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  • 1.
    Attias, Noam
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Livne, Achia
    Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    State of the art, recent advances, and challenges in the field of fungal mycelium materials: a snapshot of the 2021 Mini Meeting2021Inngår i: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology, ISSN 2054-3085, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikkel-id 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Material development based on fungal mycelium is a fast-rising field of study as researchers, industry, and society actively search for new sustainable materials to address contemporary material challenges. The compelling potential of fungal mycelium materials is currently being explored in relation to various applications, including construction, packaging, “meatless” meat, and leather-like textiles. Here, we highlight the discussions and outcomes from a recent 1-day conference on the topic of fungal mycelium materials (“Fungal Mycelium Materials Mini Meeting”), where a group of researchers from diverse academic disciplines met to discuss the current state of the art, their visions for the future of the material, and thoughts on the challenges surrounding widescale implementation. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 2. Chalifour, B.
    et al.
    Hoogveld, J. R. H.
    Derksen-Hooijberg, M.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    University of Florida, USA.
    Urueña, J. M.
    Sawyer, W. G.
    van der Heide, T.
    Angelini, C.
    Drought alters the spatial distribution, grazing patterns, and radula morphology of a fungal-farming salt marsh snail2019Inngår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 620, s. 1-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is altering consumer− plant interactions in ecosystems worldwide. How consumers alter their spatial distribution, grazing activities, and functional morphology in response to climate stress can determine whether their effects on plants intensify or relax. Few studies have considered multiple consumer response metrics to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the resulting changes in consumer− plant interactions. Here, we tested how drought stress influences the interaction between the dominant consumer, the fungal-farming periwinkle snail Littoraria irrorata, and a foundational plant, cordgrass Spartina alterniflora, in a southeastern US salt marsh. In a 4 mo field experiment, we maintained moderate snail densities in mesh control chambers and clear plastic climate chambers that simulated drought by elevating temperatures and drying soils. Monitoring revealed that snails more often congregated on cordgrass stems than leaves in climate chambers than in controls. Image analyses indicated that this behavioral shift corresponded to snails inflicting shorter, but more numerous, fungal-infested scars on cordgrass leaves, and causing less plant damage in climate chambers than controls. Coincident with their net reduction in grazing, snails maintained longer radulae, whose central teeth were blunter and lateral teeth were sharper, in climate chambers compared to controls. These results suggest that under drought, snail radulae may experience less frictional wear and that, at intermediate densities, snail−cordgrass interactions relax. Together with prior research showing that at high densities, snails can denude cordgrass during drought, we conclude that con-Saltmarsh snails (top left) stressed by drought conditions show reduced radula wear and shifts in tooth morphology (e.g. sharper lateral teeth; bottom right), suggesting that fewer resources are invested in maintaining the grazing apparatus. Climate change is expected to increase drought stress. © The authors 2019.

  • 3.
    Cheregi, Otilia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engelbrektsson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Andersson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Ekendahl, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Godhe, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Spetea, Cornelia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marine microalgae for outdoor biomass production—A laboratory study simulating seasonal light and temperature for the west coast of Sweden2021Inngår i: Physiologia Plantarum, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 173, nr 2, s. 543-554Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At Nordic latitudes, year-round outdoor cultivation of microalgae is debatable due to seasonal variations in productivity. Shall the same species/strains be used throughout the year, or shall seasonal-adapted ones be used? To elucidate this, a laboratory study was performed where two out of 167 marine microalgal strains were selected for intended cultivation at the west coast of Sweden. The two local strains belong to Nannochloropsis granulata (Ng) and Skeletonema marinoi (Sm142). They were cultivated in photobioreactors and compared in conditions simulating variations in light and temperature of a year divided into three growth seasons (spring, summer and winter). The strains grew similarly well in summer (and also in spring), but Ng produced more biomass (0.225 vs. 0.066 g DW L−1 day−1) which was more energy rich (25.0 vs. 16.6 MJ kg−1 DW). In winter, Sm142 grew faster and produced more biomass (0.017 vs. 0.007 g DW L−1 day−1), having similar energy to the other seasons. The higher energy of the Ng biomass is attributed to a higher lipid content (40 vs. 16% in summer). The biomass of both strains was richest in proteins (65%) in spring. In all seasons, Sm142 was more effective in removing phosphorus from the cultivation medium (6.58 vs. 4.14 mg L−1 day−1 in summer), whereas Ng was more effective in removing nitrogen only in summer (55.0 vs. 30.8 mg L−1 day−1). Our results suggest that, depending on the purpose, either the same or different local species can be cultivated, and are relevant when designing outdoor studies. © 2021 The Authors. 

