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  • 1.
    Boss, Annika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Emanuelsson, Viktor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Venkatesh, Abhijit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sustainable Vehicles with Recycled Plastics2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of vehicles is one of the most resource-intensive industries. 10 % of the overall consumption of plastics, 6 million tonnes/year is used by the European vehicle industry1. Increase the use of recycled plastics in vehicles is one of the key challenges for sustainable transformation of the vehicle industry as it plays an important role in saving resources and reducing greenhouse emissions. The main goal of this project was to contribute to increased use of recycled plastic in the Swedish vehicle industry. Volvo Cars goal is that 25 % of the plastic used in cars should be recycled or biobased by 2025. The goal will most probably be reached according to Volvo Cars. Volvo group has the goal to be fossil neutral, which requires recycled material in the truck components. The recycled plastics evaluated in the project came from both post industrial waste (PIR) and post consumer waste (PCR). Rondo Plast, Polykemi, Albis, Mocom, Biesterfield, Borealis, Sabic, Total and LG Chem have supplied recycled and virgin plastics tested in the project. The plastics we have focusing on in this project were polypropylene (PP) plastics (homo- and copolymer) and PC/ABS plastic compounds. Thus, these plastics are most used in vehicle components and recycled PP plastics are more accessible than the other plastics that can be used in vehicles. Analysis and evaluation of recycled plastics have been performed by RISE. Also, long term ageing and recyclability studies have been performed. A study to upgrade PP plastic recycled from packaging (PCR) with additives from DOW and Rondo Plast were performed.

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  • 2.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Climate impacts of recycled and fossil-based plastic for the automotive industry2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive sector has a long history of recycling and a high rate of reuse and recycling. The benefits of recycling lie in reduction of climate impacts. The challenges of recycling lie in the cost of refining and to meet the quality standards. This report present results from an environmental study and is part of a larger research project “SVE-REP” financed by Re:Source and the Swedish Energy agency. The starting point of this study was the idea is to replace fossil plastic to recycling plastic in the Swedish automotive industry (Volvo Cars, Volvo Trucks). To measure environmental benefit of recycled plastic instead of fossil-based alternatives, we performed an environmental study looking at the greenhouse gas emission of recycling compared with fossil plastic. Life cycle analysis (LCA) based data and methodology were used to measure the climate impact from the recycled and fossil-based plastic. The data collection includes different plastic companies (Rondo, Mocom, and Sabic). The results were compared between the companies and results were also compared with earlier studies in the literature. The studied recycling rates included in this study are between 25%, 30%, 50% and 70%. The recycling plastic are based on PCR and PIR. The studied plastics were PP (including TPE and PA6) and PC/ABS. The materials and processes included are based on waste to factory gate (cradle to gate). The conclusion made from this project is the following: PP based on recycling plastic are better than fossil-based plastic. Recycling content has been 25%, 30% and 50% and 67% in total. This leads to 30-40% and up to 58% and 90% reduction of GHGemissions. PC/ABS based on recycling plastic are better than fossil-based plastic. The Recycling content has been 25%, 50% and 70% for PC/ABS. This leads to 22%, 55% and 60% reduction of GHG-emissions. Plastic components have different quality and content. The quality is having effect on the recycling content. The industrial based recycled plastic (PIR) has better quality and climate impact than the consumer based recycled plastic (PCR). As a result, the plastic components show different climate effects. The research project has shown that carbon reduction due to the replacement of fossil plastic to recycling plastic in the Swedish automotive industry is possible. As a rule of thumb, % recycling rate means % reduction of climate impacts. For example, 25% recycling rate means 25% reduction climate impacts.

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  • 3.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    LCA av Åsbovägen – KLH baserad bostadshus Fristad: Kritisk granskning2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kritiska granskning ”LCA av Åsbovägen – KLH baserad bostadshus i fristad” (2013) granskas LCA dokumentation (goal and scope ppt, LCA trainee rapporten, och slutresultat ppt) på överensstämmelser med standarderna ISO 14040/44 och TS 14071:2014 och byggnadsrelevanta standarden EN 15978.

    Sedan granskas data och beräkningar inom underlagsmaterial för att säkerställa resultatens riktghet (beräkningsunderlag för energi och klimat beräkningar, jämförelse av konstruktion i betong och trä, jämförelse av fasad i ceder och  betong, samt dominans analyser). Resultaten av granskningen visar att data, modellen och beräningar visar hög kvalitet.

    För att säkerställer resultaten ytterligare görs en jämförelse med en likande LCA studie på ett KLH-baserad bostadshus med Cedar-baserad fasad (Strandparken 2016), publicerad av IVL/KTH/Sveriges Byggindustrier. Resultaten visar jämförbara resultat med liknande LCA studier.

  • 4.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    LCA Solceller & SP systemanalys2016In: Solenergiseminarium 22 mars 2016, SP/RISE / [ed] Peter Kovacs, SP Borås, Skype, 2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Olika aspekter PV: Livslängd 25-30 år, Energi725 kWh/kWp, 

    Miljö: 4000 kg CO2/kWp =20-60 g CO2/kWh > vind eller vatten

    Resurser: Si-based (mono, multi), Cd Tellurium (tunn film)

    SP systemanalys Energistudier bostäder/stad GWP studier (CO2)

    Circular economy & LCA & risk kortare livslängd tex 5 år, återvining, reuse, etc 

  • 5.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Literatur – klimatkompensation2017Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Session and committe: Informing and stimulating green lifestyle choices2023Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Session (accepted): In order to reach sustainability goals in the future, green and social living must be considered. The interface between production and consumption set the frame for future sustainable lifestyles, including sharing consumption of transport and space in buildings, or the need of a circular production for clothing and electronics. Sustainable lifestyles imply a change of action. It implies new ways of consumption, including behavior change and nudging, as well as new ways of production, including business modeling and service design. This session encourages using visual examples and digital aids to present new ways of consumption and production for future sustainable lifestyles. We will discuss future lifestyles including their environmental and social effects from a life cycle perspective. Session (policy, reguklartion, targets) and scientific commitee (LCM 2023):

  • 7.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden.
    Session Chair D1_01_S4: Climate change mitigation & adaptation - Urban environments2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Session: The built environment and the construction sector have a significant impact on the environment. Buildings are responsible globally for around 30% of energy use and produce around 28% of global CO2 emissions; the construction sector produces around 1/3 of global waste, not to mention air, water, and noise pollution and destruction of natural habitats. At the same time, the built environment, in particular in cities where most of global population lives, are threatened by effects of climate change. These include weather-related disasters that damage water, energy, transport, buildings and telecommunications infrastructure.Thus, it is urgent that an increased focus in placed on both the decarbonization of the built environment (both new and existing) and on the improvement of climate adaptation capacities of cities, buildings and infrastructures.

  • 8.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden.
    Session Chair D3_02_S6 Knowledge sharing2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Session: New governance approaches for a sustainable built environment: (1) Modularized cyber-physical system as an enabler of interoperable and collective approach for responsive cities. (2)Lessons learnt from green public procurement in the Norwegian construction sector. (3) Felleshus and Paradiset in Vallastaden - Care for social sustainability in a new neighbourhood. (4) Development of the Local SDGs Platform for information sharing to contribute to achieving the SDGs.

    Topic 03 – SOCIAL INCLUSION FOR LIVABLE SOCIETIES. Half the world’s population lives in cities, with the trend going up. This is accompanied by some predictions that due to the strong urbanization pace, cities will become more violent, unhealthy and socially exclusive.The built environment can play a role in creating more inclusive communities and societies. It can facilitate social inclusion, as well as community building based on mutual respect and solidarity. It can contribute to the creation of livable societies that require equal opportunities, decent living standards and valuable urban health & well-being for all, with diversity being seen as a source of strength.

  • 9. Brunklaus, Birgit
    Session Chair ID 145: Bio-based materials within the circular economy: Opportunities and challenges?2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Session: In a circular society, material consumption should be a circular process where renewable resources and waste streams are used for new bio-based materials. In such a society, bio-based materials are also reused, repaired, recycled, and remanufactured. Not only choices on resources, but also other life cycle choices pertaining to circularity must be done based on technological, environmental and economic basis. In this session we suggest presentations and discussions regarding LCM of bio-based materials. The session welcomes both theoretical and practical examples, relating to a variety of industrial sectors and bio-based materials, such as building materials, textiles, plastics, etc. Examples of questions to address include: What are the opportunities of bio-based materials in a circular economy? What are the challenges of bio-based materials in a circular economy? What are the technological, environmental and economic perspectives?

