousian, Ohm, Benz and Pilgård.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Larsson Brelid, Pia
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Brischke, Christian
    Rapp, A.O.
    Hansson, Mattias
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Jermer, Jöran
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Methods of field data evaluation – time versus reliability2011Inngår i: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting IRG/WP 11, 2011, , s. 18Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Larsson Brelid, Pia
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Bardage, Stig
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Testbäddar för beständighetsprovning2014Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15. Meyer, Linda
    et al.
    Brischke, Christian
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Modified Timber in Various Above Ground Exposures – Durability and Moisture Performance2012Inngår i: The Sixth European Conference on Wood Modification Proceedings, University of Ljubljana , 2012, , s. 137-144Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16. Meyer, Linda
    et al.
    Brischke, Christian
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Moisture performance based wood durability testing2012Inngår i: s. 26-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    An overview of available DNA-based applications and results relevant for wood protection2008Inngår i: 4th meeting of the Nordic Baltic Network in Wood Material Science and Engineering (WSE), Latvian State Instiute of Wood Chemistry , 2008, , s. 24-29Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Durability and environmental impact of alternatives to conventional wood preservatives2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fungal degradation patterns and toxicity of furfurylated wood2010Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    A better understanding of the mode of action of furfurylated wood2010Inngår i: proceedings of 5th meeting of the Nordic-Baltic Network in Wood Material Science and Engineering (WSE), University of Copenhagen , 2010, , s. 13-19Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Børja, Isabella
    Gjelstrup Björdal, Charlotte
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Durability and fungal colonisation patterns in wood samples after six years in soil contact evaluated with qPCR, microscopy, TGA, chitin- and ergosterol assays2010Inngår i: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , s. 13Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Long, Carl
    The effects of acetylation level on the growth of Postia placenta over 36 weeks2012Inngår i: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting, 2012, s. 13-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Gjelstrup Björdal, Charlotte
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Børja, Isabella
    qPCR as a tool to study basidiomycete colonization in wooden field stakes2011Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 65, nr 6, s. 889-895Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Hietala, Ari
    Quantification of fungal colonization in modified wood: Quantitative real-time PCR as a tool for studies on Trametes versicolor2010Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 64, nr 5, s. 645–651-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional wood preservatives based on biocides are effective against wood-deteriorating organisms because of their toxicity. By contrast, modified woods are non-toxic by definition. To investigate the efficiency of various wood modifications, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to profile the DNA amounts of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor (L.) [Lloyd strain CTB 863 A] during an 8-week-long growth period in treated Pinus sylvestris (L.) sapwood. The studied wood was modified by acetylation, furfurylation, and thermal treatment. The traditional wood preservatives bis-(N-cyclohexyldiazeniumdioxy)-copper (Cu-HDO) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) were used as references, whereas untreated P. sylvestris (L.) sapwood served as a control. The maximum levels of fungal DNA in native wood occurred at the end of the experiment. For all wood treatments, the maximum fungal DNA level was recorded after an incubation period of 2 weeks, followed by a decline until the end of the trial. For the preservative-treated woods, Cu-HDO showed the lowest level of fungal DNA throughout the experiment, indicating that exploratory hyphal growth is limited owing to the phytotoxicity of the treatment. The other treatments did not inhibit the exploratory hyphal growth phase. We conclude that qPCR studies of hyphal growth patterns within wood should provide a powerful tool for evaluating and further optimizing new wood protection systems.

  • 25.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Arnold, Petra
    Richter, Klaus
    Protein extraction from wood decay fungus Postia placenta2014Inngår i: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting 2014 - IRG/WP 14, 2014, , s. 11Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brischke, Christian
    Meyer, Linda
    Relevance of natural pre-weathering for laboratory decay tests with native, modified, and preservative treated wood2013Inngår i: s. 10-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    De Vetter, Liesbeth
    Van Acker, Joris
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Toxic hazard of leachates from furfurylated wood: Comparison between two different aquatic organisms2010Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 1067-1071Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concern regarding the use of toxic preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been put forward. In the European Union, United States, and Japan, CCA has been phased out for residential and water-contact applications. Ecotoxicological studies of wood treated with conventional preservatives were carried out in the late 1990s, and it was concluded that the main impact is to water and aquatic organisms. Today, alternatives to conventional preservation methods, marketed as “environmentally friendly” or “nontoxic,” are emerging. Examples of such alternatives are modified wood, e.g., thermally modified, furfurylated, and acetylated wood. To date, not enough hazard characterization has been performed. In the present study, the Microtox® assay with the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the Daphtox® procedure with the crustacean Daphnia magna were used as screening methods in an effect assessment. Both organisms were exposed to water leachates from furfurylated wood using two different leaching procedures. The results indicate that Microtox is more sensitive to the toxic components from furfurylated wood than Daphtox. Furthermore, the toxicity of treated Pinus radiata was higher than that of treated Pinus sylvestris. The toxicity did not diminish over the test period, as is the case for preservative-treated wood. The present study found that treatment conditions can influence the toxicity considerably, so toxicity studies should be included in the development of new treatment process. The present study also shows that using an intermediate vacuum-drying step, leading to a more efficient curing/polymerization, results in slightly less hydrophobic oligomers in the product, such that the leachates become less toxic to bacteria.

