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  • 1.
    Ahlberg-Eliasson, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Sweden.
    Nadeau, Elisabet
    Swedish Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Levén, Lotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Schnürer, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Production efficiency of Swedish farm-scale biogas plants2017Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 97, s. 27-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas from agricultural waste streams represents an important way to produce fossil-free energy, allow nutrient recycling and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, biogas production from agricultural substrates is currently far from reaching its full potential. In Sweden, the number of biogas plants and their output have increased in recent years, but they are still experiencing harsh economic conditions. A recent evaluation (2010–2015) of 31 farm-scale biogas production facilities in Sweden sought to identify parameters of importance for further positive development. In this paper, data on plant operation, gas yield and digestate quality for 27 of these plants are summarised and statistically analysed to investigate factors that could allow an increase in overall biogas production and in nutrient content in the digestate. The analysis showed that addition of co-substrates to manure results in higher gas production, expressed as both specific methane potential and volumetric gas production, than when manure is the sole substrate. Use of co-substrate was also found to be influential for the nutrient content of the digestate. These observed improvements caused by co-digestion should be considered when subsidy systems for manure-based biogas processes are being created, as they could also improve the economics of biogas production. However, to achieve higher efficiency in existing biogas plants and to improve the situation for future investments, a more detailed, long-term evaluation programme should also be considered.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Fosforprodukter av slam – energianvändning och klimatpåverkan2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare the energy use and climate impact of extracting phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge, compared with mineral phosphorus from mining. The two processes that are studied are struvite precipitation and extraction of phosphorus from sludge ash (AshDec). We also looked at the potential recycling rate of plant nutrients in the different systems.

    In the study, we have calculated the environmental impact of introducing the processes for P-recovery, related to a conventional sewage treatment plant with chemical precipitation. It is therefore only the differences that arise in comparison with the reference plant that are included in the calculations. You can think like this: there is an existing sewage treatment plant, where you introduce P recycling. All changes in environmental impact that arise in connection with the investment in this new process are burdens the new P-product.

    The results show that the AshDec scenario has the best recovery rate of phosphorus and energy balance, while the struvite scenario shows the best return rate of nitrogen and the lowest climate impact. However, the sensitivity analyzes show that the results are strongly influenced by different assumptions. For the AshDec scenario, assumption about nitrous oxide emissions from incineration of sludge as well as the handling of energy surplus is crucial. For the struvite scenario, assumptions around the reconstruction of the sewage treatment plant to biological phosphor cleaning is of great significance, especially if the biogas production is affected.

  • 3.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Vattenrening för ökad hygien vid odling av frilandsgrönsaker och bär2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har ett flertal utbrottmed magsjuka kopplats till konsumtionav grönsaker, frukt och bär. Sjukdomsframkallandebakterier och virus, såsomnorovirus, Salmonella, toxinproducerandeE. coli, Campylobacter och Listeria. kanspridas från bevattningsvatten via grö-dan till människor och orsaka sjukdom.Smittat bevattningsvatten kan därförförorena frilandsproducerade grönsakeroch bär. Det är alltås viktigt att hakontroll på bevattningsvattnets kvalitet.Dessutom är det viktigt att känna tillvilken typ av kultur som vattnet skaanvändas till, eftersom risken för vidaresmitta till människor varierar mellanolika typer av kulturer. T.ex. är det störrerisk att använda kontaminerat vatten tillkulturer som äts råa utan uppvärmninghos livsmedelsproducenten eller konsument,eftersom det då inte finns nå-gon möjlighet att avdöda de oönskademikroorganismerna i ett efterföljandesteg. Genom rätt hantering och adekvatbehandling av bevattningsvattnetkan dess hygieniska kvalitet förbättras.Ibland finns det möjlighet för odlarenatt byta vattenkälla, men då detta inte ärpraktiskt möjligt kan det kontamineradevattnet renas innan bevattning. I dettafaktablad beskrivs två grundläggandetekniker för rening av bevattningsvattenvid frilandsproduktion, nämligen fotokemi(fotokatalys, UV) och filtrering(mekanisk filtrering, långsamfiltrering).Dessa används för att minska risken försmittspridning med bevattningsvattnet.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Processum.
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte i deponigas2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Deponigas bildas under syrefria förhållanden i deponier genom mikrobiell nedbrytning av organiskt material. Gasens sammansättning kan variera mycket, men från svenska deponier brukar den generellt bestå av 40-60 % metan, 30-40 % koldioxid och 5-20 % kvävgas. Svavelväte (H2S) är en mycket giftig och korrosiv gas som finns i deponigas i varierande omfattning, från 10 till 30 000 ppm (motsvarar 0,001-3,0 %). Det är önskvärt att deponigas används för el och/eller värmeproduktion, men för att detta ska vara möjligt behöver H2S-halten renas till låga nivåer (< 200 ppm). Höga halter H2S ökar slitaget på motor/panna och därmed frekvensen på servicetillfällen. Det leder till dyra underhållskostnader och i slutändan till förkortad livslängd för anläggningen. För att minska korrosionen är det vanligt att rökgastemperaturen justeras upp, men det leder samtidigt till lägre verkningsgrad och därmed till sämre energiutnyttjande av gasen. I en del fall bedöms gasens innehåll av H2S vara för högt för att kunna användas för energiproduktion. Under 2015 facklades 53 GWh deponigas i Sverige, vilket i många fall beror på problem med höga halter H2S.

     

    Rening av deponigas från H2S leder således till flera nyttigheter; gasens energiinnehåll används effektivare, underhålls- och servicekostnaderna för förbränningsanläggningarna minskar och utsläpp av försurande svaveldioxid från förbränning av deponigas reduceras. Det finns kommersiell reningsteknik för H2S men den är dyr, både vad gäller kapitalkostnad och driftkostnad. Därmed finns ett behov av att ta fram nya billigare reningstekniker som förbättrar driftekonomin vid deponierna och som möjliggör att även deponigas med höga H2S-halter kan utnyttjas för nyttig energiomvandling.

     

    RISE (f.d. JTI - Inst. för jordbruks och miljöteknik) utvecklar tillsammans med SLU nya, potentiellt kostnadseffektiva metoder för att uppgradera biogas till drivmedelskvalité. En av metoderna baseras på att gasen får passera en bädd av fuktig aska (ett s.k. askfilter) varvid koldioxid och H2S fixeras. Hypotesen i det här projektet var att askor med ursprung från förbränning av avfall, RT-flis eller liknande kan användas för att rena bort höga halter H2S från deponigas. Denna typ av askor ska i regel ändå avsättas på deponier och om reningseffekten är god skulle det ge synergieffekter i form av att askan först används för att rena deponigas från svavel innan den avsätts som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier.

     

    I det här projektet utfördes två försök i pilotskala vid en svensk deponi med mycket höga halter H2S, ca 15 000 ppm. Olika gasflöden studerades (0,7-7,6 m3/h) medan askvolymen var lika i de båda försöken, 0,37 m3. Halten H2S i den renade gasen var genomgående mycket låg under behandling, < 10 ppm vid låga gasflöden och < 200 ppm vid höga gasflöden. Två asktyper undersöktes och båda visade sig ha mycket god förmåga att fixera H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg torr aska. Vid jämförelse med litteraturvärden är det bara en studie som visar upptag i samma storleksordning, övriga studier ligger ca en tiopotens lägre i upptag.

     

    Utifrån försöksresultaten bestämdes den tekniska och ekonomiska potentialen för askfilter som reningsmetod. Beräkningarna gjordes för olika typanläggningar för att på så sätt täcka in vanligt förekommande deponier. För normalstora deponier med gasflöden på 100-1 000 m3/h och H2S-halter mellan 100 och 1 000 ppm uppgår askbehovet till 10-130 ton torr aska per år. För specialfallet där halten H2S är extremt hög ökar askbehovet och för en anläggning med 15 000 ppm H2S och ett gasflöde på 200 m3/h krävs det ca 800 ton torr aska per år. Överlag är det emellertid beskedliga mängder aska som krävs och skulle t.ex. samtliga svenska deponier använda aska för gasrening skulle askbehovet endast vara 0,2-0,3 % av den årliga svenska askproduktionen.

     

    De ekonomiska beräkningarna visar att askfilter är en konkurrenskraftig metod för att rena bort H2S. För specialfallet med extremt höga halter H2S visade det sig att kostnaden för askfilter är drygt 20 % lägre jämfört med den för ändamålet billigaste konventionella reningstekniken på marknaden. Även vid rening av deponigas med mer normala halter H2S står sig askfilter väl. Vid låga flöden kring 100 m3/h är askfilter klart billigare jämfört med litteraturvärden för konventionell reningsteknik. Skalfördelarna tycks dock vara större för de konventionella reningsteknikerna och därför blir skillnaden mellan reningskostnaden för askfilter jämfört med annan teknik mindre vid högre gasflöden.

     

    De låga reningskostnaderna för askfilter kan öppna upp möjligheter för deponier som idag inte renar gas från H2S. Under projektet kontaktades 15 svenska deponier och ingen av dessa hade någon form av H2S-rening. Med rening kan deponigas däremot användas effektivare, t.ex. genom minskad fackling, ökad verkningsgrad för el- och värmeproduktion samt minskat slitage på pannor och förbränningsutrustning. Dessutom minskar emissioner av svavel till atmosfären, vilket även minskar potentiella luktproblem kring deponin.

     

    För fortsatt utveckling är utformning och design av en prototyp av en askfiltermodul i fullskala en central del. Vidare måste den behandlade askan undersökas vad gäller urlakningsegenskaper, lagringsbarhet och användbarhet som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier tillsammans med en bedömning av de samlade miljökonsekvenserna. Försök i fullskala bör även göras vid fler deponier med olika gasflöden och H2S-halter i deponigasen för att verifiera prestanda från de genomförda pilotförsöken.

    Deponigas bildas under syrefria förhållanden i deponier genom mikrobiell nedbrytning av organiskt material. Gasens sammansättning kan variera mycket, men från svenska deponier brukar den generellt bestå av 40-60 % metan, 30-40 % koldioxid och 5-20 % kvävgas. Svavelväte (H2S) är en mycket giftig och korrosiv gas som finns i deponigas i varierande omfattning, från 10 till 30 000 ppm (motsvarar 0,001-3,0 %). Det är önskvärt att deponigas används för el och/eller värmeproduktion, men för att detta ska vara möjligt behöver H2S-halten renas till låga nivåer (< 200 ppm). Höga halter H2S ökar slitaget på motor/panna och därmed frekvensen på servicetillfällen. Det leder till dyra underhållskostnader och i slutändan till förkortad livslängd för anläggningen. För att minska korrosionen är det vanligt att rökgastemperaturen justeras upp, men det leder samtidigt till lägre verkningsgrad och därmed till sämre energiutnyttjande av gasen. I en del fall bedöms gasens innehåll av H2S vara för högt för att kunna användas för energiproduktion. Under 2015 facklades 53 GWh deponigas i Sverige, vilket i många fall beror på problem med höga halter H2S.

     

    Rening av deponigas från H2S leder således till flera nyttigheter; gasens energiinnehåll används effektivare, underhålls- och servicekostnaderna för förbränningsanläggningarna minskar och utsläpp av försurande svaveldioxid från förbränning av deponigas reduceras. Det finns kommersiell reningsteknik för H2S men den är dyr, både vad gäller kapitalkostnad och driftkostnad. Därmed finns ett behov av att ta fram nya billigare reningstekniker som förbättrar driftekonomin vid deponierna och som möjliggör att även deponigas med höga H2S-halter kan utnyttjas för nyttig energiomvandling.

