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  • 1.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Direct shear tests on large natural and artificially induced rock fractures in a new laboratory equipment2023In: Proceedings of the ISRM 15th International Congress on Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering & 72nd Geomechanics Colloquium: Challenges in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering / [ed] Schubert, W. & Kluckner, A., Salzburg: Austrian Society for Geomechanics , 2023, p. 2709-2714, article id 1827Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A direct shear equipment for testing rock fractures up to 400×600 mm size, and up to 5 MN force in both normal and shear loading directions, was developed. Normal loading and direct shear tests under constant normal stiffness (CNS) and constant normal load (CNL) conditions were conducted on 300×500 mm specimens, one planar steel joint and two natural and two tensile induced rock fractures. Design targets, e.g. system to maintain undisturbed fractures up to testing and high system stiffnesses to achieve well-controlled shear tests, were verified by the experiments. A new optical system for local deformation measurements was used to accurately determine fracture displacements besides conventional non-local deformation measurements. The determined normal stiffnesses were similar previous results from the literature on smaller fractures, whereas the shear stiffness data are novel. The results provide a new insight into processes at the onset of fracture slip.

  • 2.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Mas-Ivars, Diego
    Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kasani, Hossein A
    Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Canada.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    MEKANISKA EGENSKAPER HOS STORABERGSPRICKOR2024Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental investigations of the shear properties of rock fractures in hard rock have generally focused on tests on smaller fracture s for normal stresses of up to 20 MPa, representative of a nuclear waste repository at a depth of about 400 meters. T he shear properties of large fractures determined at experiments have generally been determined at low stresses , of one or more MPa. To gain an understanding of the effect of the size on the shear properties of the fractures at high normal stresses, it is crucial to perform shear experiments on large rock fractures (> 200 mm) in hard rock under high normal stresses. In the project Parameterization of Fractures, POST (2014 2016), the scale effects were studied by in situ experiments, small scale shear experiments and computational simulations. It was found that laboratory experiments under controlled conditions and on large rock samples are necessary to obtain reliable results. It was also found that in situ experiments are complex with large underlying uncertainties and are at the same time costly. In the ongoing POST 2 project, which started in 2017, rock fractures up to 500 mm have been tested in a new unique laboratory equipment, along with test s on smaller fractures , at high normal stress for both CNL and CNS conditions and with new measurement technology. Techniques for producing replica samples of rock fractures have been developed and tested with the aim of making load parameter studies. The quality of the geometry imaging of the replica samples and the geometries of the fractures has been meas ured by high resolution scanning. This article presents some of the results from the project. The results from the project are applicable to other areas with underground construction, such as the design of tunnels and rock caverns for infrastructure projects and mines.

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  • 3.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Experimental investigation of the system normal stiffness of a 5 MN direct shear test setup and the compensation of it in CNS direct shear tests2021In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315, Vol. 833, article id 012011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments at constant normal stiffness (CNS) are normally carried out to understand underground shear processes of rock joints. However, in many test setups the available space around the joint is limited implying it is not possible to measure the dilatancy directly over the joint. Therefore, the displacement transducers must be in locations where the risk is that additional displacements originating from deficiencies in the test system will be measured causing too low normal loads to be applied. Herein, this issue is investigated in a new 5 MN direct shear test setup. The system normal stiffness was found to be about 11 300 kN/mm derived from normal loading up to 4.5 MN using a steel specimen. The direct shear testing performance under the CNS configuration was evaluated using the steel specimen, which had a joint with a known angle of inclination. The normal load error at 3.9 MN (28 MPa) was 11%, but by application of the effective normal stiffness approach using the system normal stiffness as input the error basically could be eliminated. The results demonstrate the robustness of the setup designed for joint areas up to 400 × 600 mm with normal and shear loads up to 5 MN.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Tillförlitlighet och Livslängd.
    Hårdgjorda ytor och dagvattenhantering samverkar i framtidens städer2015In: Tidningen Utemiljö, no 4, p. i-vArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Quality aspects in direct shear testing of rock joints2021Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of rock masses is influenced by the occurrence of rock joints. Therefore, the shear strength of rock joints must be considered in dimensioning of underground constructions. One way to predict the shear strength is through usage of failure criteria, which are validated from results of direct shear tests under controlled laboratory conditions. Consequently, the quality of the results from the tests are crucial to the accuracy with which the criteria will be able to predict the shear strength. Since rock joints are unique by nature usage of replicas (man-made copies of rock joints) is of importance in parameter studies. The overall objective of this work is to facilitate the development of improved criteria for predictions of the shear strength of rock joints. To support this objective, two sources of uncertainty have been investigated, namely the geometry of replicas and the influence of the normal stiffness of test systems. Two quality assurance parameters for evaluation of geometrical differences between replicas and rock joints based on scanning data have been derived. The first parameter describes the morphological deviations. The second parameter describes the deviations in orientation with respect to the shear plane. The effective normal stiffness approach, which compensates for the influence of the normal stiffness of the test system in direct shear testing, has been developed, validated, and applied. With help of the quality assurance parameters it is demonstrated that it is possible to reproduce replicas within narrow tolerances. Application of the effective normal stiffness approach basically eliminates the normal load error. In all, the results support generation of improved quality of test data and consequently, the development of shear strength criteria with improved accuracy will also be facilitated.