  • 10. Brunklaus, Birgit
    Session Chair T4-7: Designing Sustainable Lifestyles: From Societal Structure to Personal Choices2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Session: In order to reach the sustainable development goals in society, both the choices of individuals and the societal structures to allow green and social living must be considered. The design of infrastructure, city management and public organizations set the frame for sustainable lifestyles, including compact living/housing, shared mobility, food and tourism. The design of sustainable lifestyles implies a range of actions, such as behavior change and nudging, business modelling and service design. This session will exemplify and discuss around these actions at different levels, including their environmental and social effects in a life cycle perspective. 

  • 11. Brunklaus, Birgit
    Session Chair TU 1 B: FUTURE SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLES (Part 1): INDIVIDUAL CHOICES2021Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Session: In order to reach sustainability goals in the future, green and social living must be considered. The design of infrastructure and city management set the frame for future sustainable lifestyles, including shared design of mobility and housing, or the need of a circular design for clothing and electronics. The design of sustainable lifestyles implies a range of actions, such as behavior change and nudging, business modelling and service design.  This session encourages using visual examples and digital aids to present future sustainable lifestyles. We will discuss future lifestyles including their environmental and social effects in a life cycle perspective. 

  • 12. Brunklaus, Birgit
    Session Chair TU 2B: FUTURE SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLES (Part 2): URBAN STRUCTURE2021Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Session: In order to reach sustainability goals in the future, green and social living must be considered. The design of infrastructure and city management set the frame for future sustainable lifestyles, including shared design of mobility and housing, or the need of a circular design for clothing and electronics. The design of sustainable lifestyles implies a range of actions, such as behavior change and nudging, business modelling and service design.  This session encourages using visual examples and digital aids to present future sustainable lifestyles. We will discuss future lifestyles including their environmental and social effects in a life cycle perspective. 

  • 13.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Social LCA for Buildings and Cities2022Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 14. Brunklaus, Birgit
    Using the Materiality Assessment and PSILCA database to identify and assess the Social and Governance issues for stakeholders along the value chain of new bio-based materials2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work is to use S-LCA in early process development and value chain creation. In this paper we present the results from using Materiality Assessment and PSILCA database and give some reflections on how stakeholders in the value chain of new bio-based materials understand the results. The materiality assessment builds on reports from the Swedish forest industry, previous S-LCA studies on forestry products, and CSR reports from major investors.The number of times the social topics/indicators appeared in the reports was recorded and analysed in a materiality graph. The S-LCA results are presented in medium risk hours (MRH). Based on the feedback with the stakeholders along the value chain, it was difficult to grasp the meaning of Medium Risk Hours in relation to social impacts. Also, good care has to be taken when communicating results since social LCA is a rather unknown tool to the industries represented here. 

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  • 15.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    ZEB systemavgränsningar – erfarenheter från LCA2017Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 16.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Vinnova Sharing City Göteborg – Utvärdering2017Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Falk, Petter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    What can LCA learnfrom service design: User integration?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a sustainable society, the use of resources and climate issues needs to be reduced, and the introduction of services seems to be the solution in the new “service” economy. Similar to products, services are designed to fulfill costumer needs. However, customers are seldom involved in the design of products, while they are in the process of service design. Here we look at the leisure service sector to find method concepts for sustainable analysis (Berlin & Brunklaus 2016).

    So far, a literature study and LCA studies on services (Brunklaus 2016) like the opera and theatre (Algehed et al 2010), tourist (Brunklaus et al 2015), and film (Brunklaus et al 2015) has been performed using a producer and consumer perspective, which led to discussion about the reuse of scenes at the opera, and discussion about tourist packages and discussion about film production design. To get this even further, we have looked into the area of service design.

    The purpose of this project is to further develop the various LCA based methods (E-LCA, S-LCA, LCC) in order to integrate user into the design process. The questions are: What can the life cycle methodology learn from service design? What are the similarities and differences?

    The service design includes several parts: Prepare and define the problem, capture the service and user through ethograpichly oriented research tools, Understand the employee and the user, Improve the working process, and Renew the user function (SP service LABs 2016). The life cycle methodology includes also several parts: Goal and scope including the problem and the system of study, the Inventory includes the technical system and environmental or social or economic data, the Impact Assessment includes indicators, and the Interpretation includes technical solutions and hot spot analysis of various kinds (Bauman and Tillman 2004).

    The results show that the service design is developed close to the customer, including study visits and observation, which the life cycle methodology seems to lack. On the other hand the life cycle methodology gains in the well-structured goal and scope. In order to develop the life cycle methodology further we therefore recommend integrating the user more and focusing on the implementation and visualization, similar to Service design.

  • 18.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Börjesson, Emma
    City of Malmö, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Lisa
    City of Malmö, Sweden.
    Green and circular procurement in public organizations: From single use to reuse of furniture and prolonging lifetime of electronics2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project aims to increase the knowledge of public organizations’ potential to increase the efficiency and circularity of their material flows through procurement, purchase procedures and behavioral change which benefit saving and sharing. The project will be implemented by the City of Malmö’s Environmental Department and Central Procurement Unit in cooperation with the research institute RISE. Through the project, the purchase and waste flows within the City of Malmö’s organization will be mapped and analyzed to identify possibilities for increased reuse, prolonged life/optimization of life and circular use of resources, focusing on a number of product categories to be chosen within the project. The chosen product categories and scenarios: from single use plastics to multiple use products, from procurement to reuse of furniture, prolonging lifetime of electronics (computer, mobile phones). Based on previous research, a consumption based LCA methodology for public organizations will be developed and applied for climate and resource use. Within the project the positive effects of circular procurement on resource use and climate impacts will be analyzed. The role of budget procedures for stimulating circular resource use will also be analyzed, with regards to barriers and possibilities for change. In addition, the project will investigate possibilities for using the saved resources for well-being of the City’s employees, or ordinary citizen., The results will be presented in a draft roadmap for circular economy for the City of Malmö.

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  • 19.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Dincer, Hasan
    Telge Återvinning, Sweden.
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sten, Ulrika
    Södertälje kommun, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Andreas
    Södertälje kommun, Sweden.
    Det inkluderande, hållbara och uppkopplade samhället : Utvärdering och framtidsanalys2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Södertälje kommun har höga ambitioner att drastiskt sänka sin klimatpåverkan och har ambitionen att inte ha några nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser år 2030 (Södertälje kommun Miljö- och klimatstrategi 2022–2030, 2022). För att nå dessa mål spelar avfallssektorn i Södertälje kommun en avgörande roll, vilket också innebär ett behov av större involvering och ett större engagemang från medborgare och företag. Som en del i det arbetet skapades projektet Det inkluderande, hållbara och uppkopplade samhället. Projektet är ett samarbete mellan Södertälje kommun, Telge Återvinning, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden och Umeå Universitet och avser att undersöka hur maskingenererad data kan ha dubbel nytta i att både skapa externt medborgarvärde och internt organisatoriskt värde i Södertälje kommuns omställning till en hållbar stad. Denna rapport inkluderar en nulägesanalys över tre tematiserade områden; digitalisering, livscykelanalys (LCA), och medborgardialog. Södertälje kommun har tillsammans med Telge Nät byggt upp ett så kallat LoRaWAN2 (ett trådlöst nätverk med dubbelriktad kommunikation3) i Södertälje för att underlätta kommunikation mellan sensorer i uppkopplade enheter. 169 papperskorgar har också försetts med sensorer som mäter fyllnadsgrad, vilket genererat ett proof-of-concept för hur uppkopplad utrustning kan möjliggöra ruttoptimering och placeringsplanering. Att koppla upp en papperskorg har i det här fallet inneburit att man fäster en sensor i locket på befintliga kärl. Denna sensor känner sedan av fyllnadsgraden i papperskorgens plastpåse med jämna mellanrum. Initiativet kring uppkopplade papperskorgar har medfört inlärning på flera nivåer – såväl utvecklarna som utformar sensorerna, som medarbetarna som förlitar sig på dem, har behövt tänka i nya banor och ompröva invanda arbetssätt. Värt att notera är att personalen behöver besöka samtliga områden där papperskorgar finns trots sensortekniken i och med att deras arbetsuppgifter även inkluderar renhållning av gator och vård av grönytor. Det vill säga, det föreligger i nuläget inte en kvantitativ ekonomisk vinst utan snarare en kvalitativ nytta i form av ökade möjligheter att planera sin arbetstid vilket kan leda till en renare stad. Bland de system som Södertälje kommun använder ses två som särskilt intressanta i relation till Sakernas Internet (Internet of Things (IoT)) enligt denna nulägesanalys. På en operativ nivå har Infracontrol potential att anta rollen som ”spindeln i nätet” där status på uppkopplad utrustning kan hanteras. På en strategisk nivå erbjuder verktyget Maptionnaire möjligheter att aggregera, analysera, och presentera data från uppkopplad utrustning. För att realisera potentialen hos dessa (och andra) verktyg krävs dock att Södertälje kommun ställer nya krav och utarbetar nya rutiner vid upphandling då kostnaderna för att integrera uppkopplad utrustning annars skulle bli ohållbar. En LCA har genomförts för att utvärdera miljöpåverkan från sakernas Internet i Södertälje centrum för smart sophämtning ur ett livscykelperspektiv. Med koppling till kommunens klimatstrategi har miljöpåverkan med fokus på klimatpåverkan prioriterats. Den visar att IoT-systemet enbart utgör en liten del av klimatpåverkan (122 kg CO2-ekv per år4), vilket främst härrör från gateways (50%) och sensorer (27%) och användning av Internet (23%). Sophämtningen bidrar med cirka 12 ton CO2-ekv per år, vilket främst bidrog till användningen av fossilbaserade avfallspåsar i plast (96%) och Hydrerad Vegetabilisk Olja (HVO)-baserade transporter (4%). Vidare visar LCAn att potential för framtida klimatsmart sophämtningssystemet ligger inom minskad användning av fossila plastpåsar och smart planering av sophämtning för att reducera transporter. Södertälje har redan minskat sin klimatpåverkan från transporter (under 2016) genom byte från diesel till HVO. För ett system med 169 papperskorgar (studiens utgångspunkt) innebar detta 83% minskning, från 2,3 ton till 380 kg. Enbart två ton av denna minskning härrör från fossilfria transporter (resp. 8,75 ton för ett möjligt framtida system med 700 papperskorgar). Dock visar resultaten att ännu mer klimatpåverkan kan minskas genom att inte använda fossila plastpåsar, nästan 12 ton (resp. 50 ton för 700 papperskorgar). Detta motsvarar fem resor till Thailand (2,5 ton per resa) eller utsläpp för fyra invånare (2,8 ton per invånare) för året 2030. För ett system med 700 papperskorgar betyder det minst 20 resor till Thailand eller utsläpp för upp till 20 invånare per år. Vidare har projektet ett fokus på inkludering av medborgare i frågor kring hållbarhet, med syftet att informera, engagera och inkludera medborgare i målet med att uppnå hållbar resurshantering. Medborgardialog kan ske på många olika vis och innebära olika saker. Nulägesanalysen visar att flera olika aktiviteter genomförts på området, och att dessa framförallt kan kopplas till kategorierna ”information” och ”konsultation”, men där också det finns kommande inslag av ”dialog” med till exempel det Hackathon som planeras. Från nulägesanalysen noterades dock en möjlighet till utökat fokus på medborgardialog i Södertälje, samt att det finns en medvetenhet om behovet av att inkludera många olika grupper i denna dialog, men det noterades även en utmaning vad gäller inkludering och olika språk.