     

    RISE (f.d. JTI - Inst. för jordbruks och miljöteknik) utvecklar tillsammans med SLU nya, potentiellt kostnadseffektiva metoder för att uppgradera biogas till drivmedelskvalité. En av metoderna baseras på att gasen får passera en bädd av fuktig aska (ett s.k. askfilter) varvid koldioxid och H2S fixeras. Hypotesen i det här projektet var att askor med ursprung från förbränning av avfall, RT-flis eller liknande kan användas för att rena bort höga halter H2S från deponigas. Denna typ av askor ska i regel ändå avsättas på deponier och om reningseffekten är god skulle det ge synergieffekter i form av att askan först används för att rena deponigas från svavel innan den avsätts som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier.

     

    I det här projektet utfördes två försök i pilotskala vid en svensk deponi med mycket höga halter H2S, ca 15 000 ppm. Olika gasflöden studerades (0,7-7,6 m3/h) medan askvolymen var lika i de båda försöken, 0,37 m3. Halten H2S i den renade gasen var genomgående mycket låg under behandling, < 10 ppm vid låga gasflöden och < 200 ppm vid höga gasflöden. Två asktyper undersöktes och båda visade sig ha mycket god förmåga att fixera H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg torr aska. Vid jämförelse med litteraturvärden är det bara en studie som visar upptag i samma storleksordning, övriga studier ligger ca en tiopotens lägre i upptag.

     

    Utifrån försöksresultaten bestämdes den tekniska och ekonomiska potentialen för askfilter som reningsmetod. Beräkningarna gjordes för olika typanläggningar för att på så sätt täcka in vanligt förekommande deponier. För normalstora deponier med gasflöden på 100-1 000 m3/h och H2S-halter mellan 100 och 1 000 ppm uppgår askbehovet till 10-130 ton torr aska per år. För specialfallet där halten H2S är extremt hög ökar askbehovet och för en anläggning med 15 000 ppm H2S och ett gasflöde på 200 m3/h krävs det ca 800 ton torr aska per år. Överlag är det emellertid beskedliga mängder aska som krävs och skulle t.ex. samtliga svenska deponier använda aska för gasrening skulle askbehovet endast vara 0,2-0,3 % av den årliga svenska askproduktionen.

     

    De ekonomiska beräkningarna visar att askfilter är en konkurrenskraftig metod för att rena bort H2S. För specialfallet med extremt höga halter H2S visade det sig att kostnaden för askfilter är drygt 20 % lägre jämfört med den för ändamålet billigaste konventionella reningstekniken på marknaden. Även vid rening av deponigas med mer normala halter H2S står sig askfilter väl. Vid låga flöden kring 100 m3/h är askfilter klart billigare jämfört med litteraturvärden för konventionell reningsteknik. Skalfördelarna tycks dock vara större för de konventionella reningsteknikerna och därför blir skillnaden mellan reningskostnaden för askfilter jämfört med annan teknik mindre vid högre gasflöden.

     

    De låga reningskostnaderna för askfilter kan öppna upp möjligheter för deponier som idag inte renar gas från H2S. Under projektet kontaktades 15 svenska deponier och ingen av dessa hade någon form av H2S-rening. Med rening kan deponigas däremot användas effektivare, t.ex. genom minskad fackling, ökad verkningsgrad för el- och värmeproduktion samt minskat slitage på pannor och förbränningsutrustning. Dessutom minskar emissioner av svavel till atmosfären, vilket även minskar potentiella luktproblem kring deponin.

     

    För fortsatt utveckling är utformning och design av en prototyp av en askfiltermodul i fullskala en central del. Vidare måste den behandlade askan undersökas vad gäller urlakningsegenskaper, lagringsbarhet och användbarhet som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier tillsammans med en bedömning av de samlade miljökonsekvenserna. Försök i fullskala bör även göras vid fler deponier med olika gasflöden och H2S-halter i deponigasen för att verifiera prestanda från de genomförda pilotförsöken.

  • 5.
    Ascard, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Board of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Mie, Axel
    SLU Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden ; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wivstad, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Växtskyddsmedel i ekologisk produktion – användning och risker2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förebyggande åtgärder dominerar i växtskyddet i ekologisk produktion och användningen av växtskyddsmedel är begränsad. Främst biologiska växtskyddsmedel används och utöver det ett fåtal kemiska växtskyddsmedel, de flesta med låg risk för hälsa och miljö. Dessa används främst i produktion av frukt, bär och grönsaker.

  • 6.
    Aschemann-Witzel, J.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Otterbring, T.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, I. E.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Rohm, H.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Almli, V. L.
    Nofima AS, Norway.
    Oostindjer, M.
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    The who, where and why of choosing suboptimal foods: Consequences for tackling food waste in store2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 236, artikkel-id 117596Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food stores have begun to tackle food waste at the point of sale. They do so by selling ‘suboptimal’ food before it is wasted, typically with a price reduction. However, efficiency of this food waste avoidance action can be improved by knowing for which product category, which store type, which accompanying communication, and which consumer characteristics this action works best. This study uses an experimental online survey conducted in five North western European countries to investigate the effect of communication appealing to either self- or others-centred motives in either supermarkets or farmers' markets, for packaged and for fresh food. It is found that both messages – communicating budget saving or an emotional appeal - are effective in increasing choice likelihood. Store type affects choice likelihood of suboptimal packaged, while others-centred values and trust in the store affects choice likelihood for suboptimal fresh food. Communication improves quality perception of suboptimal fresh food. Findings imply that fresh suboptimal foods lend themselves more to be promoted with others-centred messages, or to be targeted at consumers with others-centred values. Sales of suboptimal food in the store should be accompanied by communication, and such efforts to tackle food waste in the store should focus on fresh food in particular.

  • 7.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona E.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Rohm, Harald
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bossle, Marilia B.
    Unisinos Business School, Brazil.
    Grønhøj, Alice
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 155, s. 33-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs collaboration between various supply chain actors and sector stakeholders. Although a range of initiatives from various actors already exists internationally, there is still a lack of knowledge on which lessons can be derived from such cases. The current multiple case study provides insights into how to successfully design future actions, by analysing common and distinct key success factors in 26 existing initiatives to reduce consumer-related food waste. The findings reveal that collaboration between stakeholders, timing and sequence of initiatives, competencies that the initiative is built on, and a large scale of operations are key success factors. Success factors are identified for the primary design, for the development and maintenance phase, and for reaching out to consumers. There are three general types of initiatives that differ in their aims and characteristics: information and capacity building, redistribution, and retail and supply chain alteration. The first type focuses most strongly on motivating consumer food waste avoidance behaviour and strengthening consumer abilities, while the second and third focus primarily on altering consumer food choice context, but combine this with aspects of raising awareness. Recommendations are derived for future initiatives which should take inspiration from existing initiatives, especially considering the right partners, competencies involved, timing the start of the initiative right, and aim to soon achieve a large scale.

  • 8.
    Avadí, Angel
    et al.
    UPR Recyclage et Risque, France ; University of Montpellier, France.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Sweden ; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Towards improved practices in Life Cycle Assessment of seafood and other aquatic products2018Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 979-981Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: 

    Aquatic supply chains, based on e.g. fish, molluscs, crustaceans and algae, provide products aimed for direct or indirect human consumption and other uses. Global demand for these products is increasing, but the fact that wild-capture fisheries—supplying inputs for the food and feed industries—have stagnated (FAO 2016), or even declined, has raised questions about the environmental consequences of aquatic supply chains  Research applying LCA to seafood products has emerged since the early years of the century and, until today, dozens of case studies of fisheries and aquaculture systems from all around the world have been published. The body of literature in this field has grown to the extent of allowing systematic reviews to be undertaken on specific production sectors, such as for capture fisheries 

    The lifecycle of seafood commodities differs from that of terrestrial production systems in their diversity, in the case of fisheries, the reliance on extraction of a natural resource (fish stocks), their impacts on often unmapped ecosystems (e.g. seafloors and deep sea fish stocks) and the more complex trophic webs of aquatic ecosystems. To capture also these biotic and fisheries-specific impacts, an increasing number of fisheries and aquaculture LCAs apply novel impact categories such as biotic resource use and benthic ecosystems impacts. Aquaculture systems, in addition, often rely on feed resources from capture fisheries, agriculture and livestock, requiring extensive LCI models.

    Among the existing aquaculture seafood LCA studies, there is a strong focus on salmonids aquaculture in Europe and North America. The globally largest aquaculture sector, carp farming in China, has, however, been poorly covered. Peruvian anchoveta, the world’s largest fishery and the primary source of fishmeal and fish oil, was first modelled in 2014. Consequently, while the number of aquatic LCAs has steadily been increasing, the uniqueness of aquatic production chains and the diversity of species leave many inventories overlooked and some relevant impact categories unaddressed. In response, we initiated this Special Issue (SI), to supplement literature and highlight shortcomings. Thirteen articles were ultimately accepted in the SI

  • 9.
    Axelson, U.
    et al.
    The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Sweden;SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Söderström, M.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Risk assessment of high concentrations of molybdenum in forage2018Inngår i: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 4, nr 6, s. 2685-2694Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Molybdenum is toxic to ruminants when present in high levels in forage, causing physiological copper deficiency. A critical level for ruminants is 3–10 mg Mo kg−1 dry matter. The average Mo level varies considerably between different arable soils, depending mainly on soil parent material. This study investigated the possibility of using various existing sources of geospatial information (geophysical, biogeochemical and soil chemical) to develop a geography-based risk assessment system. Forage samples (n = 173) were collected in 2006–2007. Three types of national geoscientific datasets were tested: (1) SEPA topsoil, comprising data from arable land within the Swedish environmental monitoring programme; (2) SGU biogeochemical, containing data from aquatic plant root material collected in small streams; and (3) SGU geophysical, consisting of data from airborne gamma-ray scanning. The digital postcode area map was used for geocoding, with Mo concentrations in forage assigned to arable parts of the corresponding postcode area. By combining this with the three national geoscientific databases, it was possible to construct a risk map using fuzzy classification depicting High-risk, Intermediate-risk, Low-risk and Very-low-risk areas. The map was validated using 42 randomly selected samples. All samples but one with Mo &gt; 3 mg kg−1 were found in postcode areas designated High risk. Thus, the risk map developed seems to be useful as a decision support system on where standard forage analyses need to be supplemented with Mo analyses.

  • 10.
    Barba, Francisco
    et al.
    University of Alcala, Spain.
    Ahrne, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Xanthakis, Epaneinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Landerslev, Martin
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Orlien, Vibeke
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Innovative technologies for food preservation: Chapter 22018Inngår i: Innovative technologies for food preservation: Inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, 2018, s. 25-51Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several techniques have been developed during the 20th century in order to preserve foods. These innovative technologies vary considerably and embrace physical technologies (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure and high-pressure homogenization), electromagnetic technologies (e.g., pulsed electric fields, ohmic heating, microwaves, radio-frequency, and UV-light), acoustic technologies (e.g., ultrasound and shockwaves), and others such as membrane filtration and dense phase CO2. In this chapter, the theoretical background and definition of the technologies are explained together with a description of the equipment, main technological/processing parameters, and some advantages and limitations from a technological point of view.

