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  • 1.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Food Agency, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moraeus, Lotta
    Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå university, Sweden.
    Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Diet Quality in a Cross-Sectional Study of Swedish Adolescents2023Inngår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 118, nr 5, s. 956-965Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Interventions to improve dietary intake and reduce dietary greenhouse gas emissions (dGHGE) are urgently needed. Adolescence presents a unique time in life to promote sustainable diets. Detailed dietary data are needed to inform public health strategies aiming at improving adolescents’ diet quality and reducing dGHGE. Objective: This study aimed to describe dGHGE in Swedish adolescents’ diets by socio-demographic characteristics, evaluate how food groups contribute to dGHGE, and examine dGHGE in relation to diet quality. Methods: Data come from the national, school-based, cross-sectional dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-17 of 3099 females and males attending school grades 5 (11–12 y old), 8 (14–15 y old) and 11 (17–18 y old). Participants completed 2 web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires on lifestyle factors. dGHGE was estimated based on life cycle assessment data. Diet quality was estimated using NRF11.3 (Nutrient Rich Food Index) and SHEIA15 (Swedish Healthy Eating Index for Adolescents 2015). Results: dGHGE were higher in males than females (medians 4.2 versus 3.8 kg CO2e/10 MJ, P < 0.001). In females, dGHGE were highest in grade 5 (4.0 kg CO2e/10MJ), whereas in males, emissions were highest in grade 11 (4.4 kg CO2e/10MJ), P < 0.001 for the sex/grade interaction. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with CO2e/10MJ, but parental education, birthplace, and degree of urbanization were not. In females, the proportion of dGHGE from animal-based foods was lowest in grade 11, whereas the proportions from plant-based foods and sweet foods/beverages were highest. In males, these proportions were similar across grades. NRF11.3 was not associated with CO2e/10MJ, whereas healthier eating, according to SHEIA15, was inversely associated with CO2e/10MJ. Conclusions: Food choices and dGHGE per calorie differ by sex in adolescents. Thus, intervention strategies to improve dietary sustainability need to be tailored differently to females and males. Diet quality should also be considered when promoting reduced GHGE diets.

  • 2.
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Andersson, H.
    Bosoeus, I.
    Carlsson, N.-G.
    Hasselblad, K.
    Härröd, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Alginate, small bowel sterol excretion, and absorption of nutrients in ileostomy subjects1994Inngår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 60, nr 5, s. 751-756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of alginate on ileostomy excretion of sterols and nutrients was investigated in six ileostomy subjects fed a constant low-fiber diet with or without supplementation with 7.5 g sodium alginate. A mean of 95% of uronic acids derived from the sodium alginate was recovered in the ileostomy contents. Supplementation with alginate increased fat excretion by 140% and decreased bile acids excretion by 12%. Sodium and potassium excretion were significantly increased whereas starch and nitrogen excretion were unchanged. Five of six subjects showed a decreased apparent absorption of iron and manganese with alginate, which, however, was not statistically significant. Absorption of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and zinc were unchanged. Almost no digestion of sodium alginate occurs in the stomach and small intestine. The increased fatty acids excretion may be explained by the binding or trapping of fatty acids in the gel matrix formed by alginate, which may also cause a reduced bile flow.

  • 3.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Diets benefiting health and climate relate to longevity in northern Sweden.2021Inngår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 114, nr 2, s. 515-529Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Diets combining adequate nutritional quality and low climate impact are highly needed for human and planet health. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to 1) evaluate nutrient density indexes' ability to predict mortality, and 2) assess the effects of diets varying in nutrient density and climate impact on total mortality. METHODS: Dietary data from 49,124 women and 47,651 men aged 35-65 y in the population-based prospective study Västerbotten Intervention Programme (Sweden) were used. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) were estimated using data from life cycle assessments. Fifteen variants of nutrient density indexes were evaluated and the index that best predicted mortality was used to estimate participants' nutrient density. GHGEs and nutrient density were adjusted for energy intakes. Total mortality risk was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for 4 groups of women and men, respectively, i.e., higher nutrient density, lower climate impact (HNutr/LClim); higher nutrient density, higher climate impact (HNutr/HClim); lower nutrient density, lower climate impact (LNutr/LClim); and lower nutrient density, higher climate impact (LNutr/HClim-reference group). RESULTS: NRF11.3, a Sweden-adapted variant of the Nutrient Rich Foods index, was identified to have the best ability to predict mortality in the study population. Median follow-up times for women and men were 16.0 and 14.7 y, respectively. For women a significantly lower mortality risk was found for HNutr/LClim (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96; P = 0.008) and HNutr/HClim (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.97; P = 0.011) than for LNutr/HClim. Among men LNutr/LClim had a significantly higher mortality risk (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21; P = 0.033) than LNutr/HClim. CONCLUSIONS: Diets beneficial for both health and climate are feasible and associated with lower mortality risk in women. Further studies are needed to understand how men may transition into diets that are more sustainable from a combined health and climate perspective.

  • 4.
    Stubbendorff, Anna
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ramne, Stina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Drake, Isabel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Development of an EAT-Lancet index and its relation to mortality in a Swedish population.2022Inngår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 115, nr 3, s. 705-716Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Current global food systems threaten human health and environmental sustainability. In 2019, the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems defined the first global reference diet to improve both areas, but there is no consensus on how to quantify the EAT-Lancet reference diet as a diet index and its relation to mortality has not been widely studied. OBJECTIVE: To develop a new dietary index to quantify adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet and assess its association with mortality in a large population-based Swedish cohort. We also examined food components included in the index and their individual associations with mortality. DESIGN: We used the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (n = 22,421, 45-73 years at baseline). Dietary data were collected using a modified diet history method. The EAT-Lancet index was developed based on intake levels and reference intervals of 14 food components defined in the EAT-Lancet diet (0-3 points per component, 0-42 points in total). Associations with mortality were examined based on registers during a mean of 20 years of follow-up and were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Divided into five adherence groups, the highest adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet (≥23 points) was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.85), cancer mortality (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.92) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.84) than the lowest adherence (≤13 points). Several food components included in the index contributed to the observed reductions in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a new dietary index to investigate adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet. The findings indicate a 25% lower risk of mortality among those with the highest adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet, as defined using our index, which adds to the evidence base for the development of sustainable dietary guidelines.

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