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  • 20.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Lundström, Anders
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mccarrick, Anthony
    Södertälje kommun, Sweden.
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Rekonius, Robert
    Telge Återvinning, Sweden.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Andreas
    Södertälje kommun, Sweden.
    Thernström, Thomas
    Södertälje kommun, Sweden.
    Det inkluderande, hållbara och uppkopplade samhället: Nulägesanalys2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Södertälje kommun har höga ambitioner att drastiskt sänka sin klimatpåverkan och har målet att inte ha några nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser år 2030. För att nå dessa mål spelar avfallssektorn i Södertälje kommun en avgörande roll, vilket också innebär ett behov av större involvering och ett större engagemang från medborgare och företag. Som en del i det arbetet skapades projektet Det inkluderande, hållbara och uppkopplade samhället. Projektet är ett samarbete mellan Södertälje kommun, Telge Återvinning, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden och Umeå Universitet och avser att undersöka hur IoT-genererad data kan ha dubbel nytta i att både skapa externt medborgarvärde och internt organisatoriskt värde i Södertälje kommuns omställning till en hållbar stad. Denna rapport inkluderar en nulägesanalys över tre tematiserade områden; digitalisering, livscykelanalys (LCA), och medborgardialog. Södertälje kommun har tillsammans med Telge Nät byggt upp ett så kallat LoRaWAN (ett trådlöst nätverk med dubbelriktad kommunikation) i Södertälje för att underlätta kommunikation mellan sensorer i uppkopplade enheter. 169 papperskorgar har också försetts med sensorer som mäter fyllnadsgrad, vilket genererat ett proof-of-concept för hur uppkopplad utrustning kan möjliggöra ruttoptimering och placeringsplanering. Att koppla upp en papperskorg innebär i praktiken att man fäster en sensor i locket på befintliga kärl. Denna sensor känner sedan av fyllnadsgraden i papperskorgens plastpåse med jämna mellanrum. Initiativet kring uppkopplade papperskorgar har medfört inlärning på flera nivåer – såväl utvecklarna som utformar sensorerna, som medarbetarna som förlitar sig på dem, har behövt tänka i nya banor och ompröva invanda arbetssätt. Värt att notera är att personalen behöver besöka samtliga områden där papperskorgar finns trots sensortekniken i och med att deras arbetsuppgifter även inkluderar renhållning av gator och vård av grönytor. Det vill säga, det föreligger i nuläget inte en kvantitativ ekonomisk vinst utan snarare en kvalitativ nytta i form av en potentiellt renare stad. Bland de system som Södertälje kommun använder ses två som särskilt intressanta i relation till Sakernas Internet enligt denna nulägesanalys. På en operativ nivå har Infracontrol potential att anta rollen som ”spindeln i nätet” där status på uppkopplad utrustning kan hanteras. På en strategisk nivå erbjuder verktyget Maptionnaire möjligheter att aggregera, analysera, och presentera data från uppkopplad utrustning. För att realisera potentialen hos dessa (och andra) verktyg krävs dock att Södertälje kommun ställer nya krav och utarbetar nya rutiner vid upphandling då kostnaderna för att integrera uppkopplad utrustning annars skulle bli ohållbar. En LCA har genomförts för att utvärdera miljöpåverkan från Internet of Things (IoT) systemet i Södertälje centrum för smart sophämtning ur ett livscykelperspektiv. Med koppling till kommunens klimatstrategi har miljöpåverkan med fokus på klimatpåverkan prioriterats. Den visar att IoT-systemet enbart utgör en liten del av klimatpåverkan (122 kg CO2 eq per år), vilket främst härrör från gateways (50%) och sensorer (27%) och användning av Internet (23%). Sophämtningen bidrar med cirka 12 ton CO2 eq per år, vilket främst bidrog till användningen av fossilbaserade avfallspåsar i plast (96%) och HVO-baserade transporter (4%). Vidare visar LCAn att potential för framtida klimatsmart sophämtningssystemet ligger inom minskad användning av fossila plastpåsar och smart planering av sophämtning för att reducera transporter. Södertälje har redan minskat sin klimatpåverkan från transporter (under 2016) genom byte från diesel till HVO. För ett system med 160 papperskorgar (studiens utgångspunkt) innebar detta 83% minskning, från 2,3 ton till 380 kg. Enbart två ton av denna minskning härrör från fossilfria transporter (resp. 8,75 ton för ett möjligt framtida system med 700 papperskorgar). Dock visar resultaten att ännu mer klimatpåverkan kan minskas genom att inte använda fossila plastpåsar, nästan 12 ton (resp. 50 ton för 700 papperskorgar). Detta motsvara fem resor till Thailand (2,5 ton per resa) eller utsläpp för fyra invånare (2,8 ton per invånare) för året 2030. För ett system med 700 papperskorgar betyder det minst 20 resor till Thailand eller utsläpp för upp till 20 invånare. Vidare har projektet ett fokus på inkludering av medborgare i frågor kring hållbarhet, med syftet att informera, engagera och inkludera medborgare i målet med att uppnå hållbar resurshantering. Medborgardialog kan ske på många olika vis och innebära olika saker. Nulägesanalysen visar att flera olika aktiviteter genomförts på området, och att dessa framförallt kan kopplas till kategorierna ”information” och ”konsultation”, men där också det finns kommande inslag av ”dialog” med till exempel det hackathon som planeras. Från nulägesanalysen noterades dock en möjlighet till utökat fokus på medborgardialog i Södertälje, samt att det finns en medvetenhet om behovet av att inkludera många olika grupper i denna dialog, men det noterades även en utmaning vad gäller inkludering och olika språk. Denna rapport har fokus på nulägesanalys. I och med denna analys går projektet sedan in i en ny fas, med fokus på test och utvärdering av koncept, med ett fortsatt fokus på digitalisering, miljöbedömning och medborgardialog. Ett hackathon, Hack for Södertälje, planeras också på projektets tema: Det inkluderande, hållbara och uppkopplade samhället.