  • 11.
    Barba, Francisco
    et al.
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Landerslev, Martin G.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Orlien, Vibeke
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chapter 2. Innovative technologies2017Inngår i: Innovative Technologies for Food Preservation: Inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms / [ed] Francisco J. Barba; Mohamed Koubaa; Vibeke Orlien; Anderson Sant´Ana, Elsevier, 2017, s. 25-Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Barreto-Henriksson, H.
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Hospital, Sweden.
    Llorente, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brisby, H.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gold, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schuster, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Determination of mechanical and rheological properties of a cell-loaded peptide gel during ECM production2019Inngår i: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 563, s. 437-444Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of an injectable biomaterial that supports cell survival and maintains or promotes nucleus pulposus (NP) phenotype could aid delivery of cells to degenerated NPs causing low back pain. Mesenchymal cells were loaded and grown in a synthetic peptide gel, PuraMatrix ® . Cells were observed within the gels over 0–28 days, and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans were detected by histological staining. The mechanical properties of the cell-loaded constructs, and the change of the mechanical properties were studied using stress relaxation of the gels under compression and confinement. The PuraMatrix ® gel was shown to relax fast on compression indicating that the fluid could easily flow out of the gel, and thus indicating the presence of large pores/voids. The presence of these pores/voids was further supported by high mobility of dextran molecules, determined using fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching. The stress required to deform the cell-loaded constructs to a specific strain increases at day 21, at which point the presence of glycosaminoglycans within the cell-loaded constructs was also observed. The results provide evidence of changes in mechanical properties of the PuraMatrix ® matrix upon excretion of the extracellular matrix by the

  • 13.
    Bergjord Olsen, A. K.
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norway.
    Persson, T.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norway.
    de Wit, A.
    Alterra - Wageningen UR, The Netherlands.
    Nkurunziza, L.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sindhøj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Eckersten, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance2018Inngår i: Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, ISSN 0931-2250, E-ISSN 1439-037X, Vol. 204, nr 1, s. 62-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this model, four winter wheat cultivars were sown in a field experiment in Uppsala, Sweden in 2013 and 2014. The LT50 was determined by tests of frost tolerance in November, and the cultivars’ LT50c was estimated. Further, recorded winter survival from 20 winter wheat field variety trials in Sweden and Norway was collected from two winter seasons with substantial winter damages. FROSTOL simulations were run for selected cultivars at each location. According to percentage of winter damage, the cultivar survival was classified as “survived,” “intermediate” or “killed.” Mean correspondence between recorded and simulated class of winter survival was 75% and 37% for the locations in Sweden and Norway, respectively. Stress factors that were not accounted for in FROSTOL might explain the poorer accuracy at the Norwegian locations. The accuracy was poorest for cultivars with intermediate LT50c levels. When low temperature was the main cause of damage, as at the Swedish locations, the model accuracy was satisfying.

  • 14.
    Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Environmental impacts of alternative antifouling methods and use patterns of leisure boat owners2019Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 725-734Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Leisure boaters in the Baltic Sea apply more copper as antifoulant than needed and permitted. Initiatives have been started to identify efficient means making boat owners comply with regulations through changed consumer behavior. We compare the environmental impacts of conventional and alternative antifouling methods, using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Methods: Two non-toxic methods were compared with biocide paint. To study the influence of boat owner use patterns, paint and brush washer scenarios (e.g., different paints, amounts, and maintenance) were created based on current use and recommendations. The functional unit was an average Swedish leisure boat kept fouling free for 1 year and impact categories studied were freshwater eco-toxicity and greenhouse gas emissions. Production of paints, fuel, electricity, and material used in the non-toxic methods was included. Sensitivity analysis was performed regarding the characterization method for toxicity, the fuel consumption data, and the copper release data. Results and discussion: The non-toxic methods, hull cover and brush washer, performed best, but a trade-off was identified when the brush washer was located further away from the home port, when additional transportation increased greenhouse gas emissions. The resources needed for the non-toxic methods (production of materials and electricity used) cause considerably lower toxic emissions than paint. In the paint scenarios, using less paint and cleaning the boat over a washing pad with water treatment reduces aquatic emissions significantly. Fuel-related emissions were consistently lower than paint-related emissions. In the best-performing paint scenario, fuel- and paint-related emissions represented 26 and 67% of total emissions, respectively. Conclusions: The non-toxic methods hull cover and brush washers lead to lower emissions, especially when brush washers were located close to the home port. Lacking such infrastructure, “painting less” is a way to reduce emissions, by using lower amounts of paint and painting less frequently. More widespread use of these antifouling strategies would considerably reduce copper emissions from leisure boating to the Baltic Sea. We suggest that support to marinas for investments in brush washers and washing pads should be further developed to enable boat owners to choose more sustainable antifouling methods and that information campaigns on the combined economic, health, and ecosystem impacts of antifouling are especially designed for boaters, marinas, market actors, and policy makers for a change to take place towards more sustainable practices.

  • 15.
    Bergstrand, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Organisk gödsling i krukodlade kulturer2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en ökande efterfrågan på ekologiska produkter. Producenter av ekologiskt producerade krukodlade produkter såsom kryddväxter, prydnadsväxter och grönsakplantor har stora odlingsutmaningar för att uppnå god kvalitet. Den stora utmaningen ligger i näringstillförseln och tidigare erfarenheter har varit blandade, ibland har produktkvalitén blivit dålig och man har misstänkt att obalanser i växtnäringstillförseln har varit orsak till detta. I ett pilotprojekt finansierat av Tillväxt Trädgård undersöktes kvävetillgängligheten från olika organiska gödselmedel i krukodlade kulturer.

  • 16.
    Bergstrand, Kjell
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Asp, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Dynamics of nitrogen availability in pot grown crops with organic fertilization2019Inngår i: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 143-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pot grown herbs are often cultivated as certified organic products, and there is an increasing demand for organically certified ornamental plants. Supplying the required nutrients using organic fertilizers is a challenge with respect to matching the mineralization and thus the availability of dissolved nutrients in the growing medium with plant demand. In experiments, sweet basil and Pelargonium × hortorum were cultivated using two different organic fertilizer strategies and controlled-release mineral nutrients as control treatment. The two organic strategies were, i) blood meal + Baralith® Enslow (a plant-based organic fertilizer), and ii) poultry manure. The availability of dissolved nitrogen was monitored during the crop cycle by under-pressure lysimeter sampling. Plant development parameters were measured along with chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration of leaves. For both organic treatments, nitrate-N availability was low at the beginning of the experiment, whereas ammonium-N was high. During the experiment, ammonium availability decreased at the same time as nitrate availability increased after a few weeks and then declined again by the end of the experiment. The blood meal + Enslow treatment caused poor germination and slow growth in basil. Plant height and fresh weight was also affected by this treatment for basil but not for Pelargonium. Chlorophyll concentration was affected by treatment, with also visually detectable paler leaves in the treatment with poultry manure. There were no differences in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) between treatments, indicating that plants were not stressed in any of the treatments.

  • 17.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Koelewijn, Ingrid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. University of Applied Sciences HAS Den Bosch, The Netherlands.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of zein protein and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on the texture of model gluten-free bread2019Inngår i: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 341-349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of zein protein and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the texture and volume of gluten-free bread was investigated. The addition of HPMC to starch affected the dough viscoelasticity and it improved the bread volume during baking since it acts as an emulsifier. The addition of zein protein to gluten-free bread increased the crumb firmness and reduced the crust hardness within the range of concentrations investigated. No zein protein network could be observed in the bread crumb. The zein protein, cold mixed at low concentration, did not enhance the dough elasticity. Due to the lack of a protein network noncovalent interactions may stabilize the bubble structure stabilization within the crumb, rather than covalent links of the protein chain. With an optimized amount of zein protein and HPMC hydrocolloid, the gluten-free bread showed similar texture and staling behavior to that of model wheat bread. The optimized recipe, compiled into a spreadsheet, is available in the supporting information. The microstructural observations suggest that zein could be replaced with another protein for this recipe resulting in a similar bread texture.

  • 18.
    Bienert, K.
    et al.
    DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige, Germany.
    Fischer, E.
    DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige, Germany.
    Schumacher, Britt
    DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige, Germany.
    Rogstrand, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Zieliński, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Debowski, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Bigalke, D.
    Ventury, Germany.
    Wernecke, H.
    Ventury, Germany.
    The biomethane map - Research coordination for a low-cost biomethane production at small and medium scale applications2017Inngår i: European Biomass Conf. Exhib. Proc., ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2017, nr 25thEUBCE, s. 1097-1104Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Horizon 2020 project “Research Coordination for a Low-Cost Biomethane Production at Small and Medium Scale Applications”, short Record Biomap, aims to build up a knowledge transfer platform to foster the use of research outcomes which are often insufficiently exploited after the end of a research project. In the focus are technology solutions for a cost efficient biomethane production at small to medium scale, which is not yet economically competitive compared to large scale applications. Technology developments along the biomethane supply chain, from substrate pre-treatment, digestion systems up to gas upgrading processes, especially for those technologies which are yet in the first phases of their development are monitored and supported during the project duration. The present paper will give an overview of the project´s focus. The current status of collected technology profiles is presented. The promising innovative technologies “ultra-sound and hydrodynamic cavitation” for substrate pre-treatment, the “high organic loading plug-flow digestion system” and the “in-situ methane enrichment in combination with a wood ash filter” to upgrade the biogas to biomethane are explained in detail. Furthermore, the first findings on R&D needs and framework conditions are highlighted. © 2017, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Bienert, K.
    et al.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Shakya, S.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Fischer, E.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Schumacher, B.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Rojas, M.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Rogstrand, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Zieliński, M.
    Universtiy of Warmia and Mazury, Poland.
    Dębowski, M.
    Universtiy of Warmia and Mazury, Poland.
    Technologies for biomethane production in small and medium scale applications – Assessment within the European project record biomap2018Inngår i: European Biomass Conf. Exhib. Proc., 2018, nr 26thEUBCE, s. 586-591Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Horizon 2020 project “Research Coordination for a Low-Cost Biomethane Production at Small and Medium Scale Applications”, short Record Biomap aims to foster technology solutions for a cost efficient biomethane production at small to medium scale. This includes substrate pre-treatment, digestion systems and gas upgrading processes. The project collected technology descriptions of 46 technologies which are still in their development phase and presented them on the biomethane map (https://biomethane-map.eu). All technologies with a Technology Readiness Level between 3 and 7, which are in the focus of this project, were also evaluated through an impact assessment. The presentation gives an overview of the project´s results, concentrating on the first results of the assessment for innovative technology solutions along the biomethane supply chain and especially upgrading of biogas to biomethane. The assessment includes aspects such as energy efficiency, specific technical characteristics of the systems as well as economic parameters. Results are expected to characterise those new technologies and to highlight their special application areas. In addition, the paper presents a roadmap and an EU level biomethane structural analysis as the groundwork for a more detailed strategy for market implementation of innovative technologies for small- to medium scale upgrading of biogas to biomethane.

