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  • 1.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Östlund, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Holtz, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hondo, Haris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Moore, Susanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Småskalighet som ett medel för att bana väg för framtidens livsmedel?2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The food value chain system in Sweden is well established making it hard for small companies to develop new products and even harder to create new food supply systems Obstacles could lay at the beginning of the chain (food production or processing), at the end (marketing, consumer) or could even be related to the legislative regulation framing the food supply chain. Smaller actors often lack resources and networks to develop their sector. However, their degree of creativity, innovativeness, and engagement is high, and their energy is needed in the development of new sustainable food value chains.

    The aim of this project was to develop and apply a methodology for evaluating food value chains, focusing on profitable small-scale production systems in Sweden that show potential for fast development of new products that quickly reach the market. The work also included identifying Swedish raw food materials with growth potential and to identify how they could come into greater demand. Ten food value chains with high development potential in Sweden and for export were mapped and the main bottlenecks briefly described. Three food chains where selected based on a potential-difficulty-benefit matrix. The three selected food value chains were: (i) Hops, (ii) Swedish forest berries, and (iii) Land-based fish farming. These three food value chains where further studied looking at the whole value chain, from production to end consumer. Through literature review and contacts with relevant stakeholders (telephone interview, face-to-face interview, or workshop) the bottlenecks were clarified and potential solutions for increased demand where identified.

    Swedish hops production is carried out by passionate and engaged smaller actors, mostly on a hobby level, and the hops is used as an ingredient for beer. Germany and the USA produce about 75% of the worldwide production These hops varieties are not adapted to the Swedish climate and therefore result in a low volume and poor quality. However, domestic varieties have been grown in the past giving better yield under Swedish climate conditions. More work is needed to characterize the quality of Swedish hops. At the present time, knowledge about the characteristics of Swedish hops is low, explaining the lack of interest from brewers. In Sweden most hops are harvested by hand, making it nearly impossible to be profitable on the market. The mechanization of the harvesting step is necessary to move Swedish hops from a hobby to a commercial activity. No solutions are available on the Swedish market, RISE together with SLU is looking to develop a hops harvester fulfilling Swedish and EU regulations and adapted to small scale cultivation. At the end of the value chain, innovative products could increase the need for Swedish hops, for example by developing beers brewed with fresh hops. Moreover, hops have antiseptic characteristics and could potentially be used in other food products than beer.

    Only about four percent of the berries that are produced by the Swedish forests every year are picked. The largest volumes picked are for bilberry (Swedish: blåbär), lingonberry, and cloudberry and most of them are washed and frozen in Sweden. Processing of berries, however, has to a large extent moved out of the country while the products produced for the Swedish market are quite traditional, low-processed foods such as jams, juices and dessert soups. The majority of the Swedish berries mainly bilberries due to their nutritional content are exported and are further processed into value added powders or extracts in Asia and Europe. In Sweden this kind of value chain is under developed largely due to knowledge barriers and to the currently very traditional market. However, there is a great consumer interest in berries and they have a perceived healthiness also in Sweden. Consumers are also increasingly aware of the origin of berries used as ingredients in products such as jams, purees and juice, as well as in health food products. To fill this gap between consumer interest/demand and raw materials available new businesses can be developed. To facilitate such development there is a need for knowledge generation and transfer along the whole value chain (picking, processing, product development and consumer studies), which can be generated by starting up new innovation and research projects. It is also of importance to facilitate networking, for example in the ‘berry network’ (coordinated by RISE), as the creation of a new value chain will require different businesses to cooperate. Also, product development projects will need support for testing, pilot production, and possibly in finding investment funding for new equipment.