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  • 6.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Tillförlitlighet och Livslängd.
    Verifiering av hållfastheten på naturstensbeläggningar på obundet underlag med avseende på SS-EN 13412015Report (Refereed)
  • 7. Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Bolin, Lisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Tekniska möjligheter och livsstilsförändringar: Klimatomställning Göteborg 2.02014Report (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    An Approach to Compensate for the Influence of the System Normal Stiffness in CNS Direct Shear Tests2020In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 53, p. 2185-2199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying accurate normal load to a specimen in direct shear tests under constant normal stiffness (CNS) is of importance for the quality of the resulting data, which in turn influences the conclusions. However, deficiencies in the test system give rise to a normal stiffness, here designated as system normal stiffness, which results in deviations between the intended and actual applied normal loads. Aiming to reduce these deviations, this paper presents the effective normal stiffness approach applicable to closed-loop control systems. Validation through direct shear tests indicates a clear influence of the system normal stiffness on the applied normal load (13% for the test system used in this work). The ability of the approach to compensate for this influence is confirmed herein. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the differences between the measured and the nominal normal displacements are established by the normal load increment divided by the system normal stiffness. This further demonstrates the existence of the system normal stiffness. To employ the effective normal stiffness approach, the intended normal stiffness (user defined) and the system normal stiffness must be known. The latter is determined from a calibration curve based on normal loading tests using a stiff test dummy. Finally, a procedure is presented to estimate errors originating from the application of an approximate representation of the system normal stiffness. The approach is shown to effectively reduce the deviations between intended normal loads and the actual applied normal loads.