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  • 21.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Lundström, Anders
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    The connected, sustainable and inclusive society – IoT implementation in a Swedish municipality2022In: E3S Web of Conferences, Vol. 349, article id 11006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to transform the way we live, work, and learn. Using IoT could thus be a game-changer for municipalities towards sustainability. The Swedish municipality of Södertälje strives to develop IoT concepts and use open data for a sustainable and inclusive society. The goal of this study was to explore how IoT can enable route optimization and placement planning for increased operational efficiency. The goal was also to enhance the knowledge of the environmental and social benefits of IoT systems in the waste collection system in Södertälje. The analysis is based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and interviews. The results show a minor climate change impact for the IoT solutions in the overall smart waste collection system. The major climate impact contributor was instead associated with the trash bags used. Additionally, the study showed that the performance of the system relies on smart planning of the operations and the transportations.

  • 22.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Lundström, Anders
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    The inclusive, sustainable and connected society : IoT implementation in a Swedish municipality2021Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Cintas Sanchez, Olivia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    SUSTAINABILITY (AND GHG) ASSESSMENT OF FOREST-BASED AVIATION BIOFUEL IN SWEDEN2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the project, Forestry to jet (F2J), is to produce sustainable aviaion fuel (SAF)from residual forest biomass to meet Swedavia’s target of a fossil free national aviation sector in 2030. Task 2.1 concluded that industrial forest residues (e.g., sawdust, bark, shavings) and harvest residues (i.e., top, brunches, and stumps) can be used as possible feedstock for a continuous production of SAF with Alcohol-to Jet and Sugar-to Jet processes in Sweden. In this context, the objective of this task is to identify potential sustainability issues regarding the selected feedstock as well as to perform a well-to-wing greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment of selected supply chain. The sustainability of bio-jets is strongly dependent on the availability of sustainable feedstock. The availability of forest-based residues for SAF depends on the development of the Swedish forest and forest industry (for instance, demand for timber and pulp and paper) and on the sustainability constraints for residue removals. Swedish forestry is an important source of sustainable material supply. The forest is managed according to the Forestry Act, which gives equal importance to production and environmental goals to obtain a long-term sustainable flow of forest products while preserving ecological processes and biodiversity. The harvested timber is mainly used in saw- and pulp-mills. Residues from saw-mills constitute a potential source of feedstock (2.7 million tons DS) but are used to a large extent. Residues from harvested biomass (tops, branches and stumps) represent an additional source of feedstock for SAF; however, their extraction could lead to environmental challenges such as a reduction in soil and water quality and biodiversity. Currently, about 2.2 million tons DS of harvest residues are used for energy and studies have shown that harvest levels can be further increased to obtain additional 3.3 million tons DS while still being considering sustainable. In this way, the available feedstock would correspond to 1.5 times the total need for the aviation fuel in Sweden (2.3 million tons DS). Sustainable feedstock is determined according to certain “safe thresholds” for harvest residues. The reviewed studies estimated these thresholds so that the extraction of residues does not contribute to forest production reduction, biodiversity loss, acidification, eutrophication, and toxic substances. For a more comprehensive sustainability assessment, other aspects of sustainability, including socio-economic aspects should be considered. It is also relevant to investigate how the demand for SAF affects the availability of feedstock for other competing uses.

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  • 24.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Enebog, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Hautajärvi Stenmark, Heidi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Matteoni, Marina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Nyström, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Den cirkulära bilen (förstudie)2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med förstudien Den cirkulära bilen var att börja bygga konkreta visioner som möjliggör att Sverige har en cirkulärt anpassad bilflotta med fossilfria och klimatneutrala transporter år 2045 och att bygga en solid bas för ett steg 2-projekt, som i sin tur kommer att ge stöd och kapacitet för aktörer att accelerera den cirkulära bilvärdekedjan. Projektet har samlat 13 parter från hela värdekedjan och gemensamt lagt grunden till vidare arbete i ett fortsättningsprojekt – en ansökan som genererat intresse från ett stort antal parter både befintliga och nytillkommande. Inom studien har startmöten och workshops genomförts där parter samlats digitalt och frågeställningar sonderats. Intervjuer har genomförts med parter där möjligheter och utmaningar med omställningen diskuterats. Studiebesök har genomförts där kunskapsdelning skett och samverkan möjliggjorts. Fysisk workshop har genomförts med samtliga parter. Här tittade man gemensamt på trender och möjliga framtidsscenarios genom hela systemet. Detta gav en bra grund för det vidare arbetet med steg 2. Förstudien har genererat stort intresse från aktörer i hela värdekedjan, skapat nya kontakter och möjligheter till samverkan och blivit uppstarten på en gemensam kunskapsresa för verklig förändring. Studien har initierat arbete brett i värdekedjan kopplat till gemensamma frågeställningar samt framtidsspaningar, vilket möjliggör gemensamt arbete för bred omställning och tydliggjort behovet av åtgärder som förflyttar hela systemet. Detta ses som en god grund för ett steg 2 projekt med förutsättningar för att förverkliga den cirkulära bilvärdekedjan.

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  • 25.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Löwgren, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Tjänstedesign, aktörsanalys och energisystem2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection and recycling of packaging and life cycle analyses has traditionally been developed from a technical perspective, excluding the actors in the chain. However, how recycling should take place depends on who you ask and whether you look at the issue from an energy, material, legal or user-based perspective. The purpose of the research project TJÅRVEN is to create scalable solutions that change the behaviour of recycling stations and increase knowledge about behaviours and recycling within an energy context. There are three concrete objectives within the project. 1. Practical objectives: (1) Reduce wrong sorting, (2) Sort more (3) Reduced cleaning needs. 2. Development goals: Method development combine service design and actor LCA. 3. Knowledge objectives: Literature in social factors and actor LCA. Conclusions for the different milestones: Practical goals: A radical system change could result in a 30% behavioural change and reduced energy and climate impact. A small change will only lead to a 10% behavioural change and reduced energy and climate impact. Development goals: The combined method provides added value by combining the qualitative design method with quantitative figures. It provides a better anchoring and understanding for users i.e. households, which cannot be obtained by individual methods. Knowledge objectives: A literature study within state-of-the-art in ways to encourage proper recycling has been carried out within the first phase of the project. The literature study can be found in a parallel RISE report. Recommendations (for each operator and the entire system): Recommendations (cities and transport companies): It can be profitable to compare different cities e.g. choice of station affect transport, type of vehicle /fuel affect energy and climate impact. Recommendations (cleaning companies): Each station does not need to be cleaned as often as is done now because it does not affect household. Recommendation (household): Distance of station affect the choice of transport. Rinsing with hot water affects, as well as more sorting reduces the incineration. Recommendations (whole system): The biggest impact has households due to sorting and residual management, which results in 10-30% reduced energy and climate impact. Future studies: For the development of a future packaging collection, the integration of households and cities is needed. This is to avoid sub-optimizations in energy systems. There is a need for cooperation with cities that want to develop a better collection system. There is a need for the development of information and stations. There is a need for further development of implemented interventions and further development of more radical interventions i.e. services closer to households.

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  • 26.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Choice of social indicators within technology development – the case of mobile biorefineries in Europe2018In: Social LCA: People and Places for Partnership, 2018, p. 162-166Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Norling, Malin
    City of Malmö, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Emma
    City of Malmö, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Lisa
    City of Malmö, Sweden.
    Cirkular economy from theory to practice: Stop INeffective USe in the city of Malmö in Sweden2020In: World Sustainble Built Environment Conference - BEYOND 2020: The state of circular built environment  - value-chain perspective / [ed] Holger Wallbaum and Kristina Mjörnell, Gothenburg, 2020, Vol. 7th, article id D2_04_S2Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project aims to increase the knowledge of public organization to increase the circularity of material flows through procurement procedures which benefit saving and sharing. The project is led by the City of Malmö’s Environmental Department together with the Procurement Department and research institute RISE. The purchase and waste flows are mapped and the barriers and possibilities in procedures are analyzed. In addition, the project will look into using the saved resources for well-being of the City’s employees, or ordinary citizen. The results will be presented in a draft roadmap for circular economy for the City of Malmö. 

    SINA is expected to contribute to society by increasing the economic, environmental and social sustainability of the City of Malmö’s operations, and inspire and facilitate for other public institutions to follow suit. The effect of circularity is measured in terms of climate change, resource use and social effects for municipalities and inhabitants.

    Through SINA, the purchase and waste flows within the City of Malmö’s organization will be mapped and analysed in order to identify possibilities for increased reuse and circular use of resources, focusing on a number of product categories to be chosen within the project. In addition, the project will look into if and how any means saved by improved resource use might be used for measures targeting the well-being of the City’s employees, or even the ordinary citizen. The results will be presented in a draft roadmap for circular economy for the City of Malmö. 

