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  • 1.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona E.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Rohm, Harald
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bossle, Marilia B.
    Unisinos Business School, Brazil.
    Grønhøj, Alice
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 155, s. 33-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs collaboration between various supply chain actors and sector stakeholders. Although a range of initiatives from various actors already exists internationally, there is still a lack of knowledge on which lessons can be derived from such cases. The current multiple case study provides insights into how to successfully design future actions, by analysing common and distinct key success factors in 26 existing initiatives to reduce consumer-related food waste. The findings reveal that collaboration between stakeholders, timing and sequence of initiatives, competencies that the initiative is built on, and a large scale of operations are key success factors. Success factors are identified for the primary design, for the development and maintenance phase, and for reaching out to consumers. There are three general types of initiatives that differ in their aims and characteristics: information and capacity building, redistribution, and retail and supply chain alteration. The first type focuses most strongly on motivating consumer food waste avoidance behaviour and strengthening consumer abilities, while the second and third focus primarily on altering consumer food choice context, but combine this with aspects of raising awareness. Recommendations are derived for future initiatives which should take inspiration from existing initiatives, especially considering the right partners, competencies involved, timing the start of the initiative right, and aim to soon achieve a large scale.

  • 2.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Iona
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour.
    Consumer-Related Food Waste: Role of Food Marketing and Retailers and Potential for Action2016Inngår i: Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, ISSN 0897-4438, E-ISSN 1528-6983, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 271-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities to the disadvantage of food waste avoidance. Potential actions to tackle food waste relate to improved packaging and information, altering pricing strategies, and cooperation with other actors across the supply chain. Three cases highlight the extent to which moral and strategic motives are interlinked and that there are opportunities for competitive advantage through corporate social responsibility and a business case for sustainability in the area of food waste.

  • 3.
    de Hooge, Ilona E.
    et al.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Muller Loose, Simone
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Lengard Almli, Valerie
    Nofima, Norway.
    This apple is too ugly for me!: Consumer preferences for suboptimal food products in the supermarket and at home2017Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 56, s. 80-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste has received increasing scientific and societal attention during the last decade. One important cause of food waste is thought to be the un-willingness of supply chains and consumers to sell, purchase, and consume suboptimal or imperfect foods. Yet, empirical research on this issue is scarce and contradictory. The current research investigates under which conditions consumers purchase or consume foods that deviate from regular products in terms of appearance standards, date labelling, or damaged packaging, without deviation on the intrinsic quality or safety. An online choice experiment among 4214 consumers from five Northern European countries reveals that consumer preferences for suboptimal products differ depending on whether the consumer is in a supermarket or at home, and depending on the type of sub-optimality. Moreover, consumer choices, discount preferences, and waste behaviors of suboptimal products are influenced by demographics (nationality, age), by personality characteristics (value orientation, commitment to environmental sustainability, and perceived consumer effectiveness in saving the environment), and by individual-waste aspects (perceived food waste of the household, perceived importance of food waste, engaging in shopping/cooking). These findings provide important insights into consumer preferences for suboptimal products, and useful suggestions for supply-chain regulations on suboptimal products.

  • 4.
    Folkeson, Björn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the short and long term impacts of domestic hot and cold water use and associated energy use when replacing conventional faucets in 100 apartments with energy efficient faucets labeled with energy class A-B according to the Swedish energy labeling system. The study included a behavioural study to increase the understanding of the users’ perception of the faucets and to investigate the underlying reasons for acceptance of the installed products.

     

    The results showed a reduction in domestic hot water use and energy use for domestic hot water of 28 %. No reduction of cold water use could be identified although changes in occupancy of the apartments might have contributed to this result. The savings in hot water use did not diminish over the measurement period.

     

    The acceptance of the energy efficient faucets did not increase over time, which was likely due to the lack of feedback on the assumption that the faucets provided the indicated savings. It was also indicated that the perception of the faucets differed between contexts in the home. The acceptance was also found to be linked to factors that could not be isolated from the faucet and its function.

  • 5.
    Lagerkvist, Carl Johan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour.
    Åström, Annika
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour.
    A theoretical description and experimental exploration of tri-reference point theory with respect to food choice2015Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 41, s. 60-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings within behavioural decision-making suggest that individuals make use of a tri-reference point set when making choices. This implies that choices and preference formation among competing products that are considered acceptable, but differ in desirability, are formed differently along the continuum from bottom line to target level. This study examined whether personal goals, as multiple reference points in relation to food product choice, inherit the properties of a value function. It was posited that goals as cognitive constructs are translated through the target object (the product) and through judgement and context into a representation of identified product preferences. The types of preferences that characterise the different goal levels were then analysed using data collected in an in-store, non-hypothetical consumer experiment with a random sample of 236 consumers. The existence of tri-reference point dependence was strongly supported, with the data indicating that product choices and preferences were moderated by transitions across reference states. Moreover, during transitions notable relative changes in evaluation of the product were identified. These results have normative implications for food product marketing in terms of targeting consumer needs. More importantly, they have strong methodological implications for studies on consumer preferences