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  • 9.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Johansson, F
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mas Ivars, D
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Geometrical Quality Assurance of Rock Joint Replicas in Shear Tests – Introductory Analysis2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of joints in rock masses influences the structural integrity of geotechnical structures. A critical failure mode is shearing, thus making the shearing process of importance to understand. Historically, studies have been mainly executed on the basis of laboratory experiments, since full-scale in situ tests are seldom performed due to technical and economic considerations. Since each rock joint is unique by nature, the utilization of replicas is applied to carry out controlled experimental parameter studies. However, the manufacturing process of replicas introduces many sources of uncertainty. Therefore, in this work the influence of geometrical variations in replicas on the shear strength characteristics is evaluated, mutually as well as in relation to the mother rock specimen of the replicas. The joint surfaces were 3D scanned and the contact area of the joint was measured using pressure sensitive film before direct shear tests. Deviations in morphology were evaluated by surface comparisons between the joint surfaces of the mother rock and replicas. The initial matching of the joints was evaluated by calibrating the scanning data with respect to the contact area measurements. It could be visualized that geometrical deviations were caused by rock fragments coming off during mould production, positioning of the moulds and pores resulting from replica casting. These factors were found to influence the shear strength characteristics of the replicas. The influence of the deviations originating from morphology on the joint matching is demonstrated. In summary, it is shown that replicas with similar shear strength characteristics as rock can be manufactured, but even small deviations affect the characteristics, in particular the peak strength. Therefore, parameters relevant for geometrical quality assurance should be identified along with required value ranges. Selected introductory results on quantified parameters for geometrical quality assurance are presented, serving as a basis for continued work.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, F
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ivars, D. Mas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing : Part 2: Validation and mechanical replicability2023In: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1674-7755, Vol. 15, p. 2209-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each rock joint is unique by nature which means that utilization of replicas in direct shear tests is required in experimental parameter studies. However, a method to acquire knowledge about the ability of the replicas to imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint and their dispersion in direct shear testing is lacking. In this study, a novel method is presented for geometric quality assurance of replicas. The aim is to facilitate generation of high-quality direct shear testing data as a prerequisite for reliable subsequent analyses of the results. In Part 1 of this study, two quality assurance parameters, σmf and VHp100, are derived and their usefulness for evaluation of geometric deviations, i.e. geometric reproducibility, is shown. In Part 2, the parameters are validated by showing a correlation between the parameters and the shear mechanical behavior, which qualifies the parameters for usage in the quality assurance method. Unique results from direct shear tests presenting comparisons between replicas and the rock joint show that replicas fulfilling proposed threshold values of σmf < 0.06 mm and < 0.2 mm have a narrow dispersion and imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint in all aspects apart from having a slightly lower peak shear strength. The wear in these replicas, which have similar morphology as the rock joint, is in the same areas as in the rock joint. The wear is slightly larger in the rock joint and therefore the discrepancy in peak shear strength derives from differences in material properties, possibly from differences in toughness. It is shown by application of the suggested method that the quality assured replicas manufactured following the process employed in this study phenomenologically capture the shear strength characteristics, which makes them useful in parameter studies.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ivars, DM
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    A novel method for geometric quality assurance of rock joint replicas in direct shear testing – Part 1: Derivation of quality assurance parameters and geometric reproducibility2023In: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1674-7755, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 2193-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since each rock joint is unique by nature, the utilization of replicas in direct shear testing is required to carry out experimental parameter studies. However, information about the ability of the replicas to simulate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint and their dispersion in direct shear testing is lacking. With the aim to facilitate generation of high-quality direct shear test data from replicas, a novel component in the testing procedure is introduced by presenting two parameters for geometric quality assurance. The parameters are derived from surface comparisons of three-dimensional (3D) scanning data of the rock joint and its replicas. The first parameter, σmf, captures morphological deviations between the replica and the rock joint surfaces. σmf is derived as the standard deviation of the deviations between the coordinate points of the replica and the rock joint. Four sources of errors introduced in the replica manufacturing process employed in this study could be identified. These errors could be minimized, yielding replicas with σmf ≤ 0.06 mm. The second parameter is a vector, VHp100, which describes deviations with respect to the shear direction. It is the projection of the 100 mm long normal vector of the best-fit plane of the replica joint surface to the corresponding plane of the rock joint. |VHp100| was found to be less than or equal to 0.36 mm in this study. Application of these two geometric quality assurance parameters demonstrates that it is possible to manufacture replicas with high geometric similarity to the rock joint. In a subsequent paper (part 2), σmf and VHp100 are incorporated in a novel quality assurance method, in which the parameters shall be evaluated prior to direct shear testing. Replicas having parameter values below established thresholds shall have a known and narrow dispersion and imitate the shear mechanical behavior of the rock joint.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, F
    Mas Ivars, D
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Rock joint replicas in direct shear testing – Part 1: Extraction of geometrical quality assurance parameters.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Tillförlitlighet och Livslängd.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Rätt dimensionering av markstensplattor sparar pengar och miljö2014In: Svensk Bergs- och Brukstidning, Vol. 93, no 3, p. ii-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Ríos-Bayona, F.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Mas-Ivars, D.
    SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Peak Shear Strength of Natural, Unfilled Rock Joints in the Field Based on Data from Drill Cores – A Conceptual Study Based on Large Laboratory Shear Tests2022In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 5083-5106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant uncertainties remain regarding the field assessment of the peak shear strength of rock joints. These uncertainties mainly originate from the lack of a verified methodology that would permit prediction of rock joints’ peak shear strength accounting for their surface area, while using information available from smaller samples. This paper investigates a methodology that uses objective observations of the 3D roughness and joint aperture from drill cores to predict the peak shear strength of large natural, unfilled rock joints in the field. The presented methodology has been tested in the laboratory on two natural, unfilled rock joint samples of granite. The joint surface area of the tested samples was of approximately 500 × 300 mm. In this study, the drill cores utilised to predict the peak shear strength of the rock joint samples are simulated based on a subdivision of their digitised surfaces obtained through high-resolution laser scanning. The peak shear strength of the tested samples based on the digitised surfaces of the simulated drill cores is predicted by applying a peak shear strength criterion that accounts for 3D roughness, matedness, and specimen size. The results of the performed analysis and laboratory experiments show that data from the simulated drill cores contain the necessary information to predict the peak shear strength of the tested rock joint samples. The main benefit of this approach is that it may enable the prediction of the peak shear strength in the field under conditions of difficult access.