  • 4.
    Davis, Rohan A.
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Cervin, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Beattie, Karren D.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Rali, Topul
    University of Papua New Guinea, Papua New Guinea.
    Fauchon, Marilyne
    University of Brest, France.
    Hellio, Claire
    University of Brest, France.
    Bodin Åkerlund, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Pavia, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svenson, Johan
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Evaluation of natural resveratrol multimers as marine antifoulants2023Inngår i: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study we investigate the antifouling potential of three polyphenolic resveratrol multimers (–)-hopeaphenol, vaticanol B and vatalbinoside A, isolated from two species of Anisoptera found in the Papua New Guinean rainforest. The compounds were evaluated against the growth and settlement of eight marine microfoulers and against the settlement and metamorphosis of Amphibalanus improvisus barnacle cyprids. The two isomeric compounds (–)-hopeaphenol and vaticanol B displayed a high inhibitory potential against the cyprid larvae metamorphosis at 2.8 and 1.1 μM. (–)-Hopeaphenol was also shown to be a strong inhibitor of both microalgal and bacterial adhesion at submicromolar concentrations with low toxicity. Resveratrol displayed a lower antifouling activity compared to the multimers and had higher off target toxicity against MCR-5 fibroblasts. This study illustrates the potential of natural products as a valuable source for the discovery of novel antifouling leads with low toxicity. 

  • 5.
    Edman, Frida
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Wallman, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Klimatavtryck av Svensk Fågels kycklingproduktion2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    RISE har på uppdrag av branschföreningen Svensk Fågel under våren beräknat klimatavtryck för svensk kyckling producerad av Svensk Fågels medlemmar. Analysen är genomförd enligt ISO 14067:2018 (ISO, 2018). Klimatavtrycket representerar traditionell uppfödning av kyckling som under hela uppfödningen utfodrats med kommersiella foderblandningar från svenska foderproducenter. RISE har fått tillgång till och baserar klimatberäkningen på primärinformation från de olika aktörerna i värdekedjan för kycklinguppfödning: foderföretag, uppfödare och slakterier. I denna publika rapport återges inte primärdata i de fall uppgiftslämnarna ansett data vara företagskänslig information. Klimatavtrycket har beräknats för 1 kg slaktvikt av kyckling. Slaktvikt är vikten på kycklingen då den är avblodad och fjädrar, huvud, fötter samt inkråm är borttaget. Medelslaktvikten som använts i analysen är 71,4 % av levandevikten av kycklingen.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    von Brömssen, Claudia
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Amvrosiadi, Nino
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fölster, Jens
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wallin, Marcus
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bishop, Kevin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Brownification on hold: What traditional analyses miss in extended surface water records2021Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 203, artikkel-id 117544Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread increases in organic matter (OM) content of surface waters, as measured by color and organic carbon (OC), are a major issue for aquatic ecosystems. Long-term monitoring programs revealed the issue of “brownification”, with climate change, land cover changes and recovery from acidification all suspected to be major drivers or contributing factors. While many studies have focused on the impact and drivers, fewer have followed up on whether brownification is continuing. As time-series of OM data lengthen, conventional data-analysis approaches miss important information on when changes occur. To better identify temporal OM patterns during three decades (1990–2020) of systematic monitoring, we used generalized additive models to analyze 164 time-series from watercourses located across Sweden. Increases in OC that were widespread during 1990–2010 ceased a decade ago, and most color increases ceased 20 years ago. These findings highlight the need to reassess the understanding of brownification's spatial and temporal extent, as well as the tools used to analyze lengthening time series.