  • 28.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Gjelstrup Björdal, Charlotte
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Microscopy evaluation of microbial decay patterns in wood stakes after 6 years in soil contact2010Inngår i: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, IRG Secretariat , 2010, , s. 13Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Kölle, Martina
    Brischke, Christian
    Richter, Klaus
    Expression of Postia placenta wood degradation genes in thermally modified wood2014Inngår i: Proceedings of 10th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science & Engineering (WSE 2014), Edinburgh Napier University , 2014, , s. 97-103Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Treu, Andreas
    van Zeeland, Albert
    Gosselink, Richard
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood2010Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, nr 9, s. 1918-1924Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be investigated further to identify the chemical differences between wood furfurylated with furfuryl alcohol monomers and furfuryl alcohol prepolymers.

  • 31.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Ecotoxicity of furfurylated wood – Effects of leachate on aquatic bacteria2009Inngår i: Proceeings of IRG annual meeting, 2009, , s. 9Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32. Puttmann, Sabrina
    et al.
    Krause, Andreas
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Treu, Andreas
    Militz, Holger
    Furfurylated wood for wooden window constructions2010Inngår i: proceedings of The Fourth European Conference on Wood Modification, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden , 2010, , s. 569-576Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material.
    Beck, Greeley
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    The importance of moisture for Brown Rot degradation of Modified Wood: A critical discussion2019Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 10, nr 6, artikkel-id 522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of wood modification on wood-water interactions in modified wood is poorly understood, even though water is a critical factor in fungal wood degradation. A previous review suggested that decay resistance in modified wood is caused by a reduced wood moisture content (MC) that inhibits the diffusion of oxidative fungal metabolites. It has been reported that a MC below 23%-25% will protect wood from decay, which correlates with the weight percent gain (WPG) level seen to inhibit decay in modified wood for several different kinds of wood modifications. In this review, the focus is on the role of water in brown rot decay of chemically and thermally modified wood. The study synthesizes recent advances in the inhibition of decay and the effects of wood modification on the MC and moisture relationships in modified wood. We discuss three potential mechanisms for diffusion inhibition in modified wood: (i) nanopore blocking; (ii) capillary condensation in nanopores; and (iii) plasticization of hemicelluloses. The nanopore blocking theory works well with cell wall bulking and crosslinking modifications, but it seems less applicable to thermal modification, which may increase nanoporosity. Preventing the formation of capillary water in nanopores also explains cell wall bulking modification well. However, the possibility of increased nanoporosity in thermally modified wood and increased wood-water surface tension for 1.3-dimethylol-4.5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) modification complicate the interpretation of this theory for these modifications. Inhibition of hemicellulose plasticization fits well with diffusion prevention in acetylated, DMDHEU and thermally modified wood, but plasticity in furfurylated wood may be increased. We also point out that the different mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and it may be the case that they all play some role to varying degrees for each modification. Furthermore, we highlight recent work which shows that brown rot fungi will eventually degrade modified wood materials, even at high treatment levels. The herein reviewed literature suggests that the modification itself may initially be degraded, followed by an increase in wood cell wall MC to a level where chemical transport is possible.

  • 34.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Goodell, Barry
    Richter, Klaus
    Possible targets of wood modification in brown rot degradation2014Inngår i: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting 2014 - IRG/WP 14, 2014, , s. 13Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Brischke, Christian
    Leibniz University, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Mode of action of brown rot decay resistance in modified wood: a review2014Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 239–246-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically or physically modified wood materials have enhanced resistance to wood decay fungi. In contrast to treatments with traditional wood preservatives, where the resistance is caused mainly by the toxicity of the chemicals added, little is known about the mode of action of nontoxic wood modification methods. This study reviews established theories related to resistance in acetylated, furfurylated, dimethylol dihydroxyethyleneurea- treated, and thermally modified wood. The main conclusion is that only one theory provides a consistent explanation for the initial inhibition of brown rot degradation in modified wood, that is, moisture exclusion via the reduction of cell wall voids. Other proposed mechanisms, such as enzyme nonrecognition, micropore blocking, and reducing the number of free hydroxyl groups, may reduce the degradation rate when cell wall water uptake is no longer impeded.