  • 6.
    Lagerkvist, Carl Johan
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Åström, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Product satisfaction in food choice is multiple-reference dependent: Evidence from an in-store non-hypothetical consumer experiment on bread2017Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 56, s. 8-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer behaviour is goal-orientated. In food product research, goals as cognitive constructs have been shown to translate through the product into an evaluation of product attributes and onto actual choice. In relation to food consumer behaviour and food product choice, however, the manner by which goals operate on post-purchase affective states (need fulfilment) has been largely unexplored. This study examined how food product attributes relate to consumer satisfaction and how this association differs along the goal gradient. We posited that goals are translated through the target object (the product) into a satisfaction representation of product attributes of the identified product. Based on tri-reference point (TRP) goal dependency and the Kano approach to satisfaction measurement, we then analysed the product attribute satisfaction that characterised different goal levels using data collected in an in-store, non-hypothetical consumer experiment with a random sample of 229 consumers. The existence of TRP dependence on product attribute satisfaction was strongly supported, indicating that need fulfilment was directed by transitions across goal reference states. Moreover, a lack of direct proportionality between goal valuation and the instrumentality of the product attributes as means to need fulfilment was identified. These results have normative implications for food product development and research in terms of targeting consumer needs.

  • 7.
    Maringer, Marcus
    et al.
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Van'T Veer, Pieter
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Klepacz, Naomi
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Verain, Muriel C. D.
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ekman, Susanne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Timotijevic, Lada
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Raats, Monique M.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Geelen, Anouk
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    User-documented food consumption data from publicly available apps: An analysis of opportunities and challenges for nutrition research2018Inngår i: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 17, nr 1, artikkel-id 59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The need for a better understanding of food consumption behaviour within its behavioural context has sparked the interest of nutrition researchers for user-documented food consumption data collected outside the research context using publicly available nutrition apps. The study aims to characterize the scientific, technical, legal and ethical features of this data in order to identify the opportunities and challenges associated with using this data for nutrition research. Method: A search for apps collecting food consumption data was conducted in October 2016 against UK Google Play and iTunes storefronts. 176 apps were selected based on user ratings and English language support. Publicly available information from the app stores and app-related websites was investigated and relevant data extracted and summarized. Our focus was on characteristics related to scientific relevance, data management and legal and ethical governance of user-documented food consumption data. Results: Food diaries are the most common form of data collection, allowing for multiple inputs including generic food items, packaged products, or images. Standards and procedures for compiling food databases used for estimating energy and nutrient intakes remain largely undisclosed. Food consumption data is interlinked with various types of contextual data related to behavioural motivation, physical activity, health, and fitness. While exchange of data between apps is common practise, the majority of apps lack technical documentation regarding data export. There is a similar lack of documentation regarding the implemented terms of use and privacy policies. While users are usually the owners of their data, vendors are granted irrevocable and royalty free licenses to commercially exploit the data. Conclusion: Due to its magnitude, diversity, and interconnectedness, user-documented food consumption data offers promising opportunities for a better understanding of habitual food consumption behaviour and its determinants. Non-standardized or non-documented food data compilation procedures, data exchange protocols and formats, terms of use and privacy statements, however, limit possibilities to integrate, process and share user-documented food consumption data. An ongoing research effort is required, to keep pace with the technical advancements of food consumption apps, their evolving data networks and the legal and ethical regulations related to protecting app users and their personal data.

  • 8.
    Normann, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sustainable fruit consumption: The influence of color, shape and damage on consumer sensory perception and liking of different apples2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 17, artikkel-id 4626Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable food production and consumption are currently key issues. About one third of food produced for human consumption is wasted. In developed countries, consumers are responsible for the largest amount of food waste throughout the supply chain. The unwillingness to purchase and consume suboptimal food products is an important cause of food waste, however, the reasons behind this are still insufficiently studied. Our research addresses the question of how combinations of color, shape and damage of apples influence consumer liking and perceived sensory attributes. In a laboratory study based on factorial design of visual appearance (color, shape and damage varied from optimal to suboptimal) a total of 130 consumers evaluated sensory perception of flavor and texture attributes in apple samples. Liking was also evaluated. The results showed a significant difference in liking between an optimal apple and all apple categories with at least two out of three suboptimal properties. Further, it was a clear trend that the optimal apple was perceived as sweeter, crispier, less bitter, and less earthy than all the other apples by the participating consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. A suboptimal appearance, therefore, had a negative effect on both perception and liking..

  • 9.
    Rohm, Harald
    et al.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Symmank, Claudia
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    L Almli, Valérie
    Nofima AS, Norway.
    de Hooge, Ilona E
    Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Karantininis, Kostas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS): Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction.2017Inngår i: Foods (Basel, Switzerland), ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 6, nr 12, artikkel-id E104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration), or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household). The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain) was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply.

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