    The role of budget procedures for stimulating circular resource use are essential, also with regards to barriers and possibilities in the current system and the possibilities for change. So far the project has shown that central and standardized budget procedures is essential. Also the availability for data and statistics on city level is essential for mapping purchase and waste flows and to identify possibilities for increased reuse and circular use of resources. So far this is in line with our expectations, and the roadmap for circular economy for the city of Malmö will be dependent on statistics and the procedures within the city of Malmö need to be adopted for circular economy. 

    The lessons learnt are relevant for city management and practitioners in the circular economy. Also practitioner within the purchasing and waste management department are relevant. 

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  • 28.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Ordoñez, Isabel
    Elisava Barcelona School of Design and Engineering, Spain.
    Svärd, Lotta
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    User centred design & energy efficient packaging collection infrastructure supporting circular future lifestyles2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection and recycling of packaging and life cycle assessments have traditionally been developed from a technical perspective, not including the actors in the chain. How recycling should be done depends on who you ask, and whether you look at the issue from an energy, material, legal or user-based perspective. FTI, the Packaging and Newspaper Collection organization is responsible for collecting these fractions and better material recirculation in Sweden's municipalities. They ensure that containers are emptied, that the collection points remain clean, that contents go to the right treatment, and that materials are recycled as much as possible. When recyclable materials end up in the wrong place, it causes problems leading to increased energy use in the life cycle. The ongoing project Tjårven, aims to reduce energy use in connection with packaging collection, as well as potential energy gains in the second stage of the packaging life cycle, by redesigning packaging collection from a user centred perspective. In order to show the energy use in the lifecycle and include the actors in the chain, an actor-based LCA method will be used. In order to redesign packaging collection from a user perspective, the design methods will start from users’ behaviour. The project includes a case study that intends to design a more energy efficient collection infrastructure and allowing for a better circularity and sustainable future lifestyle. The project also includes a literature study that will provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art of collection infrastructures, considering how energy efficient they are and how a circular lifestyle can contribute to future sustainable lifestyles.

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  • 29.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Ordóñez, Isabel
    Elisava Barcelona School of Design and Engineering, Spain.
    Svahnström, Kristina
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Svärd, Lotta
    Semcon, Sweden.
    User centred design and energy efficient packaging collection infrastructure supporting circular future lifestyles2022In: E3S Web Conf., 2022, Vol. 349, article id 01012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection and recycling of packaging and life cycle assessments have traditionally been developed from a technical perspective, not including the actors in the chain. How recycling should be done depends on who you ask, and whether you look at the issue from an energy, material, legal or user perspective. FTI, the Packaging and Newspaper Collection organization is responsible for better circularity and collecting these fractions in Sweden’s municipalities. When recyclable materials end up in the wrong place, it causes problems leading to increased energy use in the life cycle. The ongoing project Tjårven, aims to reduce energy use in connection with packaging collection, as well as potential energy gains in the second stage of the packaging life cycle, by redesigning packaging collection from a user centred perspective. To do this, design interventions are developed based on observed and self-reported user behaviour, a literature review of state-of-the-art collection infrastructure and an understanding of the system developed using actor-based LCA methodology. The latter methodology is used to show the energy use in the lifecycle, including the actions of the actors in the chain. The interventions developed will be tested through a case study that will be evaluated to see if it helps to achieve more energy efficient collection infrastructure, allowing for better circularity and therefore more sustainable future lifestyles. The present article presents the first part of the project, summarizing the results from the user centred observations, literature review and initial actor-based LCA model.

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  • 30.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Reitsma, Lizette
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Jennie, Schaeffer
    Region Västmanland Museum, Sweden.
    Ryöppy, Merja
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Ho, Hayley
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Nyström, Sofie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Carbon theatre in public spaces: Using participatory theatre and co-designmethods in a museum for shaping lowcarbon lifestyles2019In: Life Cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9, article id 97Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past ten years, the need for public spaces to deal with burning societal issues, such as climate change, has become even more important. Participatory theatre offers ways to meet the longing for shared forums by engaging large groups of people in exploring difficult social dilemmas. It can potentially empower participants to change their own situations and organizations. In a previous design research project Quantifying your carbon footprint, this gap was in focus. We will use the findings from the Quantifying carbon footprint project as an entry point and expand it with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on objects from the current museum collection and on daily life activities that have a carbon impact. The goal of the project is to explore and understand the climate and environmental impacts of lifestyles. The method used here are participatory theatre and co-design methods and pop-up exhibitions are used to engage young citizens in negotiating social norms and understanding their possible impact on CO2 emissions. The museum collections play a crucial role in the process of understanding how LCA calculations are related to mundane objects and reflecting on the temporality of social norms that are negotiated and re-negotiated through the way we handle products and objects in our everyday life. Developing new practices for museums involving participatory methods in order to engage young citizens in climate research. The results of the introductory meeting and study visit show that using the museum’s collection, the history and the value of things in the past centuries become clear and easier to reflect on compared to today’s unsustainable lifestyle – travelling and over consumption. Carbon Dioxide Theatre is an attempt to shape a shared space on a local level, in line with the priorities of the museum’s three years plan.

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  • 31.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Aid, Graham
    Ragnsells, Sweden.
    The value of transdisciplinary perspectives duringtransition to a bio-based economy: The prospect for converting mixed food wasteinto bio-based chemicals2018In: Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products andPolicies: From Science to Innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, Spinger , 2018, p. 327-335Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the current political and industrial transition to a bio-based

    economy, food waste can be an alternative resource for biobased chemicals. This

    chapter describes a case study that evaluates the prospect for Swedish production of

    biobased chemicals such as succinic acid from food waste. The evaluation is

    addressed from multiple systems perspectives. From a technical and resource

    system perspective, the results of the case study show that production seems possible.

    However, from a social system perspective succinic acid production currently

    lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for realizing

    development in Sweden. From an environmental and life cycle perspective, the

    scoping of the analysis is decisive for the results. The study shows that multiple

    perspectives complement each other when seeking a nuanced evaluation of technical

    innovation and give insights for the intended value chain.

  • 32. Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    Røyne, Frida
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Aid, Graham
    Ragn-Sells Group.
    The value of assessing multiple perspectives and transdisciplinary approaches in the transition to a bio-based economy: The prospect for transforming mixed food waste into bio-based chemicals2017In: Life Cycle Management Conference: Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products and Policies / [ed] Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), Luxemburg: Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) , 2017, Vol. 8thConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In line with current political and industrial ambitions for a transition into a bio-based economy, food waste can be an alternative to agro- and forest-based resources. The amount of food waste generated every year is about 1.3 billion tons globally. The vast amounts cause problems related to climate change and resource depletion, as well as economic challenges related to waste disposal. 

    These problems could be solved by transforming food waste into valuable products like bio-based chemicals. Succinic acid (SA) is one such chemical with high market potential in its bio-based version. It is already produced commercially based on cultivated biomass. Several initiatives also exist to examine the use of food waste as feedstock for SA production. Most of these initiatives are limited to homogenous industrial waste streams, but a research project in Sweden is looking also at mixed food waste (MFW) as an alternative feedstock.

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the prospect for transforming mixed food waste into bio-based chemicals, such as SA. As the prospect depends on many factors, the examination is addressed with multiple perspectives: Technical and social system structures are explored, in addition to resource- and environmental implications. Several methods are thus involved in the different types of evaluations, such as the technical evaluation (including laboratory cultivation tests, and mechanical property testing), the social evaluation (including actors analysis, policy analysis, market analysis, and societal acceptance), the resources evaluation (including waste flow analysis and material flow analysis), and the environmental evaluation (including life cycle assessment of current and future valorization techniques for mixed food waste).

    The project uses a transdisciplinary approach and offers as such an arena where both research partners and industrial partners meet and discuss possible options for MFW-based SA production in Sweden. Here we present the results of one possible production route, where microbial production of SA from MFW in Sweden is used as a case study.

    Results of the case study show that even though, from a technical and resource system perspective, production seems possible, from a social system perspective it lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for realizing development in Sweden. From an environmental and life cycle perspective, the framing of the question is decisive for the results: SA production from MFW is environmentally beneficial if compared with the SA production from corn, but from a pure waste handling perspective, it is environmentally better to produce biogas than SA from MFW.

    The findings thus indicate that different perspectives and different methods contribute with a useful holistic perspective to the evaluation. The case study is not providing a definite answer on whether the prospects for transforming MFW into bio-based chemicals are favorable or not, but gives a nuanced evaluation that offers a more firm foundation for decision than one perspective or method in isolation. The transdisciplinary approach can inform an arena of research and industrial partners with different perspectives to facilitate discussion and more well-informed decisions. 

    The case clearly illustrates that an efficient and sustainable transition to a bio-based economy is supported  by assessing multiple perspectives and applying a transdisciplinary approach.