  • 36.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brischke, Christian
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Windeisen, Elizabeth
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Incipient brown rot decay in modified wood: patterns of mass loss, structural integrity, moisture and acetyl content in high resolution2017Inngår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 172-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of degradation and growth patterns of fungi in modified wood may increase the understanding of their mode of action and may lead to more accurate service-life predictions. The aim of this paper was to study the degradation and growth patterns of brown rot fungi in modified wood and to measure moisture content (MC), structural integrity and the acetyl content by frequent monitoring over 300 days. Mass loss (ML) in the modified wood materials increased slowly up to 3% for 50–100 days after which it flattened out and remained constant during the remainder of the test. Structural integrity and acetyl content were maintained in the modified wood materials and MC was lower compared to untreated wood throughout the decay test. ML results of untreated wood indicate that fungi in solid wood go through distinct phases; the degradation patterns in the modified wood materials were more difficult to interpret.

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    fulltext
  • 37.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Kölle, Martina
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brischke, Christian
    Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Effects of thermal modification on Postia placenta wood degradation dynamics: measurements of mass loss, structural integrity and gene expression2016Inngår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 385-397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism by which modified wood resists decay has long been discussed, but is still not fully understood. A better understanding of decay resistance mechanisms could improve wood protection processes and product properties. In this study, the dynamics of brown rot decay in thermally modified wood was examined through measurements of mass loss, strength loss and gene expression. Close monitoring of mass loss over 120 days in thermally modified wood exposed to Postia placenta showed a delay in the onset of degradation compared to untreated wood, and once the degradation had started, the rate was lower. Thermally modified wood did not inhibit expression of wood degradation-related genes before mass loss and was similar to that in untreated wood once mass loss could be detected. Comparing gene expression as well as strength loss at the same stage of decay rather than at the same time after exposure showed smaller differences in decay patterns between thermally modified and untreated wood than previous results indicate. It is concluded that the key to understanding degradation resistance in thermally modified wood is to compare the decay patterns in thermally modified wood and untreated wood before mass loss occurs.

  • 38.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brown rot gene expression and regulation in acetylated and furfurylated wood: A complex picture2020Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 74, nr 4, s. 391-399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate Rhodonia placenta expression patterns of genes involved in the depolymerisation during the non-enzymatic phase in acetylated (WAc) and furfurylated wood (WFA). During the 98-day-long exposure, WAc [22.6% weight per cent gain (WPG) on average] and WFA (69% WPG on average) lost no more than 3% mass while the untreated wood (WUn) reached 41% mass loss (ML) in 55 days. Expression of six genes putatively involved in the non-enzymatic degradation process were investigated. In conclusion, expression levels of alcohol oxidase Ppl118723 (AlOx1) and laccase Ppl111314 (Lac) were significantly higher in the modified wood materials (WMod) than in WUn, which is in accordance with previous results and may be explained by the absence of the degradation products that have been proposed to down-regulate the non-enzymatic degradation process. However, copper radical oxidase Ppl156703 (CRO1) and a putative quinate transporter Ppl44553 (PQT) were expressed at significantly lower levels in WMod than in WUn while quinone reductase Ppl124517 (QRD) and glucose oxidase Ppl108489 (GOx) were expressed at similar levels as in WUn. These results suggest that gene regulation in WMod is more complex than a general up-regulation of genes involved in the non-enzymatic degradation phase.

  • 39.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technische Univerität München, Germany.
    Effect of wood modification on gene expression during incipient Postia placenta decay2014Inngår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 86, nr B, s. 86-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mode of action of nontoxic wood modifications and the fungal response to modified wood are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of Postia placenta in terms of gene expression of selected genes upon the encounter of acetylated, DMDHEU-treated and thermally modified wood. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the investigated P.placentagenes involved in oxidative degradation were expressed at higher levels in modified wood than in untreated wood, while expression levels in modified wood for the investigated genes involved in enzymatic degradation were slightly lower than those in untreated wood. The results indicate that the response of P.placenta upon the encounter of modified wood is to up-regulate the expressionof the oxidative degradation machinery. In addition, our results support the theory that the decay resistance of the herein studied modified woods is due to inhibition of fungal molecules, needed for oxidative degradation of wood polymers, to penetrate the wood cell wall.

