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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fosforprodukter av slam – energianvändning och klimatpåverkan2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare the energy use and climate impact of extracting phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge, compared with mineral phosphorus from mining. The two processes that are studied are struvite precipitation and extraction of phosphorus from sludge ash (AshDec). We also looked at the potential recycling rate of plant nutrients in the different systems.

    In the study, we have calculated the environmental impact of introducing the processes for P-recovery, related to a conventional sewage treatment plant with chemical precipitation. It is therefore only the differences that arise in comparison with the reference plant that are included in the calculations. You can think like this: there is an existing sewage treatment plant, where you introduce P recycling. All changes in environmental impact that arise in connection with the investment in this new process are burdens the new P-product.

    The results show that the AshDec scenario has the best recovery rate of phosphorus and energy balance, while the struvite scenario shows the best return rate of nitrogen and the lowest climate impact. However, the sensitivity analyzes show that the results are strongly influenced by different assumptions. For the AshDec scenario, assumption about nitrous oxide emissions from incineration of sludge as well as the handling of energy surplus is crucial. For the struvite scenario, assumptions around the reconstruction of the sewage treatment plant to biological phosphor cleaning is of great significance, especially if the biogas production is affected.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Value chains for integrated production of liquefied bio-SNG at sawmill sites – Techno-economic and carbon footprint evaluation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 206, p. 1590-1608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry's increasing demand for liquefied natural gas could be met in the future by liquefied methane produced from biomass feedstock (LBG - liquefied biogas). This study presents results from an investigation of value chains for integrated production of LBG at a generic sawmill site, based on gasification of sawmill waste streams and forest residues. The objective was to investigate the cost for, as well as the carbon footprint reduction associated with, production and use of LBG as a fuel. Five different LBG plant sizes were investigated in combination with three different sawmill sizes. The resulting cases differ regarding biomass feedstock composition, biomass transportation distances, LBG plant sizes, how efficiently the excess heat from the LBG plant is used, and LBG distribution distances. Pinch technology was used to quantify the heat integration opportunities and to design the process steam network. The results show that efficient use of energy within the integrated process has the largest impact on the performance of the value chain in terms of carbon footprint. The fuel production cost are mainly determined by the investment cost of the plant, as well as feedstock transportation costs, which mainly affects larger plants. Production costs are shown to range from 68 to 156 EUR/MW hfuel and the carbon footprint ranges from 175 to 250 kg GHG-eq/MW hnet biomass assuming that the product is used to substitute fossil LNG fuel. The results indicate that process integration of an indirect biomass gasifier for LBG production is an effective way for a sawmill to utilize its by-products. Integration of this type of biorefinery can be done in such a way that the plant can still cover its heating needs whilst expanding its product portfolio in a competitive way, both from a carbon footprint and cost perspective. The results also indicate that the gains associated with efficient heat integration are important to achieve an efficient value chain.