  • 7.
    Ghoreishi, Solmaz
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Løhre, Camilla
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Hermundsgård, Dag Helge
    University of Bergen, Norway; Arbaflame AS, Norway.
    Lindgaard Molnes, Joakim
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Tanase Opedal, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Brusletto, Rune
    Arbaflame AS, Norway.
    Barth, Tanja
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Identification and quantification of valuable platform chemicals in aqueous product streams from a preliminary study of a large pilot-scale steam explosion of woody biomass using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy2022Inngår i: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, E-ISSN 2190-6823Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Steam explosion breaks down the polymeric matrix and enables the recovery of valuable compounds from lignocellulosic feedstock. In the steam explosion process, biomass is treated with high-pressure steam which subsequently generates large quantities of a condensed aqueous liquid (process effluent) and a filtered aqueous liquid (filtrate) that contain furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, 5-methylfurfural, methanol, and acetic acid as major constituents. This study addresses the identification and quantification of value-added chemicals in the aqueous product streams using quantitative analytical nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with water suppression. This work reports a screening study for two different types of sawdust (Norway spruce and birch) at two different scales (4 L and 10 L reactors) using different reaction temperatures (190–223 °C) and corresponding pressures (13–24 bar), with and without the addition of SO2 gas. The duration of all experiments was 8 min. The process effluents contained acetic acid, methanol, formic acid, 5-methylfurfural, and furfural. Acetic acid (0.5 g/kg dry input biomass) and furfural (1.0 g/kg dry input biomass) were more abundant than methanol, formic acid, and 5-methylfurfural for both feedstocks. The addition of SO2 increased the furfural yields, indicating more efficient hydrolysis of hemicelluloses under acidic conditions. Filtrate samples also contained 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, with the highest concentrations (5.7–6.0 g/kg dry input biomass) in the filtrates from spruce. The different feedstocks and steam explosion temperatures strongly influenced the overall yields of the target compounds, in some cases tripling the concentrations. The results can be used to improve the profit margins in a pellets and chemicals biorefinery, as demonstrated in the ArbaOne pellets plant. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 8.
    Hagberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Eriksson, Ingvar
    Gård och Djurhälsan, Sweden.
    Lind, Ann-Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Thomsson, Ola
    Gotlands Slagteri AB, Sweden.
    Grisproduktion på Bornholm – reseberättelse från studieresa i projektet”Utökad grisproduktion på Gotland”2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Pig production on Bornholm – a travelogue about pig production on Bornholm carried out in the project “Growing pig businesses on Gotland” Both Bornholm (Denmark) and Gotland (Sweden) are islands located in the Baltic Sea. Gotland is about five times as large in comparison with Bornholm, but the number of pig producers is twice as many on Bornholm. For both Bornholm and Gotland, pig production is important. Without pig production, a local abattoir would not be operating on the islands. A closure of the local abattoir would result in the loss of 150– 200 jobs. Such closure would affect the whole society. In addition, animal transports to slaughter would be significantly longer. In 2014 there was an imminent threat that the local abattoir on Bornholm would be closed due to profitability issues. With joint efforts the abattoir was rescued, and the production volumes are now expected to be 545,000 slaughtered pigs in 2021/2022. The density of pig herds on Bornholm is a raising concern among veterinarians and pig producers due to the spreading of diseases among the herds. For instance, there is a concern about the spreading of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is not found in Sweden. PRRS was discovered in Sweden in 2007, but the affected pig herds were eliminated and the disease was eradicated. For both Denmark and Sweden there is another imminent threat in