  • 40.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Richter, Klaus
    Effects of wood modification on gene expression during incipient Postia Placenta decay2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering, 2013, , s. 221-227Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    In vitro oxidative and enzymatic degradation of modified wood2014Inngår i: The seventh European Conference on Wood Modification : Book of Abstracts, 2014, Vol. 6, s. 36-39, artikkel-id 1Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungal cellulases have been shown to be less efficient in modified wood than in untreated wood (Lekounogou et al. 2008; Vena°s 2008). However, Verma and Mai (2010) showed that cellulase efficacy is partly restored in 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) treated wood by pre-treatment with Fenton's reagent, simulating the oxidative degradation phase in initial brown rot decay. In this study, we examined whether Fenton derived hydroxyl radicals (OH) and cellulases are able to cleave polysaccharides in furfurylated and acetylated wood and to what extent enzyme efficacy is increased by oxidative pre-treatment of these materials. The results show that fungal cellulases were able to degrade acetylated wood and that the cellulase efficacy was increased by oxidative pre-treatment by 20%, which is half of the increase in untreated wood. Furthermore, the results indicate that poly(furfuryl alcohol) is degraded by Fenton derived OH. This indicates a possible route for the eventual degradation of modified wood.

  • 42.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Richter, Klaus
    Postia placenta cellulase gene expression in modified wood during incipient decay2013Inngår i: s. 9-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Richter, Klaus
    Postia placenta decay mechanisms and effects of wood modification2012Inngår i: The Sixth European Conference on Wood Modification Proceedings, University of Ljubljana , 2012, , s. 119-126Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Integrating sustainability considerations into product development: a practical tool for prioritising social sustainability indicators and experiences from real case application2011Inngår i: Towards life cycle sustainability management / [ed] Matthias Finkbeiner, Springer Netherlands, 2011, s. 3-14Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a tool for prioritising social sustainability parameters in product development is described. The tool's core element is a two-step Delphi exercise carried out in the product development team. The purpose of the tool is to (i) select critical social impact indicators suitable for guiding the product development process, (ii) enhance the product development team’s understanding in the field of social sustainability and (iii) engage the team in the sustainability assessment, with the further aim of ensuring the assessment’s influence on the product development process. Applied in a real product development project, the tool proved successful for selecting indicators and increase understanding of social sustainability within the product development team. Selected indicators' usefulness for the product development process remains an open question to be addressed later on as the project evolves.

  • 45.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    Fornara, Andrea
    Peters, Greg
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson Salazar-Sandoval, Eric
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Xu, Yingqian
    Environmental Evaluation of a Clear Coating for Exterior Wood Products: Toxicological Testing of Nanoparticles and Life Cycle Assessment2012Inngår i: 8th International Woodcoatings Congress: Science and Technology for Sustainable Design, Paint Research Association , 2012, , s. 13Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46. Treu, Andreas
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Puttmann, Sabrina
    Krause, Andreas
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Material properties of furfurylated wood for window production2010Inngår i: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , s. 13Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 47.
    Wadsö, Lars
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sanne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    The activity of rot fungi (Postia placenta) during drying and rewetting cycles measured by isothermal calorimetry2013Inngår i: Engineering in Life Sciences, ISSN 1618-0240, E-ISSN 1618-2863, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 536-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rot fungi are a major problem in the construction sector, and method to study under which moisture and temperature coefficients they grow are therefore of significant interest. Measurements of heat production rate have been made on wood samples with the brown rot fungus Postia placenta at different moisture contents (MCs). The results clearly show the heat production rate (a measure of respiration rate and fungal activity) is moisture-dependent. For most cases, less heat was produced when the MC was decreased, and more heat was produced when the MC was increased. It was also found that when the MC increased after a dry period, the increase in activity was significantly delayed. However, if the moisture state was then kept constant at a high level, the activity slowly increased, showing that the fungi need time to recover back to the original activity level after drying. Isothermal calorimetry is a measurement technique well suited for the study of the activity of wood-decaying fungi as a function of temperature and moisture content.

  • 48. Wadsö, Lars
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Measurements of rot fungal activity as a function of moisture content by isothermal calorimetry2010Inngår i: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , s. 5Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
1 - 48 of 48
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