  • 3.
    Algehed, Jessica
    et al.
    foginnovation, Sweden.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jensen, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Innovation + stadsutveckling = sant?2019In: INNOVATION OCH STADSUTVECKLING : En forskningsantologi om organiseringsutmaningar för stad och kommun / [ed] Jessica Algehed, Erica Eneqvist,Christian Jensen & Jenny Lööf, 2019, p. 5-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Amaral, Andreia
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium; Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Gillot, Sylvie
    Irstea, France.
    Garrido-Baserba, Manel
    University of California, USA.
    Filali, Ahlem
    Irstea, France.
    Karpinska, Anna
    Southern Water, UK.
    Plósz, Benedek
    University of Bath, UK.
    De Groot, Christopher
    Western University, Canada.
    Bellandi, Giacomo
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Nopens, Ingmar
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Takács, Imre
    Dynamita, France.
    Lizarralde, Izaro
    Universidad de Navarra, Spain; Ceit, Spain.
    Jimenez, Jose
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Fiat, Justine
    Irstea, France.
    Rieger, Leiv
    CTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersen, Mikkel
    DHI, Denmark.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rehman, Usman
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Fayolle, Yannick
    Irstea, France.
    Amerlinck, Youri
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Rosso, Diego
    University of California, USA.
    Modelling gas-liquid mass transfer in wastewater treatment: when current knowledge needs to encounter engineering practice and vice versa2019In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 607-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas-liquid mass transfer in wastewater treatment processes has received considerable attention over the last decades from both academia and industry. Indeed, improvements in modelling gas-liquid mass transfer can bring huge benefits in terms of reaction rates, plant energy expenditure, acid-base equilibria and greenhouse gas emissions. Despite these efforts, there is still no universally valid correlation between the design and operating parameters of a wastewater treatment plant and the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients. That is why the current practice for oxygen mass transfer modelling is to apply overly simplified models, which come with multiple assumptions that are not valid for most applications. To deal with these complexities, correction factors were introduced over time. The most uncertain of them is the α-factor. To build fundamental gas-liquid mass transfer knowledge more advanced modelling paradigms have been applied more recently. Yet these come with a high level of complexity making them impractical for rapid process design and optimisation in an industrial setting. However, the knowledge gained from these more advanced models can help in improving the way the α-factor and thus gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient should be applied. That is why the presented work aims at clarifying the current state-of-the-art in gas-liquid mass transfer modelling of oxygen and other gases, but also to direct academic research efforts towards the needs of the industrial practitioners.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stoltz Ehn, Anna-Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Från living labs till transition labs - En forskningsöversikt och kartläggning av innovationsmiljöer för hållbara städer2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällen ställs i allt större grad inför komplexa utmaningar som blir allt svårare att hanteramed befintliga resurser och arbetssätt. För att kunna skapa förutsättningar för ett välmående,ekologiskt och socialt hållbart samhälle, nu och i framtiden, behöver en omfattande kursändringske. Behovet av sociala, organisatoriska och tekniska innovationer, som på olika sättbidrar till att ersätta ohållbara energi- och transportsystem samt föråldrade sätt att producerasamhällstjänster och kunskap på, är stort.Den samhällsvetenskapliga forskningen lyfter fram vikten av bred samverkan mellan sektorsochmyndighetsgränser för att kunna ta sig an komplexa hållbarhetsutmaningar. Dagensstuprörstänkande försvårar gemensam kunskapsproduktion och problemlösning. Däremotfinns det tecken på att den traditionella, hierarkiska och centralistiska samhällsstyrningenhåller på att omformas till att bli mer nätverksbaserad, horisontell och samarbetsbaserad.Denna styrningsform - som i den engelska litteraturen kallas för governance - bygger i högre gradpå nätverkande och flernivåsamverkan mellan näringsliv, offentlig sektor och civilsamhället.När det gäller hållbar utveckling och innovation anses städerna spela en allt viktigare roll. Delsär städer kraftfulla påverkansnoder som främjar spridningen av radikala innovationer; dels bidrarstädernas unika synergier och tillgång till infrastruktur, kapital och kompetenser till ökadinnovationsförmåga. Hur skall städerna organisera sig för att kunna öka samverkan och främja ettexperimentellt förhållningssätt för att kunna ta sig an komplexa utmaningar? Hur skallstäderna organisera sig för att dra nytta av den ökade innovationsförmågan givet desamhällsutmaningar vi står inför?I Sverige och internationellt har nya typer av organisationsformer och arenor börjar växa framsom ett svar på ovan tecknade utmaningar: urban living labs, urban transition labs, social labs, policy labs,innovationsplattform för att ta några exempel. Alla dessa miljöer har som syfte att främja flernivåsamverkan,innovation och problemlösning. I Sverige främjas denna utveckling främst tackvare innovationsmyndigeten Vinnova som på olika sätt stödjer dessa framväxande försök atthitta nya typer av organisationsformer. I Europa sker stora satsningar på liknande miljöergenom Horizon 2020 och JPI Urban Europe. Syftet med den här rapporten är att ge en bild avhur dessa nya innovationsmiljöer växer fram som styrverktyg för att driva hållbar stadsutveckling.I anslutning till rapporten har även gjorts en kartläggning och klassificering avsvenska innovationsmiljöer för hållbara städer.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sker en snabb teknikutveckling i den elektriska miljön i byggnader, framförallt i våra bostäder. Ett exempel är lokal produktion av el, där solcellsinstallationer blir alltmer populära. Sådan elproduktion medför även förändringar i övriga delar av byggnaders elektriska infrastruktur, såsom DC-nät och i vissa fall energilagring i batterisystem. Utvecklingen sker till stor del som ett svar på behovet av mer hållbara lösningar, ur ett växthuseffektperspektiv, för vår elförsörjning, och förstärks bland annat av statligt stöd och ökad tillgänglighet på marknaden.Ny elektrisk teknologi kan leda till ökad brandrisk och denna förstudie har haft som mål att undersöka denna problematik. Metoden har varit workshops med intressenter och experter inom området, intervjuer, samt litteraturstudier.Av de studerade områdena förefaller solcellsanläggningar skapa störst utmaningar i framtiden om inget görs. Detta beror dels på bristfälligt regelverk men även på att dessa system är distribuerade i byggnaderna med flera delar som kan orsaka brand och att delar är exponerade för utomhusklimat vilket får stora konsekvenser vad gäller uppkomst av fel.Brandsäkerheten i samhället har sett ur ett långt tidsperspektiv väsentligt förbättrats. Detta har huvudsakligen drivits fram med hjälp av ett förbättrat regelverk, som ofta inkluderat förbättrade provnings- och kvalificeringsmetoder. En generell observation i detta projekt är att regelverket inte hinner utvecklas i samma takt som tekniken. Detta är en ofta återkommande utmaning inom brandsäkerhet, men gäller speciellt för de teknikområden som behandlas i denna rapport där utvecklingen går mycket snabbt, och de ingående komponenterna nästan uteslutande har stor inneboende brandpotential. Rapporten konstaterar att för att skapa ett relevant regelverk behövs tillämpad forskning, så kallad prenormativ forskning, inom prioriterade områden för att besvara de frågor som ställs vid formulerandet av nya regler och standarder. Exempel på områden som bör prioriteras är 1) komplettering av det än så länge magra statistiska underlaget för bränder i solcellsinstallationer med olycksutredningar, och studier av redan befintliga olycksutredningar, 2) studier av branddynamiken i solcellsinstallationer, såväl byggnadsapplicerade som integrerade, och såväl tak- som fasadmonterade sådana, 3) studier av ljusbågars uppkomst och hur dessa kan undvikas, alternativt hur det kan undvikas att de ger upphov till bränder, 4) skapa underlag för säker installation av batterilager, samt 5) kvalitetssäkring av så kallade second-life batterier, dvs. begagnade batterier, som används i batterilager.