African swine fever (ASF), which is found in several countries in Europe. Denmark took measures to hinder the propagation of wild boars in the country, diminishing the risk of the spread of ASF. In Sweden, the wild boar population was established in the 80´s and has grown since then, increasing the risk of bringing ASF into the country. Thus, Gotland has an advantage with no wild boar population established on the island. In general, the surrounding water barrier on an island may be a natural barrier to hinder the introduction and spreading of diseases. In both Danish and Swedish pig production, there are difficulties finding staff. Between 50–70% of the staff in Danish pig production are foreigners. This proportion is significantly lower on Bornholm. So far, there is a market for agricultural properties on Bornholm, but as many pig producers approach retirement, the future situation is uncertain. It is becoming more common for employees to purchase farms in Bornholm when no relatives are interested to take over the business. For both Bornholm and Gotland, it is challenging for younger people to purchase farms due to the large investments. The process also takes many years. Developments towards more automation and digitalization in pig production became clear during the study trip to Bornholm. Danish Crown A/S has developed a mobile application in which the pig producers can report animals for slaughter. On the study tour the project group visited a pig farm with 600 sows and 20 000 fatteners. The pig farmer had invested in several automaton techniques to reduce operating costs for labor. The pig producers on Bornholm use production follow-up programs (corresponding to WinPig in Sweden) to a large extent. In addition, advisers are hired frequently. At Danish Crown A/S, there is an "owner service" that pig producers can join. In the owner service, the abattoir's consultants offer advices of interests for the pig producer. There is also a farm advisory service on Bornholm, namely Bornholms Landbrug och Fødevarer (BLF). BLF administrates several experience groups and on Bornholm there are as many as 17–18 (!) for pig producers and their staff. The intention of the groups is to exchange knowledge between pig producers. Many of the groups are aimed for the staff and are held in the pig barns. In addition, pig producers on Bornholm have a long and appreciated experience of benchmarking. The purpose of benchmarking is to compare the own business results to other pig producer’s. In Denmark, the pig veterinarian visits pig farms continuously, approximately every month. Visits by the pig veterinarian provide additional advices and follow-ups for the pig producer.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Hobday, Alistair
    CCIRO, Australia; University of Tasmania, Sweden.
    Borthwick, Louisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Valentinsson, Daniel
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Risk-based evaluation of the vulnerability of the Skagerrak-Kattegat marine fish community to Swedish fisheries2020Inngår i: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 77, nr 7-8, s. 2706-2717Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Progress towards ecosystem-based fisheries management calls for useful tools to prioritize actions. To select suitable methods for local circumstances, evaluating approaches used in other jurisdictions can be a cost-effective first step. We tested Productivity Susceptibility Analysis (PSA) to assess the potential vulnerability of the marine fish community in the Skagerrak-Kattegat (Eastern North Sea) to possible interactions with all Swedish fisheries operating in the area. This analysis combines attributes for a species productivity with attributes related to the susceptibility to capture to quantify a single score for vulnerability: high, medium, or low risk. Results indicate that demersal trawl and gillnet fisheries were associated with the highest risk levels if interaction occurs, i.e. having the highest prevalence of species with potentially high vulnerability to the fisheries. Mixed results were seen when comparing the assessment results with available data. The main benefit of utilizing PSA in the area is the comprehensiveness of the assessment, including data-deficient fisheries and species. Drawbacks include potential overestimation of actual risks. Overall, together with available data, PSA in the studied area provides a comprehensive map of potential risks for further actions and may progress a science-based, precautionary management of the area.

  • 10.