  • 33.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The use of green roofs to improve wood buildings for a future bioeconomy2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioeconomy helps to move to a renewable, fossil-free future. The environmental impact is significantly reduced when replacing products made from fossil resources with bio-based alternatives. In a bioeconomy, all products are made from renewable and biogenic resources. In the building sector examples for biogenic sources are traditionally wooden building structures, while green roofs are becoming more popular. The goal of the present project is to assess the amount of biogenic carbon stored in green roofs and wooden buildings overall. The question is if green roofs are improving the biogenic carbon usage of buildings and find out how that can be improved. The methods used are based on construction modelling, life cycle assessment and standardised environmental product declaration (EPD). The results indicate that wooden building structures are not enough for a complete biogenic building to move to a renewable, fossil-free future. Furthermore, the biogenic benefits of green roofs do have a potential, while seen over the whole building the benefits are negligible, since half of the carbon in green roofs material composition is fossil-based. The results are presented as renewable and fossil-based energy as well as biogenic and fossil carbon. These are compared with conventional roofing based on non-renewable standard roofs in Sweden.

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  • 34.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The use of green roofs to improve wooden buildings for a future bioeconomy2022In: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 349, p. 04014-04014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioeconomy helps to move towards a renewable, fossil-free future. The environmental impact is significantly reduced when replacing fossil-based products with bio-based alternatives. In a bioeconomy, all products are made from renewable and biogenic resources. In the building sector examples for biogenic sources are traditionally wooden building structures, while green roofs are becoming more popular. The goal of the present project was to assess the amount of biogenic carbon stored in green roofs and wooden buildings overall. The question is whether green roofs are improving the biogenic carbon usage of buildings and find out how that can be improved. The methods used are based on construction modelling, life cycle assessment and standardised environmental product declaration (EPD). The results indicate that wooden building structures are not enough for a complete biogenic building to move to a renewable, fossil-free future. Furthermore, the green roofs do add more biogenic carbon to the building than conventional roofs, while seen over the whole building these benefits are negligible. The results are presented as renewable and nonrenewable energy as well as biogenic carbon and greenhouse gas emissions. These are compared with conventional roofing based on non-renewable standard roofs in Sweden.

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  • 35.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    8 ton society Sweden: Assessing the material footprint of sharing and circular lifestyles in housing,mobility and food2019In: Life Cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9, article id 96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The average Swedish household throws away 480 kg of solid garbage per year. But this amount of material is only a small share of the resource consumption that our lifestylegives rise to. Our homes need to be built, goods produced, we are transported,and food is produced. In today's linear consumption society, every individual inthe EU is estimated to have a material footprint of 29 tons/year on average – afootprint that needs to shrink to 8 tons in order to stay within “planetaryboundaries”. In a circular system, products are recycled and shared leading toless resources and materials needed, but do we know how much? Which resourceand material consumption is generated in Sweden? What could we achieve througha transition to a sharing and circular economy, and how would our consumptionpatterns look like within a sustainable material lifestyle? The goal of thisstudyis to assess the material footprint of sharing and circular lifestyles inhousing, mobility and food system. "8 ton society" takes athree-level method approach: (1) National: assessing the material footprint ofsharing and circular lifestyles in housing, mobility and food systems on anational level. (2) Municipal: Mapping material and waste streams at municipallevel (for the three Swedish municipalities Göteborg, Malmö och Umeå), by whichmunicipalities can identify opportunities for a circular society, for exampleby supplementing existing climate strategies and waste plans with circularaction plans. (3) Household: Combined with a household level analysis ofmaterial footprints, the project contributes to behavioral change at householdlevel as well as strengthened decision making and innovation at national andmunicipal level. The results of the study are material footprints and scenariosthat are used as basis for the development of reduction measures. The scenariosdescribe potential “8t societies” for Sweden, meaning potential policy andsocietal innovations that allow for a drastic reduction of material footprint.These include sharing and circular solutions. Additionally, the project willcontrast the Swedish results to similar projects that have been carried out in Finland and Germany.

  • 36.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sjons, Josefin
    Socio-economic analysis based on a life cycle perspective: Social and societal issues of new chemicals2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to demonstrate the sustainability of new chemicals, a number of analyses were performed within the EU Life projects TRIALKYL and IREPRO, such as the health assessment, socio-economic and life cycle assessment. 

    The objective of this Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA) is to determine whether the social and societal benefits the new chemicals outweigh the risk to human health and the environment. 

    Socio-economic analysis (SEA) is a methodology developed for chemical risk management and decision making derived from tools like the Cost benefit analysis, based on several social science perspectives, such as economic value of life, the risk of accidents or health care costs.

    The socio-economic analyses are based on the latest ECHA guideline, and also include a life cycle perspective. Besides environmental and health issues, the socio-economic analysis also include the risk of fire/explosion and life lost. 

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  • 37.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stahl, Selim
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Socio-economic analysis based on a life cycle perspective: The comparison of existing and emerging production process for trimethyl phosphite2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Steward, Corey
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Konsumtionsbaserade resursavtryck och cirkulär ekonomi i Sverige: Nationella och lokala resursavtryck i Göteborg, Malmö och Umeå2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    World Business Council for Sustainable Development WBCSD estimates that by 2050we will need four to tenfold improvements in resource efficiency. Sweden's Agenda 2030Action Plan for 2018 - 2020 has a strategy for sustainable consumption that aims, amongother things, to increase resource efficiency and circular economy. The Swedishinnovation Agency Vinnova runs a program on circular economy from theory to practice.

    This study is part of a project called “8 on society” and financed by the Swedishinnovation agency Vinnova. The aim of the project is to measure the citizens nationalfootprint and to increase the knowledge of municipalities on circular economy, the useof resources and citizens material footprints.

    In this study we have chosen a method that measures the citizens consumption and itstotal impact on global resources. The method is called Lifestyle Material Footprint LMFand include, among other things, abiotic and biotic resources. A sustainable level withinplanetary boundaries lies at 8 tons per person, according to calculations from theWuppertal Institute and Aalto University.

    The results of this study are based on national and municipal statistics on consumptioncombined with a resource database. The results show that Sweden's consumption-basedmaterial footprint is 32 tons per person and year: including food (20%), mobility (41%),housing (27%), and electronics / clothing / furniture (4%), leisure activities (6%). Theresults for Gothenburg and Malmö are also around 30-35 tons. Umeå stands out and isaround 40 tons. This is because heating for housing and transport are much higher innorthern Sweden. Finland shows similar figures, eg 40 tons.

    Sweden's resource footprint for leisure activities is around 2,000 kg per person and year(distributed on 200 kg outdoor activities, 800 kg computer / TV, culture 100 kg, tourism900 kg). Differences between the three cities lie in tourism. Umeå residents travel more.Sweden's resource footprint for electronics, clothing and furniture is 1400 kg per personand year (800 kg electronics, 499 kg clothes and shoes, and 88 kg furniture).

    The results also show that Swedish waste's related resource footprint is 5.5 tons including2.7 tons for electronics and 1 ton for mixed waste. Gothenburg and Malmö are around 3-4 tons including 1 ton for electronics and 1 ton for mixed waste.

    Future scenarios and different lifestyles have been discussed (local, digital, circular) andcalculations of scenarios around division and circularity show that Sweden's resourcefootprint fall below 8 tons, but only if sharing initiatives increase from 10% to 20%, andcircularity increases to 40%.

    The results also indicate that there is an opportunity to integrate resource footprint intostrategy and action plans in the three cities. Future prospects for using resource footprintas indicator look good. Within the new OECD study and the follow-up of circulareconomics, several new indicators have been proposed, including a resource footprint.To achieve a sustainable society and a circular economy, it also needs a resource targetkg / person for example in IT and electronics!

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  • 39.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Wickman, Clara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    LCA av konsertbesök – klimatanalys av Amasons turné2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of life music and concerts has increased during the recent years. The life concerts are attracting a large number of visitors that are travelling and drinking beer on the concerts. The scope of the project was to get an overview of the climate impact of a concert and a tour including transport and hotel nights of the band and the visitors, the lighting for the concert, and the drinks and clothing sold on the concert. The goal of the project was to find out how much climate impact could be reduced with changing the service at the concert, such as stop serving beer in a bottle, and the behaviour of the visitors, such as sustainable travelling. Within the project, the visitor’s behaviour on transport and hotel visits (guest nights) were gathered though a visitor’s survey, and the bands behaviour on transport and hotel visits were gathered through concerts and tour. The studied activities included in this study are drinking beer and other beverages, the lightning on stage, the transport and hotel nights for visitors and the band including equipment. Life cycle analysis (LCA) based data and method were used to measure the climate impact from the studied concert and tour. The results were compared with earlier concerts and tour (reference concert and tour). The results showed that the largest climate impacts come from transport of visitors and the band compared to a references concert. The electricity consumption in the concert hall was of minor impact since LED applications has been used mostly. Around 20% climate reduction could be gained though drinking beer (tank, bag in box) instead of drinking beer in bottles. The results for the drinks and the clothing sold on the concert show similar results. The results for hotel show little climate impact in general, since only few visitors stayed in hotels for the concert.