  • 7.
    Anderzén, Christina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hellström, Hanna
    Göteborgsregionens kommunalförbund.
    Blom, Angelika
    NSR.
    Matavfallets väg från bord till jord – en översiktlig kartläggning av olika insamlingssystem för källsorterat matavfall från hushåll2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid förbehandling av matavfall uppstår ofta en balansgång mellan att ta bort föroreningar och att minimera förluster av insamlat matavfall. Fler separeringssteg innebär större förluster. Mer kunskap behövs dock kring vilka faktiska förluster av matavfall som görs vid olika typer av förbehandling samt koppling till olika insamlingssystem. Ett väl sorterat matavfall med så lite ovidkommande material som möjligt underlättar fortsatt behandling och möjligheter till avsättning av biogödsel samtidigt som det skapar förutsättningar för mindre förluster. 

    Syftet med insamling av källsorterat matavfall är i första hand att återvinna växtnäring, vilket även kommer att säkerställa produktionen av biogas. I denna rapport följer vi påsen med matavfall från hushållet hela vägen till åkermarken. Projektet har gjort en ansats att försöka beskriva vad som händer längs vägen och utifrån detta bedöma hur det påverkar kvalitén samt vilka förluster som görs i olika steg. Resonemang förs även avseende skillnader mellan de i Sverige vanligaste insamlingssystemen för källsorterat matavfall; fyrfackskärl, separata kärl och olikfärgade påsar för optisk sortering.