    Mei, Nanxuan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Mikael T.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kelpsiene, Egle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Cedervall, Tommy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Transfer of Cobalt Nanoparticles in a Simplified Food Web: From Algae to Zooplankton to Fish2021Inngår i: Applied nano, E-ISSN 2673-3501, Vol. 2, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cobalt (Co) nanoparticles (NPs) may be diffusely dispersed into natural ecosystems from various anthropogenic sources such as traffic settings and eventually end up in aquatic systems. As environmentally dispersed Co NPs may be transferred through an aquatic food web, this study investigated this transfer from algae (Scendesmus sp.) to zooplankton (Daphnia magna) to fish (Crucian carp, Carassius carassius). Effects of interactions between naturally excreted biomolecules from D. magna and Co NPs were investigated from an environmental fate perspective. ATR-FTIR measurements showed the adsorption of both algae constituents and excreted biomolecules onto the Co NPs. Less than 5% of the Co NPs formed heteroagglomerates with algae, partly an effect of both agglomeration and settling of the Co NPs. The presence of excreted biomolecules in the solution did not affect the extent of heteroagglomeration. Despite the low extent of heteroagglomeration between Co NPs and algae, the Co NPs were transferred to the next trophic level (D. magna). The Co uptake in D. magna was 300 times larger than the control samples (without Co NP), which were not influenced by the addition of excreted biomolecules to the solution. Significant uptake of Co was observed in the intestine of the fish feeding on D. magna containing Co NPs. No bioaccumulation of Co was observed in the fish. Moreover, 10–20% of the transferred Co NP mass was dissolved after 24 h in the simulated gut solution of the zooplankton (pH 7), and 50–60% was dissolved in the simulated gut solution of the fish (pH 4). The results elucidate that Co NPs gain different properties upon trophic transfer in the food web. Risk assessments should hence be conducted on transformed and weathered NPs rather than on pristine particles.

  • 11.
    Morell, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Olika perspektiv på biologisk mångfald2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En sammanställning som vänder sig till dig som är nyfiken på biologisk mångfald och hur olika branscher och sektorer –privata som offentliga –på olika sätt kan arbeta mot våra gemensamma mål: en bevarad mångfald och ett hållbart nyttjande av naturens resurser

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Morgan, Linnéa
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Valentinsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Thomas G.
    NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Norway.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ecological risk assessment of invertebrates caught in Swedish west-coast fisheries2024Inngår i: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 274, artikkel-id 106982Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological risk assessments are important as scientific support for the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management. Marine invertebrates are important to ecosystem structure and function and may be sensitive to fishing pressure. Some are also of increasing commercial value – but have hitherto not been paid much attention to in ecological risk assessments. Here, catches of invertebrates in Swedish west-coast fisheries with demersal trawls and creels are examined from an ecological risk assessment perspective. It is found that few non-commercial invertebrate species have been regularly recorded in onboard observer programs. Furthermore, for being a comparatively well-studied area, it is striking to find that out of the 93 species included, 56% could be classified as data deficient in terms of known attributes needed to perform basic ecological risk assessments. This implies that there is little or no available information on the basic life history traits important for estimating productivity. Additionally, onboard observer data for invertebrates are inadequate beyond targeted commercial species for robust statistical analysis on volumes generated over time and between fisheries. However, over 18% of the studied species are categorized as red-listed on the Swedish IUCN Red List. Combined with the few records available in observer data programs, the study illustrates the need to pay more attention to marine invertebrates in fisheries monitoring programs and research, especially bycaught and non-commercial invertebrate species.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bark, Linnea
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Deliverable 4.3 Assessment of effects of manure/pasture management on nitrogen and phosphorus losses2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The POWER project aimed to examine the effectiveness of innovations and best practise in achieving improved pig welfare in Europe. Free-range pasture systems for pigs support the organic principles of natural living, but intensive free-range production is characterized by high risks of nutrient losses, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching to surrounding water bodies and also ammonia (NH3) emissions. The scope of this grazing study, with housing pigs on pasture, was eight pig farms located in four countries: Austria, Denmark, Germany and Sweden. Collected farm data showed a large range in values, reflecting the diversity of pasture systems. Average animal density in paddocks per farm varied between 10 and 480 pigs per hectare, with a density in falling order as weaners>fatteners>sows. Vegetation in paddocks varied greatly between farms and also in paddocks within the same farm. Climate, animal density and soil type are important parameters influencing the risk of nutrient losses. Nutrient loads from faeces and urine in paddocks varied with animal density. The calculated loads were rather high in relation to fertilizing needs in crop production at some of the studied farms. This highlights the importance of having enough area for the pigs and/or to limit the period they are hold in the same paddock in order to apply nutrient loads balanced to subsequent crop or vegetation needs. With the highest N load registered in the study, pigs could be held in the paddock approximately one and a half month per year before exceeding the EU regulation of maximum application of 170 kg N per ha with animal manure.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 14.