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    Rapport
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    Bilaga
  • 40.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Wickman, Clara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Lisa
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Tunlid, Johanna
    Malmö stad, Sweden.
    Green and circular procurement in public organizations – from single use to reuse and prolonged lifetime in the City of Malmö2022In: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 349, article id 05003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The procurement in public organisations has traditionally been performed in a linear way. Using circular solutions could help public organisations to save resources and tackle climate change. The Swedish City of Malmö strives to include circular solutions and become a circular municipality. The goal of the study was to explore activities for increased reuse and visualise how circular material flows can reduce environmental impacts. The goal was also to develop a method for mapping material flows that can be used in the City of Malmö and other public organisations. The studied activities included in this study are the reuse of furniture and replacement of single use plastic with reuse alternatives, as well as prolonged lifetime of IT products and textiles. Life cycle analysis (LCA) based methods were used to estimate the reduction in environmental impact from the studied activities. The perception of circular activities within the City of Malmö was analysed with a survey. The results showed that the purchasing agreements with increased lifetime for clothing and IT products, lead to reduced environmental impacts. The results also showed that most employees are interested in using a digital sharing platform. Additionally, the results pointed out the need for a circular manager.

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  • 41.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Wickman, Clara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Norling, Malin
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Cirkulär ekonomi, offentlig upphandling och ökad resurseffektivitet: Miljömässiga och sociala effekter av resursflöden i Malmö Stad2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular economy, public procurement, and increased resource efficiency: Environmental and social effects of resource flows in the City of Malmö.

    The procurement practices in public organisations are traditionally performed in a linear way. Using circular economy solutions could help public organisations to save both natural and economic resources and tackle climate change. The Swedish City of Malmö strives to include circular economy solutions and become a circular municipality. The scope of the project named “SINA – Sluta med Ineffektiv Användning” SINUS (stop ineffective Use) was to increase the practical knowledge regarding circular procurement and circular user flow within public organisations. In practice, the project tried to increase the efficiency and circularity of material flows in the city of Malmö. The goal of the project was to explore activities for increased reuse and visualise how circular material flows can reduce environmental impacts. The goal was also to develop a method for mapping material flows that can be used in the City of Malmö and other public organisations. Within the project, the purchase and waste flows within the City of Malmö have been mapped and analysed to identify circular activities and product categories. The studied activities and product categories included in this study are the reuse of furniture and replacement of single use plastic with reuse alternatives, as well as prolonged lifetime of IT products and textiles. Life cycle analysis (LCA) based methods were used to estimate the reduction in environmental impact from the studied circular activities. The results showed that most reduction can be achieved though purchasing agreements with increased lifetime from 3 to 4 years, such as for IT products and clothing (25%). The reuse of furniture and the replacement of single use plastic also leads to reduced environmental impacts. Some methodological difficulties might be found in data collection, not for environmental data, but for procurement and waste data. The perception of circular activities within the City of Malmö were analysed with a survey. The results also showed that most employees value the function of the product rather the need of new products, and they are interested in using a digital sharing platform. Additionally, the results pointed out the need for a circular manager handling the material flows, handling storage and repairs and handling the values of employees. This research has been resulted in a draft roadmap for circular economy for the City of Malmö, as well as a description of the methodology developed within the project, to be shared with other public organisations through various networks and digital channels.

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  • 42.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Life cycle assessment of Internet of Things(IoT) solution in Södertälje municipality– A smart waste collection system2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of things (IoT) is expected to transform the way we live, work, and learn. Using IoT can be a game-changer for municipalities to move towards sustainability. Within the Vinnova financed project, the municipality wants to explore how IoT can enable route optimization and placement planning for increased operational efficiency. The aim of this study is to enhance the knowledge of the environmental benefits of IoT systems in the waste collection system in the city center of Södertälje. This life cycle assessment, LCA, will support the project by identifying environmental hotspots. The LCA study was performed in Jan-Sep 2021. The functional unit of the study has been set to 1 year of IoT system service for 160 litter bins in city center of Södertälje. The studied system is a cradle-to-grave system, including raw materials, sensors and gateways, use phase, and end of life the sensors and gateways, internet connection, as well as the cloud services. Inventory information have been collected mainly from Södertälje, suppliers, and the service providers. Generic data, such as electricity mix, and transports have been taken from the Ecoinvent database and literature. This study has evaluated the environmental impacts of IoT system in Södertälje for the case of smart waste collection system installed in the city center in a life cycle perspective. The objective of the study has been: 1. To estimate the environmental impact (with focus on climate change impact) of IoT system in Södertälje and find out the hotspots within the system in a life cycle perspective. The climate change impact of the IoT system solution in Södertälje is estimated about 120 kg CO2eq per year, which mainly contributes from the gateways (50%) and sensors (27%) and the use of internet (23%). 2. To estimate the environmental impact (focus on climate change impact) of the waste collection system (without IoT system) and find out the hotspots within the system. The climate change impact of the current waste collection system in the city centre of Södertälje contributes approximately 12t CO2eq per year, which mainly contributed from the use of fossil-based plastic trash bags (96%) and the HVO based transport (4%). 3. To compare the current with the future waste collection system (including IoT system for planning and service). To compare the current with the future waste collection system, we use scenarios (see Figure 20 for results). At the starting point of the study (scenario 1), we present results that are based on assumptions and have the same CO2 emissions for the transport and the trash bags. The results were based on diesel (50%) and recycled plastic trash bags (50%). The recycled plastic is made of 80% recycled LDPE and 20% virgin LDPE (Tingstad, 2021). The next step (scenario 2) of the study, we present results that are based on direct data of the current system. The results were based on HVO and fossil trash bags, which results into 11.5 t CO2 for fossil bags and 380 kg CO2eq per year for transport and 120 kg CO2eq extra for the IoT system. The last step (scenario 3) of the study, we present results that are based on future assumptions. The results were based on using no bags and no CO2 emission from bags, which results into 120 kg CO2eq for the IoT system and 380kg CO2eq for the transport and 0 kg CO2eq for the trash bags. The future waste collection system needs to be better than the current system. That means, the future waste collection system needs to reduce the CO2eq emissions by at least 120 kg CO2eq to break-even the extra IoT system. For the IoT system to have an effect, at least 32% of the transport (km) or the number of trash bags used need to be reduced (50 bins of 160 bins), in order to outweighs the extra CO2eq from the IoT system (Figure 21). - A reduction of trp km or trash bags by 32% reduce CO2eq by 120 kg. (=IoT system). - A reduction of trp km or trash bags by 64% reduce CO2eq by 240 kg. (> IoT system).

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  • 43.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Life cycle assessment of IoT system in Södertälje – The case of textile waste collection and the municipality’s recycling stations2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of things (IoT) is expected to transform the way we live, work, and learn. Using IoT can be a game-changer for municipalities to move towards sustainability. Within the Vinnova financed project, The inclusive, sustainable, and connected society, the municipality wants to explore how IoT can enable route optimization and placement planning for increased operational efficiency. The aim of these environmental studies is to enhance the knowledge of the environmental benefits of IoT systems in three parts of the waste collection systems and services provided in the municipality of Södertälje: Waste collection in the city centre (Telge Återvinning), Textile collection (Human Bridge) and Recycling stations (Telge Återvinning). The LCA results for waste collection in the city centre are documented in Chiew & Brunklaus (2021); while the main LCA results and conclusions for textile collection (part 2) and recycling stations (part 3) are summarized in this report. The results for all three types of waste collection system show that the implementation of the IoT system is quite low (<1%). In this study, the climate impacts of both textile waste collection and recycling stations services per year were identified with LCA. By using the actor analysis, we found that in both the textile waste collection and the recycling stations services, the major climate impacts come from citizens, e.g., in the case of the textile waste collection service. The climate impact of transportation of the citizens to the textile station is 36%, followed by the plastic or paper bags from the citizens is 22% of the total impact of the textile waste, while the transportation of citizens to the recycling stations is even higher, such as 70% of the total impact of the recycling station system. The textile collection and recycling stations showed that citizen’s choice has huge impact on the CO2 emission. Re-used and recycled textiles, instead of incinerating can save up to 23-44kg CO2 per kg of new textile produced. The recycling stations collects almost 9kt of waste, which are consumer products (e.g. bicycles, furniture, electronic devices and car decks). Re-used products can save between 100kg CO2 eq per bicycle up to 300kg CO2 eq per electronic devices, such as electric tools or laptop computers, as well as 28kg CO2 eq per car decks. On the other hand, the service provided by Södertälje has a huge influence on the citizens choice. The “rullande återvinning” (rolling service), in which Telge Återvinning arranged trucks to collect bulky waste closer to the citizen can reduce the emission that is caused by the citizen transportation. In addition, the IoT system installed in the recycling station can provide good information to the citizen to avoid congestion time and paying for an empty visit due to long queue in the recycling stations. The service provided by Human Bridge and Telge Återvinning can be improved. However, both have already started to implement green choices. The environmental choices already made by Human Bridge (part 2) include the choice of thinner and recycled plastic bags and the choice of green electricity. The environmental choices already made by Telge Återvinning (part 3) include the choice of transportation (HVO instead of diesel) and the choice of green electricity. The recommendations for the future could include better service for the citizens (rolling service) and setting requirements on the service provider, such as in the textile collection (fossil-free transport).