  • 15.
    Ríos-Bayona, Francisco
    et al.
    TYPSA AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Mas-Ivars, Diego
    SKB Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    SKJUVHÅLLFASTHET HOS NATURLIGA BERGSSPRICKOR – MOT EN METODIK FÖR BESTÄMNING BASERAT PÅ DATA I FÄLT2024Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prediction of a rock joint’s peak shear strength becomes complex when its joint surfaces are not fully accessible, such as the rock foundation under an existing concrete dam or the design stage for a tunnel. This paper presents a methodology that investigates the possibility of using information from measured aperture and 3D roughness with optical scanning at smaller sizes, such us drill cores, to predict the peak shear strength of large natural, unfilled rock joints. The presented methodology has been tested in the laboratory under constant normal load conditions on two natural, unfilled rock joint samples obtained from existing rock joints in the foundation of the Krångede concrete dam. The main benefit of this approach is that it may enable the prediction of the peak shear strength in the field under conditions of difficult access.

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  • 16.
    Sällström, Jan Henrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Rörcentrum.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Tillförlitlighet och Livslängd.
    Sandström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Tillförlitlighet och Livslängd.
    Stormwater boxes - aspects on verification, simulation and installa2014Report (Refereed)
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  • 17.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ivars, Diago
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Sweden.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Selroos, Jan-Olof
    SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Sweden.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Impact of shear displacement on advective transport in a laboratory-scale fracture2022In: Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment, ISSN 2352-3808, Vol. 31, article id 100278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of shear displacement under different mechanical boundary conditions on fluid flow and advective transport in a single fracture at the laboratory scale is demonstrated in the present study. The shear-induced changes of fracture aperture structures are determined by using the measured normal displacements and digitalized fracture surfaces from laboratory shear tests. Five shear tests on concrete replicas of the same fracture under different mechanical boundary conditions, including constant normal loading (CNL) and constant normal stiffness (CNS), are conducted to analyse the influence of mechanical boundary conditions on the shear-flow-transport processes. Fluid flow in the fracture with different shear displacements are simulated by solving the Reynolds equation. The Lagrangian particle tracking method is applied to model the advective transport in the fracture after shearing. The results generally show that the shear displacements and the normal loading conditions can significantly affect flow patterns and advective travel time distributions in the fracture. For mated fractures, the flow and transport will be enhanced by the increasing shear displacement because of shear dilation. For cases with the same shear displacement, the median advective travel time increases with the increasing boundary normal stiffness. The median advective travel time under the CNS boundary condition is generally longer than that under the CNL boundary condition. The results from this study can help to improve our understanding of stress-dependent solute transport processes in natural rock fractures. © 2021 The Author(s)

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