    Sibeck, Lennart
    RISE., Swerea, SWECAST.
    Skärbarhetsvariationer hos gjutjärn och gjutstål2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En litteraturgenomgång har gjorts av skärbarheten hos gjutjärn och gjutstål, med inriktning på variationer i skärbarheten. Flera undersökningar visar att skärbarheten kan variera 100 % eller mer, mellan material med till synes likartade egenskaper. Syftet med studien var att ge en fördjupad kunskap hos gjuterier och gjutgodsköpare om skärbarhetspåverkande faktorer så att variationer i skärbarhet kan minimeras och skärbarhetsproblem undvikas. Studien har genomförts som en litteraturstudie och har kompletterats med några egna materialundersökningar. Studien är beställd av forskningsgrupperna Järn och Stål och har finansierats av Swerea. De viktigaste skärbarhetspåverkande materialegenskaperna är: hårdhet, mikrostruktur och inneslutningar. Även små skillnader i mikrostruktur kan ha stor inverkan på skärbarheten och strukturen kan därför kräva extra noggrann kartläggning. För gjutjärn presenteras en modell från litteraturen som beskriver inverkan av olika processparametrar på koldiffusion under svalningen och senare karbidbildning, vilken kan ha stor inverkan på materialets skärbarhet. Naturlig åldring kan påverka skärbarheten hos gråjärn, med starkt förbättrad skärbarhet efter några dagars lagring mellan gjutning och maskinbearbetning. Dimensionstoleranser kan, för vissa bearbetningsoperationer, ha stor inverkan på verktygslivslängden. Det går oftast att, efter noggranna undersökningar, peka på skillnader i någon materialparameter som kan förklara bearbetningsskillnaderna. Slutsatsen är att även små skillnader i tillverkningspraxis kan ha stor inverkan på skärbarheten. Förhoppningsvis kan denna rapport ge uppslag till förändringar i gjuteriernas tillverkningsprocess om man vill nå bättre skärbarhet. Vidare kan gjutgodskunder få insikt om det komplexa samspelet mellan alla gjutparametrar och gjutgodsets skärbarhet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Sibeck, Lennart
    RISE., Swerea, SWECAST.
    Skärbarhetsvariationer hos gjutjärn och gjutstål2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En litteraturgenomgång har gjorts av skärbarheten hos gjutjärn och gjutstål, med inriktning på variationer i skärbarheten. Flera undersökningar visar att skärbarheten kan variera 100 % eller mer, mellan material med till synes likartade egenskaper. Syftet med studien var att ge en fördjupad kunskap hos gjuterier och gjutgodsköpare om skärbarhetspåverkande faktorer så att variationer i skärbarhet kan minimeras och skärbarhetsproblem undvikas. Studien har genomförts som en litteraturstudie och har kompletterats med några egna materialundersökningar. Studien är beställd av forskningsgrupperna Järn och Stål och har finansierats av Swerea. De viktigaste skärbarhetspåverkande materialegenskaperna är: hårdhet, mikrostruktur och inneslutningar. Även små skillnader i mikrostruktur kan ha stor inverkan på skärbarheten och strukturen kan därför kräva extra noggrann kartläggning. För gjutjärn presenteras en modell från litteraturen som beskriver inverkan av olika processparametrar på koldiffusion under svalningen och senare karbidbildning, vilken kan ha stor inverkan på materialets skärbarhet. Naturlig åldring kan påverka skärbarheten hos gråjärn, med starkt förbättrad skärbarhet efter några dagars lagring mellan gjutning och maskinbearbetning. Dimensionstoleranser kan, för vissa bearbetningsoperationer, ha stor inverkan på verktygslivslängden. Det går oftast att, efter noggranna undersökningar, peka på skillnader i någon materialparameter som kan förklara bearbetningsskillnaderna. Slutsatsen är att även små skillnader i tillverkningspraxis kan ha stor inverkan på skärbarheten. Förhoppningsvis kan denna rapport ge uppslag till förändringar i gjuteriernas tillverkningsprocess om man vill nå bättre skärbarhet. Vidare kan gjutgodskunder få insikt om det komplexa samspelet mellan alla gjutparametrar och gjutgodsets skärbarhet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Ternell, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lagerquist, Bosse
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anders M
    Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Klie, Mauricio Sagastuy
    Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Berg, Martin
    City of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bae Pedersen, Martin Andre
    City of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Némethy, Sándor
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Tokaj, Hungary.