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  • 44.
    Gutkin, Renaud
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Wirje, Anders
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Essvik, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Enebog, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Safe to circulate: public report2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 45.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Brick, Karolina
    Riksbyggen, Sweden.
    Rönneblad, Anders
    Cementa, Sweden.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kriterier för resurssnålt byggande i praktiken: Slutrapport från forskningsprogrammet E2B2 – energieffektivtbyggande och boende2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet omfattar uppföljning av ställda kriterier för låg klimatpåverkan från betong vid upphandlingav betongstomme för brf. Viva i Göteborg. Kriterierna följdes upp dels genom att LCA studien somgenomförts under programskedet uppdaterades med data för den färdigupphandlade byggnaden ochdels genom att interljuva ett urval av aktörer för att få en inblick över hur branschen ser på de ställdakraven. Arbetet innehåller även en avslutande del angående känsligheten i beräkningarna samtosäkerheter och hur de kan behandlas.Byggnaderna som är tänkta att stå i 100 år kommer utsättas för klimatförändringar. Därförgenomfördes parallellt med LCA studien också energisimuleringar för att se hur den termiskakomforten och uppvärmningsbehovet förändras över tiden.Resultaten av LCA-uppföljningen och de ställda kriterierna visar att kraven uppfylldes för både denprefabricerade betongen och den platsgjutna betongen. Att jämföra den totala klimatpåverkan mellanprogramskedet och upphandlad byggnad visar sig inte vara möjligt då konstruktionen har förändratsalltför mycket, bland annat har den uppvärmda ytan ökat med ca 50% samtidigt som mer material haranvänts för de prefabricerade väggarna och bjälklagen. En känslighetsanalys har istället genomförtssom visar att den upphandlade konstruktionen har 30% lägre klimatpåverkan per BOA jämfört motom den byggts med traditionell betong. Hade de ursprungliga konstruktionsdetaljerna frånprogramskedet använts för väggar och bjälklag hade klimatpåverkan istället varit ca 40% lägre.Vid framtida kravställning bör man därför ta hänsyn även till konstruktionerna, betongkvaliteternaoch dess materialmängder och inte bara ställa krav på betongrecepten som i det här fallet.Klimatsimuleringarna visar att det troligen finns ett stort mörkertal med lågenergilägenheter som harförhöjd temperatur inomhus sommartid redan vid dagens klimat

  • 46.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Al-ayish, Nadia
    Brick, Karolina
    Riksbyggen, Sweden.
    Rönneblad, Anders
    Cementa, Sweden.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Resurssnålt byggande: så ställs kraven för minstamöjliga klimatpåverkan: Resultatblad från forskningsprogrammet E2B2 –energieffektivt byggande och boende2018In: Energimyndigheten E2B2Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47. Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Brick, Karolina
    Riksbyggen.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    During, Otto
    Minskar klimatpåverkan under byggprocessen genom att ställa tydliga krav.2017In: Bygg och Teknik, Vol. 5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Minska klimatpåverkan under byggprocessen genom att ställa tydliga krav. Att ställa krav på materialleverantörer har stor potential till minskad klimatpåverkan under byggprocessen och triggar utvecklingen av mer klimatsmarta produkter. I pilotprojektet Brf. Viva har Riksbyggen ställt krav på sammansättningen och produktionen av betong. Kraven har sitt ursprung i LCA analyser som utförts som beslutsunderlag för valet av stomme.

  • 48.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Ylmen, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ta tempen på entreprenadföretagens hållbarhetsarbete – förstudie2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contractors are expected to present their sustainability work in connection with procurement. But what is required is not always clear. The client could for example ask what the contractors are doing to contribute to environmentally or socially sustainable development. This pre-study surveys how the clients set requirements for sustainability work in procurement today and how the contractors respond to these requirements in their tenders, but also how the contracting companies work with sustainability in practice. The contractors hope that the concepts and requirements used in sustainability work will be clearer, more rigorous and easier to live up to so that they can truly contribute to a sustainable society. They would like to see it as a long-term work where they build up skills and routines in many projects instead of just a few pilot projects. Based on the results, the need of new tools or better use of existing tools to strengthen the work on sustainable construction projects were identified. The pre-study is carried out mainly through interviews with representatives from 15 companies as well as analysis and discussion of the answers during one workshop.

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  • 49.
    Ordoñez, Isabel
    et al.
    , Spain.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Social factors and behavioural change in waste packaging collection systems – literature review and existing case studies2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection and recycling of packaging and life cycle assessments have traditionally been developed from a technical perspective, not including the actors in the chain. However, how recycling should be done depends on who you ask, and whether you look at the issue from an energy, material, legal or user-based perspective. FTI, the Packaging and Newspaper Collection organization is responsible for better circularity and collecting in Sweden's municipalities. They ensure that containers are emptied, that the collection points remain clean, that contents go to the right treatment, and that materials are recycled as much as possible. When recyclable materials end up in the wrong place, it causes problems leading to increased energy use in the life cycle. The ongoing project Tjårven, aims to reduce energy use in connection with packaging collection, as well as potential energy gains in the second stage of the packaging life cycle, by redesigning packaging collection from a user centred perspective. For this, design methods that consider users’ sorting and recycling behaviour as a starting point, will be used for the re-design. To show the energy use in the lifecycle and include the actors, an actor-based LCA method will be used. This literature review can be divided into two sections, the first one focusing on household waste sorting behaviour insights, and the second one focusing on EPR for PPP and how it fits into waste collection systems and recycling behaviour. The literature review has been performed initially on recycling behaviour and extended producer responsibility. The literature review has been further performed on social indicators and existing case studies of nudging has been added, as well as literature on the “ladder of change” has been added to the literature review to increase the understanding of behaviour change and behavioural context. The literature study included 36 reported interventions and from good practices to improve recycling performance from 162 articles. The literature shows that social modelling, environmental interventions, and communication strategies are the type of interventions that obtain best results. Additionally, it is advisable that the project team uses EXPRA content as a EPR for PPP specific benchmark platform. The Swedish regulations that define how FTI operates might be subjected to change based on shifting criteria at the EU, influenced by other EPR frontrunners. It is advisable to sort the social factors for changing behaviours in the literature into design factors: social design factors to provide positive feedback and to adopt to everyday life, physical design factors to provide accessibility, clarity, and comparability, as well as service design factors to provide user-and operator friendly service. It is advisable to look at Nudging, and service design since 30% reduction is possible. Additionally, it is advisable to build a new ladder of change to understand the context of change for the service provider and the user behaviour, including the following steps: (1) Awareness and willingness to change, (2) Knowledge raising, (3) Possibility e.g. simplifying, available, attractive, (4) Relationships and feedback, (5) Dare.

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  • 50.
    Reitsma, Lizette
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Hayley, Ho
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Nyström, Sofie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Brikhan, Wasim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Schaeffer, Jennie
    Västmanlands läns museum, Sweden.
    Ryöppy, Merja
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Larsen, Henry
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Strøbech, Elena
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Our burden - Carbondioxide theatre for climate action2019In: NORDES 2019: WHO CARES?, Espoo, Finland, 2019, Vol. 8, article id 150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biggest changes to the planet are made by humankind and action needs to be taken in order to guarantee a sustainable level of emissions for the planet (Rockström et al. 2009). In the project presented in this poster, we engage young citizens (from 15 to 20 years old), in critically reflecting on social norms and practices around climate goals and CO2 emissions, through participatory theatre methods. Only when those involved can get sufficient authority to determine and guide the research and the research agenda, can a project be truly participatory (Winschiers-Theophilus 2009). Participatory theatre offers ways to meet the longing for shared forums by engaging large groups of people in exploring difficult social dilemmas. It can potentially empower the young participants to change their own situations and organisations, as it is “likely to shake things into action or to “unfreeze” blocked situations ” (Shreyögg and Höpfl 2004).

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