  • 20.
    Bienert, Kathrin
    et al.
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Schumacher, Britt
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Arboleda, Martin
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany; Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Billig, Eric
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Shakya, Semiksha
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Rogstrand, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Zielinski, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Debowski, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Multi-indicator assessment of innovative small-scale biomethane technologies in Europe2019Inngår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikkel-id 1321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative small-scale biogas plants, including upgrading solutions to affordable biomethane, are necessary to tap into the spatially distributed potentials of organic waste. This research identified and assessed novel small-scale technologies before market-entry maturity in the key process steps of the biomethane chain. We assessed technical, economic, and ecological indicators, and compared them to larger-scale references. The assessment included 7 pre-treatment, 13 digester, and 11 upgrading systems all at the small scale. We collected recently available data for Europe (2016–2018) for small-scale technologies (&lt;200 m 3 ; raw biogas per hour). In the literature we did not find such a comprehensive assessment of actual European small-scale innovative non-market-ready technologies for the production of biomethane. Several conclusions were drawn for each of the individual process steps in the biomethane chain, e.g., the economic indicator calculated for the upgrading technologies shows that the upgrading costs, for some of them, are already close to the larger-scale reference (about 1.5 €ct/kWh raw biogas). Furthermore, biomethane production is absolutely context-specific, which dramatically limits the traditional way to evaluate technologies. Hence, new ways of integration of the technologies plays a major role on their future

  • 21.
    Bjerketorp, Joakim
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Röling, Wilfred F. M.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Feng, Xinmei
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Garcia, Armando Hernández
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Heipieper, Hermann J.
    UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Håkansson, Sebastian
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Formulation and stabilization of an Arthrobacter strain with good storage stability and 4-chlorophenol-degradation activity for bioremediation2018Inngår i: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 102, nr 4, s. 2031-2040Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorophenols are widespread and of environmental concern due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties. Development of less costly and less technically challenging remediation methods are needed; therefore, we developed a formulation based on micronized vermiculite that, when air-dried, resulted in a granular product containing the 4-chlorophenol (4-CP)-degrading Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6. This formulation and stabilization method yielded survival rates of about 60% that remained stable in storage for at least 3 months at 4 °C. The 4-CP degradation by the formulated and desiccated A. chlorophenolicus A6 cells was compared to that of freshly grown cells in controlled-environment soil microcosms. The stabilized cells degraded 4-CP equally efficient as freshly grown cells in two different set-ups using both hygienized and non-treated soils. The desiccated microbial product was successfully employed in an outdoor pot trial showing its effectiveness under more realistic environmental conditions. No significant phytoremediation effects on 4-CP degradation were observed in the outdoor pot experiment. The 4-CP degradation kinetics from both the microcosms and the outdoor pot trial were used to generate a predictive model of 4-CP biodegradation potentially useful for larger-scale operations, enabling better bioremediation set-ups and saving of resources. This study also opens up the possibility of formulating and stabilizing also other Arthrobacter strains possessing different desirable pollutant-degrading capabilities.

  • 22.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Innemiljö i nytt ljus: Metoder för objektiv bedömning av belysning2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuvarande belysningsstandarder baseras enbart på tekniska krav, såsom ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Att även inkludera upplevelsebaserade krav skulle troligen främja bättre ljuskomfort, men även mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Kunskapen om hur upplevda belysningsparametrar kan beskrivas är dock begränsad. Detta hämmar fastighetsägare och brukare att precisera önskvärda ljusmiljöer, liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Syftet med detta forskningsprojekt var att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar.

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer som uppfyller särskilda urvalskriterier rekryterades och tränades att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorie-försök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visar att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar av armaturer; paneldeltagarna kunde skilja mellan attribut och prover. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna, både i form av sensoriska och fysikaliska egenskaper såsom läsbarhet och bländning. Fysikaliska och sensoriska parametrar samvarierar dock inte alltid, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysningskvalitet. Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att samma resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, men med lägre signifikans, vilket verifierar metodens tillämpbarhet på belysning.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

  • 23.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Green Cleaning - Utveckling av testbädden Cleaning Innovation2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En ökad användning av miljösmart teknik och förfarande vid rengöring och desinfektion i livsmedelsindustrin förväntas leda till mindre miljöpåverkan genom mindre vatten-, energi-, kemikalie- och materialförbrukning och mindre matsvinn. Detta gynnar också tillväxten hos miljöteknikföretag som bidrar med gröna lösningar. Testbädden Cleaning Innovation (www.cleaninginnovation.se) medverkar till utveckling av miljösmarta och effektiva metoder för rengöring och desinfektion i många branscher. Huvudintressenter är leverantörer/utvecklare av kemikalier, utrustning eller material; hygienföretag; livsmedelsföretag; offentliga aktörer. Cleaning Innovation, som ägs av RISE, är en öppen, oberoende testbädd och erbjuder utvärdering av teknik, kemikalier, material, utrustning och metoder. Testbädden bygger på samverkan mellan olika typer av verksamheter inom RISE (Research Institutes of Sweden) inriktade mot mikrobiologi, miljö, processteknik, certifiering, mätteknik, kemi, material, energiteknik samt med hygienteknikföretaget Lagafors AB. Inom Cleaning Innovation finns marknadskunskap, tvärvetenskaplig kompetens, analys-, beräknings- och mätutrustning, laboratorier samt testutrustningar i pilotskala. I projektet utvecklades befintlig verksamhet avseende testlokal, utrustning och produkterbjudande. Ett viktigt resultat från projektet är att vi har genomfört mer än 10 projekt där utvärdering av renhet och desinfektion görs med kunder. Eftersom detta är betydligt mer än planerat har egen finansiering blev betydligt högre än budgeterad. Detta visar på ett bra utbud och en tydlig marknad. Vi har också breddat vår målgrupp och inkluderar nu alla branscher med behov av rengöring och desinfektion; i motsats till bara livsmedelsindustrin som beskrivit i projektansökan.

    Testbädden Cleaning Innovation lanserades 29 november 2016. Cleaning Innovations utveckling i framtiden ser ljus ut och har en stark och naturlig förankring inom RISE. Framtidsplanerna involverar ett succesivt bräddande till kunder inom fler industrityper och en långsam expansion av verksamheten.

  • 24.
    Borthwick, Louisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensk konsumtion av sjömat2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten visar att det är möjligt att få fram tillförlitlig statistik över svensk sjömatskonsumtion för alla arter utom sill och skarpsill på en detaljgrad som tidigare saknats, trots de dataluckor som finns.Sjömatskonsumtionen i Sverige beräknas ligga på 25 kg per capita hel sjömat, vilket motsvarar 12,5 kg ätlig sjömat eller knappt två portioner i veckan. Vi äter mindre sjömat än för fem år sedan.Upp mot 80 olika sjömatsarter finns på den svenska marknaden, men de tio vanligaste står för 80 procent av konsumtionen. Mest äter svenskar av lax, sill, torsk och räkor.Knappt 30 procent av det som äts kommer från den inhemska produktionen av sjömat från yrkes- och fritidsfiske, samt odling. Den inhemska produktionen kan ses som Sveriges teoretiska självförsörjningsgrad av sjömat. Drygt 70 procent importeras alltså och då främst med Norge, Danmark och Kina som avsändarland. Från den svenska produktionen är det främst sill, skarpsill, regnbåge och den fisk som rapporteras under koden ”Fryst fisk i.a.n.” i tulltaxan, som exporteras. Figuren nedan visar fördelningen mellan import och inhemsk produktion.Siffran på sillkonsumtion är mycket osäker på grund av att den officiella statistiken håller låg kvalitet. Sill är den volymmässigt och ekonomiskt viktigaste arten i svenskt fiske och den är viktig för svensk konsumtion. Det är därmed anmärkningsvärt att data kring fisket och handeln är så bristfällig.Det är genomförbart att ta fram statistiken på årlig basis för att följa trenden för sjömatskonsumtion över tid, både totalt och utvecklingen av enskilda arter. Metoden som utvecklats här förenklar detta avsevärt, men det krävs fortfarande en del manuell justering och bearbetning av befintliga dataset, samt kunskap om branschen.

  • 25.
    Bradley, Siobhan J.
    et al.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Kroon, Renee
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Laufersky, Geoffry
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Goreham, Renee V.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Gschneidtner, Tina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schroeder, Kathryn
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Nann, Thomas
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Heterogeneity in the fluorescence of graphene and graphene oxide quantum dots2017Inngår i: Microchimica Acta, ISSN 0026-3672, E-ISSN 1436-5073, Vol. 184, nr 3, s. 871-878Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneity is an inherent property of a wealth of real-world nanomaterials and yet rarely in the reporting of new properties is its effect sufficiently addressed. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) – fluorescent, nanoscale fragments of graphene - are an extreme example of a heterogeneous nanomaterial. Here, top-down approaches – by far the most predominant – produce batches of particles with a distribution of sizes, shapes, extent of oxidation, chemical impurities and more. This makes characterization of these materials using bulk techniques particularly complex and comparisons of properties across different synthetic methods uninformative. In particular, it hinders the understanding of the structural origin of their fluorescence properties. We present a simple synthetic method, which produces graphene quantum dots with very low oxygen content that can be suspended in organic solvents, suggesting a very pristine material. We use this material to illustrate the limitations of interpreting complex data sets generated by heterogeneous materials and we highlight how misleading this “pristine” interpretation is by comparison with graphene oxide quantum dots synthesized using an established protocol. In addition, we report on the solvatochromic properties of these particles, discuss common characterization techniques and their limitations in attributing properties to heterogeneous materials.

  • 26.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Schnurr, Maria
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    8 ton society Sweden: Assessing the material footprint of sharing and circular lifestyles in housing,mobility and food2019Inngår i: Life Cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 96Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The average Swedish household throws away 480 kg of solid garbage per year. But this amount of material is only a small share of the resource consumption that our lifestylegives rise to. Our homes need to be built, goods produced, we are transported,and food is produced. In today's linear consumption society, every individual inthe EU is estimated to have a material footprint of 29 tons/year on average – afootprint that needs to shrink to 8 tons in order to stay within “planetaryboundaries”. In a circular system, products are recycled and shared leading toless resources and materials needed, but do we know how much? Which resourceand material consumption is generated in Sweden? What could we achieve througha transition to a sharing and circular economy, and how would our consumptionpatterns look like within a sustainable material lifestyle? The goal of thisstudyis to assess the material footprint of sharing and circular lifestyles inhousing, mobility and food system. "8 ton society" takes athree-level method approach: (1) National: assessing the material footprint ofsharing and circular lifestyles in housing, mobility and food systems on anational level. (2) Municipal: Mapping material and waste streams at municipallevel (for the three Swedish municipalities Göteborg, Malmö och Umeå), by whichmunicipalities can identify opportunities for a circular society, for exampleby supplementing existing climate strategies and waste plans with circularaction plans. (3) Household: Combined with a household level analysis ofmaterial footprints, the project contributes to behavioral change at householdlevel as well as strengthened decision making and innovation at national andmunicipal level. The results of the study are material footprints and scenariosthat are used as basis for the development of reduction measures. The scenariosdescribe potential “8t societies” for Sweden, meaning potential policy andsocietal innovations that allow for a drastic reduction of material footprint.These include sharing and circular solutions. Additionally, the project willcontrast the Swedish results to similar projects that have been carried out in Finland and Germany.

  • 27.
    Canali, Massimo
    et al.
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Amani, Pegah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Aramyan, Lusine
    LEI, The Netherlands.
    Gheoldus, Manuela
    Deloitte Développement Durable, France.
    Moates, Graham
    Institute of Food Research, UK.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Silvennoinen, Kirsi
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Finland.
    Waldron, Keith
    Institute of Food Research, UK.
    Vittuari, Matteo
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Food Waste Drivers in Europe, from Identification to Possible Interventions2017Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing volumes of food globally lost or wasted and implications for food security and sustainability have raised the concern of researchers, governments, international organizations and grass-root movements. Much research and experiences investigating food waste causes and drivers focus on one specific segment of the food supply chain and limit the analysis to the situation of one or few countries, while the few studies of wider geographical scope also target other relevant and diversified objectives (e.g., food waste definition, quantification, environmental and economic impacts, and recommendations for interventions). This study, carried out by a network of European institutions involved in research and initiatives against food waste, focuses on the analysis of a broad area, Europe, through a wide and systematic literature review and consultation with stakeholders in international focus groups. The food supply chain was divided into seven segments and three main contexts were defined for the examination of food waste sources: Technological, Institutional (related to organisational factors, i.e., business management, economy, legislation, and policy), and Social (related to consumers’ behaviours and lifestyles). Results suggest a wide and multifaceted problem, interconnected across all stages of the food supply chain, from primary production, to final consumption. Within each context, the identified drivers have been grouped according to the possibilities and the type of interventions for food waste reduction. A final cross-contextual prioritization distinguished food waste sources related to (A) inherent characteristics of food; (B) social and economic factors; (C) individual non-readily changeable behaviours; (D) other priorities targeted by private and public stakeholders; (E) diversified factors, such as mismanagement, inefficient legislation, lack of awareness or information; and sub-optimal use of available technologies, which could be more promptly changed. Such diversification of causes calls for specific monitoring systems, targeted policy measures, and actions of individual stakeholders at each stage of the food supply chain.