    Horváth, Ágnes
    University of Tokaj, Hungary.
    Bene, Zsuzsanna
    University of Tokaj, Hungary.
    Oláh, Csaba
    University of Tokaj, Hungary.
    Gál, Boglárka Bánne
    Assembly of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, Hungary.
    Molnár, Gábor
    Lake Balaton Development Coordination Agency, Hungary.
    Remenyik, Bulcsú
    University of Tokaj, Hungary.
    Possibilities and challenges for landscape observatories2023Inngår i: Ecocycles, ISSN 2416-2140, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 61-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The twentieth century saw rapid environmental degradation due to changes that contributed to increased net GHG emissions, loss of natural ecosystems, and declining biodiversity. Deterioration of unprotected landscapes during swift industrialization, urbanization, increasing monocultures in agriculture, expansion of commercial production significantly contributed to these negative consequences. However, a cultural shift occurred during the last two decades in favour of landscape conservation. In response to widespread landscape degradation and loss of ecosystem services, the Council of Europe saw the need to protect, manage, and develop the landscapes, and thus signed the European Landscape Convention (ELC) in 2000. This was the world's first international agreement that described all aspects of landscape management in detail. The European Landscape Convention fully meets the challenges through its goal of correcting a lack of understanding of landscapes as a unique system embracing natural, economic, and social features throughout Europe. It goes beyond simply protecting landscapes and addresses landscape management and development, as well as raising public and government awareness of the importance of paying attention to all types of landscapes, whether exceptional or spoiled. Landscape observatories, multifunctional platforms and knowledge centres for researchers, technicians, administrators, and citizens, are one of the Council of Europe's instruments for implementing the European Landscape Convention (ELC). They can be established on a variety of scales and can serve as a vital link between administrations, civil society, researchers, and the economic sector. This article discusses the emergence of landscape observatories and the role they can play as decision support instruments in promoting sustainable landscape development through a regenerative approach. Additionally, the paper discusses the implementation of ELC in Västra Götaland in Sweden through the establishment of Landscape Observatory Västra Götaland, and its impacts and challenges associated with landscape development. Furthermore, we propose a comprehensive and holistic, to any landscape type adaptable landscape observatory concept, based on multifunctionality of these institutions, emphasizing their decision support roles, social and economic importance. © 2023 The authors.

  • 17.
    Žigon, J.
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sedighi Moghaddam, Maziar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Wålinder, M. E. P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wettability and surface interactions of natural and thermally modified beech wood with water and water-based coatings: the effect of surface pre-treatment type2023Inngår i: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 81, s. 73-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Proper surface pre-treatment plays an important role for good compatibility between the wood and the coating. The present study aimed to determine the correlations between the type of surface pre-treatment and the wettability for unmodified and thermally modified beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) wood with water and water-based coatings. A new approach to evaluate the water permeability of coating systems was developed by investigating the wettability of wood samples using the multicycle Wilhelmy plate method in combination with immersion of the coated samples in water. The treatment with non-thermal plasma made the wood surfaces more hydrophilic and treatment with organic solvent made the surfaces more hydrophobic. The poorer wettability and sorption with water and coatings in thermally modified wood was clearly related to the altered chemical composition of wood. As the water content in coating increased, the amount of absorbed coating in the wood decreased. The surface pre-treatments had no effect on the colour of the coated wood. The higher water content in the coating negatively affected the water protection performance of the coated wood. The thinner coating films correlated with greater water absorption in the coated wood, generally resulting in microscopic delamination between the wood substrate and the coating films. © 2022, The Author(s)

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