    Land-based fish farming is small in comparison to traditional fish farming in Sweden, but several actors see a great potential in this system which has a lower impact on the environment compared to conventional fish farms. For instance, the Swedish farmer federation (LRF) has invested in a land-based fish farm recently. As in other EU-countries, the number of active farms in Sweden is decreasing and some see the potential to recycle unused animal stables into fish farms. A major bottleneck for land-based fish farming is current legislation as it is based on conventional fish farming and therefore does not consider the environmental benefits of land-based systems. Knowledge should be spread to relevant authorities and policy makers to open a dialog and facilitate the development of a relevant regulatory framework. Regarding the production phase, access to sustainably produced feed and technical competence are lacking. Moreover, as the technology is costly learning through trial and error would not be recommended. A testbed dedicated to land-based fish farming could support companies who wish to try modifications to their system. Furthermore, smaller producers have difficulties in finding processing solutions for their products; e.g. slaughterhouses and conditioning. Two potential solutions would be to develop a land-based fish farm cooperative and/or mobile systems that could take care of smaller productions. Finally, the competition on the market is tough as land-based fishes are competing with large-scale conventional fish farms from Norway and Asia. To overcome this bottleneck, the sector could develop its own certification as well as increasing the consumers awareness and knowledge.

    Some conclusions could be applied to all the studied food chains. For instance, each value chain can be seen as a puzzle with many pieces. In order to develop new food value chains many separate pieces need to fall into place. Therefore, it is necessary to increase collaboration between stakeholders but also to have a stakeholder driven coordination of this collaboration. The stakeholders within the developing value chains often do not have all the resources to carry out this task, especially if they are small businesses. The development of cooperatives also seems to be a solution to overcome bottlenecks in the studied food chains. Likewise, logistics in the developing value chains have a great margin for improvement. Furthermore, this project focused on value chains where food commodities are the end product but investigating the potential for non-food uses would also be of interest.

    The method used in this project can be replicated to other value chains with potential of development. It would help the users to get a holistic view of the current bottlenecks and facilitate contact between stakeholders. The list of bottlenecks can be followed up and used as an indicator to evaluate if the value chain in moving forward.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Fogelberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Östlund, Johanna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Effect of cultivar and inoculant on yields of faba beans (Vicia faba minor) and subsequent spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) under Scandinavian cropping conditions2023Inngår i: Frontiers in Agronomy, ISSN 2673-3218, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 1179996Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inoculation of legumes is generally considered to increase yield and to lower the need of nitrogen (N) fertilization, especially in semiarid regions and on sandy soils. It has not been clear whether inoculation with Rhizobium sp. in cropping of faba beans (Vicia faba minor) under Swedish conditions would improve yield and protein content. In 2015–2016, three faba bean cultivars and two strains of Rhizobium were studied in field trials in Central Sweden, including analyses of N fixation capacities using 15N abundance. The study did not show any effects of inoculation of Rhizobium on yield or protein content of faba beans or subsequent spring wheat yields. Yields of faba beans varied between cultivars but were not connected to inoculation. 15N abundance was influenced by rhizobium. The study cannot support the opinion that, generally, inoculation is beneficial for improved outcome of faba bean cropping under Scandinavian field conditions. No residual effect of inoculation on subsequent spring wheat yield was found. Copyright © 2023 Fogelberg, Östlund and Myrbeck.

  • 3.
    Östlund, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Eriksson Röhnisch, Hanna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Zamaratskaia, Galia
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Attitudes and preferences regarding plant-based yoghurt analogues among Swedish consumers with different dietary habits2024Inngår i: International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, ISSN 1878-450X, E-ISSN 1878-4518, Vol. 35, artikkel-id 100865Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated drivers and barriers in consumer willingness to purchase plant-based yoghurt analogues (PBYA) and assessed the most important attributes of PBYA. Questionnaire data from 702 Swedish adults (19% vegan, 20% lacto-ovo-vegetarian, 21% flexitarian, 41% omnivore) showed that attitudes and preferences regarding PBYA differed between consumers with different dietary preferences. Animal welfare was an important driver for vegans, while interest in trying new foods was one of the main drivers for omnivores. All four consumer groups believed that PBYA is good for the environment. The main reasons indicated for not consuming PBYA were unpleasant taste and lack of motive to switch from dairy yoghurt to PBYA. All groups indicated taste, appearance and price as overall driving forces when choosing PBYA. The importance of some factors, such as local ingredients, few additives and low sugar content, was rated higher by flexitarians and omnivores than by vegans and lacto-ovo vegetarians. These data about consumer attitudes and preferences regarding PBYA should be implemented during PBYA product development, especially when targeting different food preference groups. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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