  • 28.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Engström, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Flisberg, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hansson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Rönnqvist, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Skiftning av åkermark för ett effektivare jordbruk2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet gårdar i Sverige minskar medan deras storlek ökar för att kunna hålla verksamheten konkurrenskraftig på marknaden. En vanlig situation är att gården vill expandera snabbare än det finns tillgänglig mark nära gårdscentrum. Detta leder till att gården får längre avstånd till sin åkermark. Detta extra avstånd har en kostnad, både för gårdens lönsamhet och för miljön.

    En föregående pilotstudie studerade kostnaden för transport av skörd och stallgödsel (spannmål, vall och stallgödsel). Studien visade att kostnader för transporter blir minst halverad om man byter till mark som ligger närmare gården. Denna studie studerade endast fyra gårdar, och inkluderade inte sociala aspekter.

    Detta fortsättningsprojekt syftar till att få en bättre insikt i de tekniska (geografiska) och även sociala faktorer kopplade till markbyte. Den tekniska delen av projektet innebär utveckling av ett verktyg för att 1) räkna avstånd mellan gårdscentrum och fält i hela Sverige, 2) identifiera bästa matchningar för markbyte mellan gårdar, och därmed minimera avstånd mellan gårdscentrum och fält, och 3) uppskatta potentiella besparingar av drivmedel och kostnader kopplade till markbyte.

    Våra resultat visar att verktyget ger ett stabilt underlag som beslutstöd. Däremot behövs mer studier för att komma överens om det bästa sättet att implementera verktyget i Sverige, särskilt angående ägarskap, affärsmodell och utveckling av nya funktioner. Den teoretiska potentialen för markbyte mellan två gårdar är uppskattad till 12,4 %.

    Den sociala delen av projektet undersökte lantbrukares attityder till markbyte. I semi-strukturerade intervjuer med lantbrukare, och seminarium med andra intressenter, undersökte vi hinder, förutsättningar, samt potential för implementering av verktyget. Våra resultat visar att verktyget var positivt mottaget men att det finns fler faktorer att ta hänsyn till t.ex. jordart, odlingsmetod och förtroende.

  • 29.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Possibilities and bottlenecks for implementing slurry acidification techniques in Russian and Belarus2019Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This report: summarizes expert judgements on how slurry acidification technologies (SATs) could be implemented in Belarus and North West Russia. Special focus on bottlenecks for implementing SATs with existing manure management systems was considered.

    In Belarus and North West Russia, a smaller proportion of manure is handled as slurry compared to EU Baltic Sea countries, but this might be due to the high poultry production in Russia since most poultry manure is solid. None the less, SATs are currently only available for slurry manure handling systems and not for solid or semi-solid manure.

    Regarding the current systems used in Russia and Belarus some SATs may be easier to implement than others. For instance, due to health issues, farms do not store manure under animal houses. Further studies related to the legislation are needed to reveal if this factor is a potential bottleneck for the in-house SAT. In-storage SATs, both long term and just before spreading should be possible to implement based on the current handling practices, even in Belarus where lagoons are very commons to store slurry. In-field SATs also have a good potential for implementation, but it is worth mentioning that machine contractors in agriculture are nearly non-existent in these two countries and equipment is usually owned by each farm.

    More information concerning economics and environmental impacts as well as safety issues related to acid handling are still needed to fully understand the implementation potential of SATs in Belarus and Russia.

  • 30.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Östlund, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Holtz, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hondo, Haris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Moore, Susanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Småskalighet som ett medel för att bana väg för framtidens livsmedel?2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The food value chain system in Sweden is well established making it hard for small companies to develop new products and even harder to create new food supply systems Obstacles could lay at the beginning of the chain (food production or processing), at the end (marketing, consumer) or could even be related to the legislative regulation framing the food supply chain. Smaller actors often lack resources and networks to develop their sector. However, their degree of creativity, innovativeness, and engagement is high, and their energy is needed in the development of new sustainable food value chains.

    The aim of this project was to develop and apply a methodology for evaluating food value chains, focusing on profitable small-scale production systems in Sweden that show potential for fast development of new products that quickly reach the market. The work also included identifying Swedish raw food materials with growth potential and to identify how they could come into greater demand. Ten food value chains with high development potential in Sweden and for export were mapped and the main bottlenecks briefly described. Three food chains where selected based on a potential-difficulty-benefit matrix. The three selected food value chains were: (i) Hops, (ii) Swedish forest berries, and (iii) Land-based fish farming. These three food value chains where further studied looking at the whole value chain, from production to end consumer. Through literature review and contacts with relevant stakeholders (telephone interview, face-to-face interview, or workshop) the bottlenecks were clarified and potential solutions for increased demand where identified.

    Swedish hops production is carried out by passionate and engaged smaller actors, mostly on a hobby level, and the hops is used as an ingredient for beer. Germany and the USA produce about 75% of the worldwide production These hops varieties are not adapted to the Swedish climate and therefore result in a low volume and poor quality. However, domestic varieties have been grown in the past giving better yield under Swedish climate conditions. More work is needed to characterize the quality of Swedish hops. At the present time, knowledge about the characteristics of Swedish hops is low, explaining the lack of interest from brewers. In Sweden most hops are harvested by hand, making it nearly impossible to be profitable on the market. The mechanization of the harvesting step is necessary to move Swedish hops from a hobby to a commercial activity. No solutions are available on the Swedish market, RISE together with SLU is looking to develop a hops harvester fulfilling Swedish and EU regulations and adapted to small scale cultivation. At the end of the value chain, innovative products could increase the need for Swedish hops, for example by developing beers brewed with fresh hops. Moreover, hops have antiseptic characteristics and could potentially be used in other food products than beer.

    Only about four percent of the berries that are produced by the Swedish forests every year are picked. The largest volumes picked are for bilberry (Swedish: blåbär), lingonberry, and cloudberry and most of them are washed and frozen in Sweden. Processing of berries, however, has to a large extent moved out of the country while the products produced for the Swedish market are quite traditional, low-processed foods such as jams, juices and dessert soups. The majority of the Swedish berries mainly bilberries due to their nutritional content are exported and are further processed into value added powders or extracts in Asia and Europe. In Sweden this kind of value chain is under developed largely due to knowledge barriers and to the currently very traditional market. However, there is a great consumer interest in berries and they have a perceived healthiness also in Sweden. Consumers are also increasingly aware of the origin of berries used as ingredients in products such as jams, purees and juice, as well as in health food products. To fill this gap between consumer interest/demand and raw materials available new businesses can be developed. To facilitate such development there is a need for knowledge generation and transfer along the whole value chain (picking, processing, product development and consumer studies), which can be generated by starting up new innovation and research projects. It is also of importance to facilitate networking, for example in the ‘berry network’ (coordinated by RISE), as the creation of a new value chain will require different businesses to cooperate. Also, product development projects will need support for testing, pilot production, and possibly in finding investment funding for new equipment.

    Land-based fish farming is small in comparison to traditional fish farming in Sweden, but several actors see a great potential in this system which has a lower impact on the environment compared to conventional fish farms. For instance, the Swedish farmer federation (LRF) has invested in a land-based fish farm recently. As in other EU-countries, the number of active farms in Sweden is decreasing and some see the potential to recycle unused animal stables into fish farms. A major bottleneck for land-based fish farming is current legislation as it is based on conventional fish farming and therefore does not consider the environmental benefits of land-based systems. Knowledge should be spread to relevant authorities and policy makers to open a dialog and facilitate the development of a relevant regulatory framework. Regarding the production phase, access to sustainably produced feed and technical competence are lacking. Moreover, as the technology is costly learning through trial and error would not be recommended. A testbed dedicated to land-based fish farming could support companies who wish to try modifications to their system. Furthermore, smaller producers have difficulties in finding processing solutions for their products; e.g. slaughterhouses and conditioning. Two potential solutions would be to develop a land-based fish farm cooperative and/or mobile systems that could take care of smaller productions. Finally, the competition on the market is tough as land-based fishes are competing with large-scale conventional fish farms from Norway and Asia. To overcome this bottleneck, the sector could develop its own certification as well as increasing the consumers awareness and knowledge.

    Some conclusions could be applied to all the studied food chains. For instance, each value chain can be seen as a puzzle with many pieces. In order to develop new food value chains many separate pieces need to fall into place. Therefore, it is necessary to increase collaboration between stakeholders but also to have a stakeholder driven coordination of this collaboration. The stakeholders within the developing value chains often do not have all the resources to carry out this task, especially if they are small businesses. The development of cooperatives also seems to be a solution to overcome bottlenecks in the studied food chains. Likewise, logistics in the developing value chains have a great margin for improvement. Furthermore, this project focused on value chains where food commodities are the end product but investigating the potential for non-food uses would also be of interest.

    The method used in this project can be replicated to other value chains with potential of development. It would help the users to get a holistic view of the current bottlenecks and facilitate contact between stakeholders. The list of bottlenecks can be followed up and used as an indicator to evaluate if the value chain in moving forward.

  • 31.
    Chen, Si-Qian
    et al.
    Dongguan University of Technology, China.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Wang, Dongjie
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, China.
    Mikkelsen, Deidre
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gidley, Michael J
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose synthesised by diverse strains of the genus Komagataeibacter2018Inngår i: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 81, s. 87-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has several current and potential future uses in the food industry because of its ability to form hydrogels with distinctive properties. The texture of BC hydrogels is determined by both the cellulose fibre network and the internal dispersed water. In this study, mechanical properties of hydrated BC synthesised by six different strains of Komagataeibacter genus were investigated with regards to their extensibility, compressive strength, relaxation ability, viscoelasticity and poroelasticity. The stress/strain at failure and Young's modulus were assessed by uniaxial tensile testing. The compressive strength, relaxation ability and viscoelasticity were measured via a series of compression and small amplitude oscillatory shear steps. A poroelastic constitutive modelling simulation was used to investigate the mechanical effects of water movement. The morphology of the BC fibril network under compression was observed via scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the mechanics of BC were highly dependent on the cellulose concentration, as well as the morphology of the fibril network. BC synthesised by ATCC 53524 was the most concentrated (0.71 wt%), and exhibited high tensile properties, stiffness and storage moduli; whereas comparatively low mechanical properties were noted for BC produced by ATCC 700178 and ATCC 10245, which contained the lowest cellulose concentration (0.18 wt%). Small deformation responses (normal stress, G') scaled with cellulose concentration for all samples, whereas larger deformation responses (Young's modulus, poroelasticity) depended on both cellulose concentration and additional factors, presumably related to network morphology. Increasing concentration and compressive coalescence of fibres in the integrated BC network reduced both the relaxation of the normal stress and the movement of water. This research aids the selection of bacterial strains to modulate the texture and mechanical properties of hydrated BC-based food systems. 

  • 32.
    Corrado, Sara
    et al.
    European Commission, Italy.
    Caldeira, Carla
    European Commission, Italy.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Hanssen, Ola
    Ostfold Research, Norway.
    Hauser, Hans
    European Commission, Luxemburg.
    van Holsteijn, Freija
    VHK BV, Netherlands.
    Liu, Gang
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Lund University, Sweden.
    Parry, Andrew
    WRAP, UK.
    Secondi, Luca
    University of Tuscia, Italy.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Sala, Serenella
    European Commission, Italy.
    Food waste accounting methodologies: Challenges, opportunities, and further advancements2019Inngår i: Global Food Security, ISSN 2211-9124, Vol. 20, s. 93-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    About one third of the food produced globally is wasted along the food chain, representing a burden for the environment and an inefficiency of the food system. Tackling food waste is a priority on the global political agenda to guarantee food security. Defining a methodology for food waste quantification is key to monitoring progress towards the achievement of reduction targets. This paper summarises the outcomes of a workshop on food waste accounting co-organised by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre and Directorate-General on Health and Food Safety with the aim of stimulating harmonisation of methodologies, identifying challenges, opportunities, and further advancement for food waste accounting. The paper presents methodological aspects, e.g. system boundaries, reliability of data, accounting of water flows, to ensure better support to food waste policy design and interventions. It addresses all the actors of the food supply chain, governments, and research institutions. © 2019 The Authors

  • 33.
    Cottrell, Richard
    et al.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Nash, Kirsty
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Halpern, Benjamin
    University of California, US; Imperial College London, UK.
    Remenyi, Tomas
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Corney, Stuart
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Fleming, Aysha
    University of Tasmania, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Fulton, Elizabeth
    University of Tasmania, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. University of Tasmania, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Johne, Alexandra
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Watson, Reg
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Blanchard, Julia
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Food production shocks across land and sea2019Inngår i: Nature Sustainability, ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 2, s. 130-137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sudden losses to food production (that is, shocks) and their consequences across land and sea pose cumulative threats to global sustainability. We conducted an integrated assessment of global production data from crop, livestock, aquaculture and fisheries sectors over 53 years to understand how shocks occurring in one food sector can create diverse and linked challenges among others. We show that some regions are shock hotspots, exposed frequently to shocks across multiple sectors. Critically, shock frequency has increased through time on land and sea at a global scale. Geopolitical and extreme-weather events were the main shock drivers identified, but with considerable differences across sectors. We illustrate how social and ecological drivers, influenced by the dynamics of the food system, can spill over multiple food sectors and create synchronous challenges or trade-offs among terrestrial and aquatic systems. In a more shock-prone and interconnected world, bold food policy and social protection mechanisms that help people anticipate, cope with and recover from losses will be central to sustainability. © 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

  • 34.
    Dalvi-Isfahan, Mohsen
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Hamdami, Nasser
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    UMR GEPEA, France.
    Review on the control of ice nucleation by ultrasound waves, electric and magnetic fields2017Inngår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 195, s. 222-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Freezing is the most popular and widely used food preservation method of the modern times. The freezing process of food matrices is related to their high water content and its metamorphoses into ice on cooling. The final quality of the frozen product is highly depended on the ice crystal morphology because it can cause irreversible damage on the microstructure of the food matrix. Supercooling and ice nucleation temperature need to be controlled both in suppressing and inducing the solidification to improve technological processes such as freeze drying, freeze concentration, cryopreservation, ice formation and cold-energy storage both in food industry and domestic preservation. However, the mechanism of freezing is not yet well known and it is affected by several factors. Several emerging technologies have been recently proposed for ice nucleation control during freezing. This review article is focused on the alternative freezing methods such as ultrasound waves, magnetic, electric, and electromagnetic field assisted freezing. In addition, the properties, mechanism of action and possible applications of electrofreezing are extensively discussed.

  • 35.
    Dalvi-Isfahan, Mohsen
    et al.
    Jahrom University, Iran.
    Jha, Piyush
    ONIRIS, France.
    Tavakoli, Javad
    Jahrom University, Iran.
    Daraei-Garmakhany, Amir
    Bu-Ali Sina University, Iran.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Le-Bail, Allain
    ONIRIS, France.
    Review on identification, underlying mechanisms and evaluation of freezing damage2019Inngår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 255, s. 50-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although freezing is known as the best method of food preservation, physical and chemical changes that occur to the cellular structure during processing and storage may damage the quality of food products. Most freeze damages are associated with ice crystal morphology (size, number, shape and distribution) which in turn affects the microstructure of the frozen food. Therefore, the evaluation of frozen food microstructure provides opportunities for monitoring the ice crystal morphology and also identifies freeze damage at cellular level which can be linked with the final quality of frozen food products. In this review, the most important physical damages that occur during freezing and storage of food matrices are described. In addition, methods for evaluating and observing the morphology of ice crystals and microstructure of frozen food stuffs are comprehensively discussed. An understanding of the freeze damage and their relationship with ice crystal morphology can contribute to the improvement of the freezing process as well as to the frozen product quality.

  • 36.
    Davis, Jennifer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    De Menna, Fabio
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Unger, Nicole
    BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Loubiere, Marion
    Deloitte Sustainability, USA.
    Vittuari, Matteo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Generic strategy LCA and LCC: Guidance for LCA and LCC focused on prevention, valorisation and treatment of side flows from the food supply chain2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Urged by the importance of resource efficiency and circular economy agenda of EU and national policy makers, many stakeholders are seeking alternatives for current surplus food or side flows within the food supply chain. Any new valorisation route for side flows (i.e. not the main product) will be associated with impacts (monetary and environmental). To allow informed decision making at all levels, from individual stakeholder to policy level, robust, consistent and science based approaches are required. The EU H2020 funded project REFRESH (Resource Efficient Food and dRink for the Entire Supply cHain) aims to contribute to food waste reduction throughout the food supply chain, and evaluate the environmental impacts and life cycle costs.

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) are well documented and generic approaches for assessing the environmental and cost dimensions of a system. Both LCA and LCC are characterised by allowing for a large flexibility in system scoping. To allow for comparison between different options consistent approaches are required. Furthermore, there is a need to bridge the gap between assessors who might have a deep knowledge of the systems they are assessing, but are not in depth method experts on LCA or LCC. Highlighting challenging methodological aspects and encouraging the practitioner to ask the most relevant questions contributes to a better scoping practice of LCA and LCCs.

    The objective of this study was to develop a consistent approach, combining LCA and LCA specifically to assess impacts of prevention of resource inefficiencies, valorisation routes and waste handling in the food supply chain. The recommendations build on existing standards and state-of-the-art LCA/LCC research, and provide guidance on how to overcome specific methodological challenges. They focus particularly on the goal and scope stage of an LCA and Environmental LCC and on side flows from the food supply chain.

    To categorise systems in order to be assessed, the concept of “REFRESH situations” (RS) has been developed (De Mena et al., 2016; Unger et al., 2016). The four REFRESH situations (RS) are: Prevention of side flow (RS 1), side flow valorisation (RS 2), valorisation as part of waste management (RS 3), and end-of-life treatment (RS 4). The REFRESH situations can take place at any point/process in the life cycle, within the remit of any stakeholder (including consumers) and are independent of the perspective taken, i.e. of the producer of side stream or the receiver. For each REFRESH situation, specific recommendations on setting of system boundary, functional unit(s) and handling of multi-functionality in relation to the stated problem are provided (beside some other aspects). The importance to differentiate between attributional and consequential approaches is discussed in detail. This consistent approach contributes towards more harmonised use of LCA and LCC for informed decision for handling side flows in the food supply chain.

    The focus of the specific recommendations given in this report is primarily on change-oriented studies on interventions for side flows since foot print studies are to a higher degree covered in existing frameworks such as the ILCD-handbook and the PEF framework under development.

  • 37.
    de Hooge, Ilona E.
    et al.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Muller Loose, Simone
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Lengard Almli, Valerie
    Nofima, Norway.
    This apple is too ugly for me!: Consumer preferences for suboptimal food products in the supermarket and at home2017Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 56, s. 80-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste has received increasing scientific and societal attention during the last decade. One important cause of food waste is thought to be the un-willingness of supply chains and consumers to sell, purchase, and consume suboptimal or imperfect foods. Yet, empirical research on this issue is scarce and contradictory. The current research investigates under which conditions consumers purchase or consume foods that deviate from regular products in terms of appearance standards, date labelling, or damaged packaging, without deviation on the intrinsic quality or safety. An online choice experiment among 4214 consumers from five Northern European countries reveals that consumer preferences for suboptimal products differ depending on whether the consumer is in a supermarket or at home, and depending on the type of sub-optimality. Moreover, consumer choices, discount preferences, and waste behaviors of suboptimal products are influenced by demographics (nationality, age), by personality characteristics (value orientation, commitment to environmental sustainability, and perceived consumer effectiveness in saving the environment), and by individual-waste aspects (perceived food waste of the household, perceived importance of food waste, engaging in shopping/cooking). These findings provide important insights into consumer preferences for suboptimal products, and useful suggestions for supply-chain regulations on suboptimal products.

  • 38.
    de Kort, Daan W
    et al.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands; TI-COAST, The Netherlands.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hoeben, Freek J M
    TI-COAST, The Netherlands; SyMO-Chem B.V, The Netherlands.
    Barnes, Ryan
    University of California, USA.
    Emondts, Meike
    University of California, USA.
    Janssen, Henk M
    TI-COAST, The Netherlands; SyMO-Chem B.V, The Netherlands.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Han, Songi
    University of California, USA.
    Van As, Henk
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands; TI-COAST, The Netherlands.
    van Duynhoven, John P M
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands; TI-COAST, The Netherlands ; Unilever R&D, The Netherlands.
    Heterogeneity of Network Structures and Water Dynamics in κ-Carrageenan Gels Probed by Nanoparticle Diffusometry.2018Inngår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 34, nr 37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of functionalized nanoparticles (PEGylated dendrimers, d = 2.8-11 nm) was used to probe the structural heterogeneity in Na+/K+ induced κ-carrageenan gels. The self-diffusion behavior of these nanoparticles as observed by 1H pulsed-field gradient NMR, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and raster image correlation spectroscopy revealed a fast and a slow component, pointing toward microstructural heterogeneity in the gel network. The self-diffusion behavior of the faster nanoparticles could be modeled with obstruction by a coarse network (average mesh size <100 nm), while the slower-diffusing nanoparticles are trapped in a dense network (lower mesh size limit of 4.6 nm). Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced NMR relaxometry revealed a reduced local solvent water diffusivity near 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-labeled nanoparticles trapped in the dense network, showing that heterogeneity in the physical network is also reflected in heterogeneous self-diffusivity of water. The observed heterogeneity in mesh sizes and in water self-diffusivity is of interest for understanding and modeling of transport through and release of solutes from heterogeneous biopolymer gels.

  • 39.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    et al.
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Bolinder, Martin
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Holger
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Kristina
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Collentine, Dennis
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden; University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Marstorp, Håkan
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Nitrogen leaching and soil organic carbon sequestration of a Barley crop with improved N use efficiency – A regional case study2017Inngår i: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of modified spring barley crops with improved nitrogen (N) use efficiency to reduce nitrogen (N) leaching and to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was assessed at the regional scale. This was done using simulation model applications designed for reporting according to the Helcom (Helsinki Commission) and Kyoto protocols. Using model simulations based on modified crops N dynamics and SOC were assessed for three agro-ecological regions (latitudes ranging 55°20′–60°40′ N) in Sweden over a 20-year period. The modified N use properties of spring barley were implemented in the SOILNDB model (simulating soil C, N, water and heat, and plant N dynamics) by changing the parameters for root N uptake efficiency and plant N demand within a range given by previous model applications to different crops. A doubling of the daily N uptake efficiency and increased N demand (by ca 30%) reduced N leaching by 24%–31%, increased plant N content by 9%–12%, depending on region. The effects of the modified crop on SOC was simulated with the ICBM model, resulting in an increased SOC content (0–25 cm depth) by 57–79 kg C ha−1 y−1. The results suggest that a modified crop might reduce N leaching from spring barley area, in a range similar to the targets of relevant environmental protection directives, a result which held more in the northern than southern regions. The simulated SOC increase on a hectare basis was highest for the central region and least for the most northern region. For the total agricultural area the share of spring barley area was small and more crops would need to be modified to reach the emission reduction targets.

  • 40.
    Edström, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Halldorf, Stefan
    Persson, Sven
    Welander, Ulrika
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Rötning av fjäderfägödsel med gödselförädling i tillämpad skala2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett tjugotal lantbrukare i Mönsterås kommun planerar för att bygga en stor biogas­anläggning som kommer att ha fastgödsel från höns som huvudsubstrat. Den gemen­samma biogasanläggning kan bli den största i sitt slag i Sverige, med en biogas­produktion på ca 70 GWh biogas/år för produktion av drivmedel. Den genererade rötresten kan kväve­försörja ca 12 000 ha/år växtodling och fosforförsörja ca 20 000 ha/år. Den rötade gödseln bidrar i princip till all växtnäring i rötresten, där fjäderfä­gödseln kommer att bidra med ca 80 % av rötrestens innehåll av kväve och fosfor. Ett hinder för att realisera denna anläggning är att det idag saknas erfarenhet från praktisk drift av rötningsanläggningar med betydande inblandning av fjäderfägödsel. Fjäderfä­gödsel är både ett fosfor- och kväverikt substrat, och innehåller dessutom både tunga och lätta partiklar som riskerar att bilda sediment och svämtäcken i rötkammaren. Idag betraktas fjäderfägödsel framför allt som ett fosforgödselmedel eftersom huvuddelen av kvävet inte är direkt upptagbart av växter, men rötning av fjäderfägödsel ökar andelen direktverkanande kväve. För att optimera hantering, spridning och utnyttjande av kväve och fosfor i fjäderfägödsel är det önskvärt att processa denna gödsel för att generera fyra stycken gödselmedel med olika kväve- och fosforkvot. För att kunna studera dessa fråge­ställningar och bredda gödselbasen för rötning har Vinnova, under 2016-2018, finansierat denna tillämpade studie.

    Under ett tillämpat försök genomfördes rötning i pilotskala av kväverik hönsgödsel som huvudsubstrat. Rötningsprocessen gick att driva stabilt vid en ammoniumkvävehalt på närmare 6 g/l inom det mesofila temperaturområdet i en totalomblandad rötkammare med volymetrisk metanproduktion som uppgick till 1,1 m3 CH4/m3 slamvolym & dag. Järnklorid tillfördes rötkammaren för att hålla biogasens innehåll av svavelväte vid ca 100 ppm. För att hålla ammoniumhalten vid angiven nivå tillfördes vatten motsvarande halva inflödet in i rötkammaren, för att späda ner kvävet till denna nivå. Efter rötningen av substratblandningen ökade dess ammoniuminnehåll med 3,7 gånger.

    Under pilotförsöket producerades ca 13 m3 rötrest som sparades och lagrades 4–8 månader innan den förädlades i två steg till två olika gödselmedel. I första steget genomfördes fasseparation med en dekantercentrifug följt av indunstning av surgjord tunnfas. Baserat på dessa försök beräknas fassepareringen kunna generera ett fast gödselmedel vars vikt motsvarar 23 % av i rötningsprocessen producerad rötrest. Det fasta gödselmedlets innehåll av fosfor utgör dryga 70 % av rötrestens fosforinnehåll. Vidare beräknas indunstningen kunna generera ett uppkoncentrerat flytande gödsel­medel vars vikt motsvarar 2o % av i rötningsprocessen producerad rötrest. Det flytande gödselmedlets innehåll av ammoniumkvävet utgör dryga 70 % av rötrestens ammonium­innehåll.      

    Det producerade koncentratgödselmedlet liksom tunnfasgödselmedlet hade en hög andel lättillgängligt kväve, vilket är en viktig delförutsättning för att uppnå höga skördar vid växtodling. Gödselmedel från Mönsterås Biogas planerade biogasanläggning kan i framtiden bidra till att jordbruket i Kalmar län med omnejd kan gå mot en hållbar intensifiering av livsmedelsproduktionen.

  • 41.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Macias Aragones, Marta
    Fundación Corporación Tecnológica de Andalucía, Spain; University of Seville, Spain.
    Arroyo Torralvo, Fatima
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Dunon, Vincent
    ARCHE Consulting, Belgium.
    Angel, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Komnitsas, Konstantinos
    Technical University of Crete, Greece.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    A review of carbon footprint of Cu and Zn production from primary and secondary sources2017Inngår i: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 7, nr 9, s. 168-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with their unique propertiesare central for economic growth, quality of life and creation of new jobs. The base-metalproducing sector is, however, under growing public pressure in respect toenergy and water requirements and needs to meet several challenges, includingincreased demand and lower ore grades generally associated with larger resourceuse. The development of technologies for metal production from secondarysources is often motivated by increased sustainability and this paper aims to providefurther insights about one specific aspect of sustainability, namely climatechange. The paper presents a review of carbon footprints (CF) for Cu and Znproduced from primary and secondary raw materials, by analyzing data taken fromscientific literature and the Ecoinvent database. Comparisons are carried outbased on the source of data selected as reference case. In the case of Cu,reduced CF of secondary production is indicated, although there is large datavariation. As for Zn, production of this metal from secondary sources seems to bebeneficial but the number of data and cases to be compared is much smallercompared to Cu. The general variation of data suggests that standardization ofcomparison is needed when assessing the environmental benefits of production inline with the principles of waste valorization, zero waste approach andcircular economy.

  • 42.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Labrosse, Lydie
    Agrosup Dijon Engineering School, France.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Effect of drying technique and particle size of bilberry press cake on the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins by pressurized carbon dioxide extraction2017Inngår i: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins from bilberry press cake using pressurized carbon dioxide, the combined effect of drying technique and bilberry press cake particle size was assessed. Pressurized carbon dioxide using ethanol as co-solvent was compared with a simple and efficient solvent extraction using methanol. The press cake with large (>710 mm) size particles had a higher anthocyanins content (84 g/kg dry matter to 87 g/kg dry matter) than did the small (<710 mm) size particles (60 g/kg dry matter to 65 g/kg dry matter). Although, the large size particles contained more anthocyanins, more efficient anthocyanins extraction using pressurized carbon dioxide extraction was obtained with the small than the large size particles. The press cake dried by freeze-drying generated a powder with smaller particles and lower bulk density than either the microwave-assisted hot-air-dried or hot-airdried powders. In comparison to methanol extraction, the most efficient anthocyanins extraction was obtained from the freeze-dried small size particles. This work showed that there is a potential to improve the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins extracted by pressurized carbon dioxide by selecting appropriate drying technology and particle size distribution of the press cake.

  • 43.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Oliveira, Gabriel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ehrnell, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Alminger, Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through preprocessing and drying.2019Inngår i: Food science & nutrition, ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 1379-1386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Berry powders are popular as ingredients in a range of food products, where they naturally provide flavor, color, texture, polyphenols, fiber, and other nutrients. The choices regarding processing techniques and conditions influence the quality attributes of berry powders. The aim of this study was to study the effects on bilberry powder functionalities of applying different preprocessing techniques (purée mixing and juice pressing vs. untreated whole berries) prior to hot air drying and milling. Drying of press cake reduced the drying time by 72% and increased the total apparent phenolic content of the final powder by 44%, as compared to the powder of dried whole berries. The press cake powder showed an easier flowing behavior than the powders from whole berries and puréed berries. Dispersibility (in water and dairy cream) was 60% higher for powders from whole berries and puréed berries, as compared to press cake. The total phenolic content of the dispersed powders was highest for whole berries and puréed berries. Bilberry powder functionality can be modulated through the selection of an appropriate preprocessing technique before drying and milling. This tailors the powder properties into food ingredients ready for different applications, without the need for additives.

  • 44.
    Englund, Maja
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner - en kunskapssammanställning2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Källsorterande avloppssystem kan minska utsläpp av läkemedelsrester till akvatiska miljöer och möjliggör samtidigt kretslopp av näringsämnen. Kunskapen om läkemedels-förekomst i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner är dock delvis bristfällig, liksom kunskapen om vilken reducerande effekt som erhålls i de behandlings- och hanteringsprocesser som används för dessa fraktioner idag. Även kunskapen om vad som händer i miljön är begränsad vad gäller upptag i växter, nedbrytning, transport och spridning.

    Syftet med projektet var att samla den kunskap som finns och den forskning som pågår relaterad till läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner i Sverige och internationellt, för att identifiera prioriterade frågeställningar framåt. Projektet syftade även till att beskriva hur behandling av avloppsfraktioner från källsorterande avloppssystem påverkar halterna av läkemedelsrester i slutprodukten.

    Projektet genomfördes utifrån en litteraturstudie med fokus på genomförda och pågående studier/forskning relaterad till läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner globalt. Inga analyser har genomförts inom projektet. De data över innehåll av läkemedelssubstanser i obehandlade och behandlade fraktioner som redovisas är hämtade från tidigare genomförda studier. Förutsättningarna för studier kring läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner varierar, vilket försvårar möjligheten att jämföra resultat och dra slutsatser kring innehåll och reduktion av läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner.

    De flesta studier behandlar urin. Merparten av behandlingsmetoderna för urin är utförda i labbskala medan studier på klosettavloppsvatten är gjorda på anläggningar som är i drift idag. För latrin har endast en studie som behandlar läkemedel hittats.

    Olika behandlingsmetoder fungerar olika bra på olika typer av läkemedelssubstanser. För urin har tester utförts med många olika behandlingstekniker. Av de som beaktats i denna studie är det endast ozon och UV-ljus som har en bred effekt och som till störst del reducerar de flesta läkemedelssubstanser som har analyserats i urin. För klosettavloppsvatten har tre behandlingsmetoder studerats. Ingen av metoderna reducerade alla läkemedel, men behandling med UASB-reaktor gav en god reduktion då de flesta läkemedel som analyserats reducerades till ca 60 %. För latrin påverkades de flesta läkemedel varken av mesofil eller termofil rötning.

    De flesta studierna kring läkemedelssubstanser i miljön har fokus på akvatiska system och informationen om hur substanserna beter sig i marken är begränsade – både vad gäller nedbrytning samt läkemedelsinnehåll i växande gröda. Inom dessa områden behövs mer forskning.

    Läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner är ett komplext område där flera kunskapsluckor finns och där mer forskning behövs. Förhoppningsvis bidrar denna sammanställning till en översiktlig bild av hur det kan se ut, vilken kunskap som finns inom området samt förenklar beslut och prioritering av framtida forskning.

  • 45.
    Englund, Maja
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ulinder, Elin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Funktion hos markbaserade reningsanläggningari fält, komplettering2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Funktion hos markbaserade reningsanläggningar i fält, komplettering” har haft som syfte att komplettera projektet ”Funktion hos markbaserade renings­anläggningar i fält” som gick ut på att utvärdera funktionen hos markbaserade renings­anläggningar – infiltrationer och markbäddar med och utan biomoduler och/eller fosforavlastning. Med hjälp av fortsättningsprojektet ökade antalet inventerade anläggningar från 101 till 157.

    Liksom tidigare projekt ska detta projekt ge en ögonblicksbild över hur markbäddar och infiltrationer fungerar i fält – mot bakgrund av att erfarenheter från flera håll har pekat på att det förekommer funktionsproblem som igensättningar och nedsatt rening hos denna anläggningstyp. Syftet är att komplettera projektet för att göra underlaget mer statistiskt säkert (större antal mätningar) och mer representativt med avseende på de olika förutsättningar som kan finnas i Sverige.

    Resultatet visar att 8 % av anläggningarna hade mycket höga nivåer av vatten (≥ 11 cm) och 9 % hade mycket höga nivåer av slam (≥ 5 cm) i spridarrören. Det finns indikationer på samband mellan mycket höga nivåer av vatten i spridarrör och funktionsfel  i form av höga vattennivåer i andra delar av anläggningen, eller funktionsfel som framkommit av kommentarer. Även för mycket höga nivåer av slam finns vissa indikationer på att det är kopplat till olika funktionsfel, dock är dessa samband inte lika tydliga. Något höga nivåer av slam (2–5 cm) och vatten (3–11 cm) verkar inte ha lika starka samband med funktionsfel.

    Studien indikerar att större vattenbelastande installationer, t.ex. badkar större än 300 liter eller vattenreningsfilter som backspolar stora mängder vatten, inte bör släppas ut till avloppsanläggningen samt att det är viktigt att anläggningen byggs enligt den storlek som är angiven i tillståndet. Den statistiska analysen som utförts i studien tyder också på att anläggningens ålder kan vara en ”naturlig” orsak till mycket höga vattennivåer.

    Enligt SGU:s databas låg grundvattennivåerna under tiden för inspektionerna mycket under det normala eller under det normala (SGU 2018). Utifrån givna kriterier i projektet bedöms andelen anläggningar som inte klarar kraven på en meter till grundvattnet vara 7 %.  För 53 % är det dock osäkert om kraven uppfylls eftersom det saknas kontroll­punkter som bedöms som tillförlitliga eller så ligger kontrollpunkten på för långt avstånd för att bedömas som relevant. Utan en sådan kontrollpunkt är det svårt att följa upp om avståndet till grundvattennivån ligger inom riktlinjen på en meter.

    Det är viktigt att komma ihåg att de inspektioner som utförts endast ger en ögonblicks­bild av anläggningen och inte anläggningens funktion över tid. Att följa några anläggningar under en längre period skulle ge en bättre bild av funktionen över tid och en bättre uppfattning om hur slam- och vattennivåer kan variera i olika delar och  vid olika årstider. Det saknas även undersökningar om hur t.ex. olika nivåer av slam och vatten i spridarrör påverkar reningseffekten i anläggningen samt effekten av åtgärder som t.ex. spolning eller ökad ventilation. Detta behöver studeras framöver för att öka kunskapen och ge vägledning när det gäller  vilka åtgärder som kan vidtas vid olika typer av funktionsproblem.

  • 46.
    Engström, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Frisk, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Rönnqvist, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Planeringssystem för ett effektivare jordbruk2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this report is one of three different areas of improving the efficiency of agricultural logistics that have been investigated in the project ”Energieffektivisering av Jordbrukets logistik - fördjupning och utveckling”. The three areas are, 1) Shifting of arable land (2) Planning tool for simulating, planning and optimizing logistical work on the farm (3) KPIs for logistics work at farm level to spur efficiency. All three areas are considered important parts in the work of reducing energy consumption and climate impact from agricultural transports and in food production.

    More efficient agricultural logistics can be achieved through better planning and coordination of all activities throughout the production process. This improved planning then requires decision support to get a holistic grip on the interacting parts of the process. In this report, we have begun the work to investigate how farmers can make agriculture more efficient by having access to good and simple planning and simulation systems, thereby reducing energy consumption and costs at farm level.

    We have made a review of which systems (for plant cultivation) that are available on the market today (with focus on the Swedish market) and identified shortcomings, gaps and needs for continued development. We have also in a case study exemplified the decisions a farmer make, and which tools are used. In the longer term, the aim is to have tools for simulation, planning and optimization of logistics for agriculture.

    There are many applications for planning, control and monitoring of agriculture activities on the market, but no purely logistics planning tools. Many of the tools available on the market are de facto not decision support, but rather business support, where the user can fill in the business conditions and to some extent follow the development during the year. For the applications to provide real decision support, they need to be more intelligent by being able to analyze large amounts of data smarter, make simulations of different scenarios and make assessments on plans. Internationally, the range of programs, apps and other IT support for agriculture management is very large, but the gaps are mainly the same. However, it is not easy to apply an internationally developed tool to Swedish conditions and regulations.

  • 47.
    Engström, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Assmundson, Viktor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Göthe, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Maskinnyckeltal för ett effektivare jordbruk2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras ett av tre områden för att effektivisera jordbrukets logistik som undersökts i projektet ”Energieffektivisering av Jordbrukets logistik - fördjupning och utveckling” som har arbetat vidare på resultat från ett tidigare pilotprojekt om energieffektivisering av jordbrukets transporter. De tre områdena är, (1) skiftning av åkermark (2) planeringsverktyg för att simulera, planera och optimera logistikarbetet på gården (3) nyckeltal för logistikarbetet på gårdsnivå för att sporra till effektivisering. Alla tre bedöms som viktiga delar i arbetet med att effektivisera och minska energiåtgång och klimatpåverkan från jordbrukets transporter och i förlängningen livsmedelsproduktionen.

    I denna rapport har möjligheter att effektivisera maskinanvändningen på jordbruksföretag genom att använda kartläggning och nyckeltal undersökts. Detta har gjorts genom att maskinanvändning på tre gårdar loggats. Dessa gårdar var att betrakta som medelstora gårdar med svenska mått mätt och har olika produktionsinriktningar.

    Loggning genomfördes av dieselförbrukning och tidsåtgång för totalt nio maskiner på tre gårdar. Loggningsutrustningen kopplades till maskinernas CAN-bus och data laddades ner till Drivecs molntjänst via mobilt bredband. Loggning skedde också av GPS-data där maskinerna befann sig vid en viss tidpunkt och dessa refererades till olika skiften, inomgårdsområden, transportvägar och även t.ex. snöröjning eller annan entreprenadverksamhet.

    Ur dessa data beräknades nyckeltal manuellt fram för dieselförbrukning och tidsåtgång per gröda, fält och aktivitet. Nyckeltalen svarade mot vad lantbrukarna efterfrågade. För att vara rättvisande och heltäckande behöver loggningen vara mer tillförlitlig och inkludera alla maskiner i växtodlingen. En slutsats var att loggning och nyckeltalsberäkning måste ske helt automatiskt för att fylla en funktion och dessutom behöver nyckeltalet ha metadata som beskriver vad det beskriver, hur det samlats in och hur representativt det är.

    I projektet undersöktes också vilka möjligheter det fanns till att skicka denna information automatiskt från Drivecs system till LRF Konsults Digital Bonde och där integreras med ekonomiska data.

    Ytterligare forskning behövs för att nyttiggöra resultaten från detta projekt. Det behövs också målinriktat arbete med både vidareutveckling och kunskapsspridning till jordbrukare.

  • 48.
    Engström, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Lagnelöv, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Batteridriven autonom jordbruksmaskin: Simulering av maskinaktiviteter på en svensk gård2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the project "Concept study battery-powered autonomous agricultural machine", an electric autonomous agricultural machine has been compared with a conventional diesel tractor by simulating all machine activities in a field on an organic dairy farm of 200 hectares during one year. Combine Harvesting was not included. The results show that it is possible to replace a conventional tractor (160 kW) with two autonomous battery-powered machines (36 kW motor, 113 kWh battery) with 15% lower costs. Even better, energy consumption was reduced by 58% and greenhouse gas emissions by 92% compared to diesel when energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from battery manufacturing were included. Furthermore local emissions were avoided and the sound pollution greatly reduced.  The major efficiency increase can be explained by the higher efficiency of electric power drivelines, and that the Swedish and Nordic electricity mix has very low greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact. We also see that the weight of the conventional diesel tractor is more than four times the weight of the autonomous battery-powered, and that's only the tractor without any implements or payload. In the sensitivity calculations, changes in the cost of implements or driver / operator costs have the greatest impact on the total price. It is also important not to have a charger with low power, while the battery price does not have such big impact on the total cost. Continued research is needed to verify the theoretical simulation by building a test platform where knowledge can be gathered about the problems and opportunities in practical work - both in the field of battery-electric operation and autonomous driving.

  • 49.
    Eustachio Colombo, Patricia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Patterson, Emma
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Darmon, Nicole
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Parlesak, Alexandr
    University College Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Optimizing School Food Supply: Integrating Environmental, Health, Economic, and Cultural Dimensions of Diet Sustainability with Linear Programming2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 17, artikkel-id 3019Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public-sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply while ensuring nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining the relative deviation (RD) from the observed food supply, Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions, Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit, and Model 4 further controlled how pair-wise ratios of 15 food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food-group ratios. Model 4 limited the changes in food-group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE in one school to 20%. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply; i.e., with Models 3 and 4. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.

  • 50.
    Fachmann, M S R
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hoorfar, J
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hansen, F
    DMRI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Christensen, J
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mansdal, S
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Josefsen, M H
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Detection of Salmonella in meat in less than 5 hours by a low-cost and non-complex sample preparation method.2017Inngår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 83, nr 5, artikkel-id e03151-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Salmonella is recognised as one of the most important foodborne bacteria, and has a wide health and socioeconomical impact worldwide. Fresh pork meat is one of the main sources of Salmonella and efficient and fast methods for detection are therefore necessary. Current methods for Salmonella detection in fresh meat usually include >16 h of culture enrichment, in few cases < 12 h, thus requiring at least two working shifts. Here, we report a rapid (< 5 h) and high throughput method, for screening of Salmonella in samples from fresh pork meat, consisting of a 3-h enrichment in standard buffered peptone water, and a real-time PCR compatible sample preparation method, based on filtration, centrifugation, and enzymatic digestion, followed by fast cycling real-time PCR detection. The method was validated in an un-paired, comparative study against the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL) reference culture method 187. Pork meat samples (n=140) were either artificially contaminated with Salmonella at levels: 0, 1-10 and 10-100 CFU/25 g, or naturally contaminated. Cohen's Kappa for degree of agreement between the rapid method and the reference was 0.64 and the relative accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the rapid method were 81.4, 95.1 and 97.9 %, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD50) was 8.8 CFU/25 g for the rapid method and 7.7 CFU/25 g for the reference method. Implementation of this method will enable faster release of Salmonella low risk meat, providing savings for meat producers, and help contribute to improved food safety.

    IMPORTANCE: While the cost of analysis and hands-on time of the presented rapid method were comparable to reference culture methods, the fast product release by this method can provide the meat industry with a competitive advantage. Not only will the abattoirs save costs for work hours and cold storage; consumers as well as retailers will also benefit from fresher meat with a longer shelf life. Furthermore, the presented sample preparation might be adjusted for application in detection of other pathogenic bacteria in different sample types.

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