    Målet är att kommunerna efter genomläsning ska få en bättre förståelse för hela kedjan ”från bord till jord”. Därmed också att utformningen av egna mål och val av insamlingssystem, i större utsträckning än idag, baseras på en helhetssyn avseende biologisk återvinning där även kvalitetssäkring och förutsättningar för återföring av växtnäring vägs in. Förhoppningen är även att kommuner som redan är igång med insamling av matavfall, ska finna stöd i arbetet med att säkra kvaliteten och mängder då ”från bord till jord” ger en överblick över de olika stegen. 

    Det är så klart önskvärt att så stor andel matavfall som möjligt samlas in och att det är rätt sorterat. Rapporten konstaterar att andra faktorer än typ av insamlingssystem, bl.a. hur man arbetar med information, är viktiga för vilket insamlingsresultat som uppnås. Därmed föreslås att informationsmodeller beaktas vid jämförande studier avseende utsorteringsgrad, mängd och kvalitet. Även resultat vid källsortering av matavfall i större mekaniska system såsom sopsug och underjordsbehållare anpassade för flerbostadshus/tätbebyggda områden bör utvärderas. Detta eftersom dessa system blir allt vanligare särskilt i storstadsregionerna. Förlust av biogaspotential då matavfall mellanlagras har inte utretts vidare i denna rapport och bör också studeras närmare. Vilken påverkan har exempelvis hämtningsintervall och transportsträcka mellan insamling och behandling?

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att det behövs mer kunskap och konkreta siffror längs hela kedjan för biologisk återvinning - från insamling till återföring av växtnäring – för att kunna sätta resultat och kostnader i ett systemperspektiv.

  • 8.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Sjöqvist, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem förvåtutrymmen 20192019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing of waterproofing systems for use behind ceramic tiling based on flexible sheets 2019

    Functional testing

    The result is worse than before.

    Six (32%) of the nineteen tested waterproofing systems passed the function test without leakage. Thirteen (68%) tests resulted in leakage.

    This result is worse than that obtained in the previous project in 2016, (1) when eight (40%) of twenty tested waterproofing systems passed the functional test without leakage. There has therefore been some deterioration in the as constructed systems.

    The result, however, is better than in the project performed in 2014 (2) when only three (15%) of twenty tested waterproofing systems passed without leakage.

    In this project, several leakages are localised around the penetrations of large and small drainpipes. This is an increase compared to previous studies. We have seen on several occasions that pipe collars have had poor quality. This has been noticed by that the polymer material used for sealing around the tube has lost its water tightness ability during the test. It is most probable that the material has a residual deformation (from setting) that causes the material to lose its ability to seal around the tube. We have also noted that the pipe collars have delaminated i.e. the layers in the collars have been divided into their individual constituents during the test.

    Leakages have also been caused by connections to gullies, inside corners, outside corners and in joints of foils.

    Fortunately, none of the investigative systems showed leakage that was so extensive that one could describe it as total damage.

    Water vapour resistance and mass per unit area

    Thirteen tested waterproofing on flexible sheet systems show a result between 2,5 and 4,5 million s/m, which is a high or very-high water vapour resistance. Six flexible sheet systems have a result below 2,5 million s/m.

    In the determination of water vapour resistance and mass per unit area, we can clearly see that some manufacturers have made changes in or replaced their flexible sheet with a new one, compared with the previous investigation (1).

    We further note that 10 out of 14 flexible sheets have a lower water vapor resistance than in the previous investigation (1). It is also notable that the PVC sealing layer has a low water vapor resistance.

    Indication of long-term properties

    In order to obtain an indication of the amount added antioxidants that improves the long-term properties of the materials, the DSC analysis of flexible sheets have been performed. In the same way as in the previous project, 2016, (1) it seems that the flexible sheets to be more stabilized for long-term use compared to the previous study in 2014, (2). However, for all analysed materials, to make a reliable service life prediction of the material, an accelerated ageing at moderate temperature is recommended.

  • 9.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Implementation of the Bürger-Diehl settler model on the benchmark simulation platform2015Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Modellering av avloppsreningsverk för multikriteriebedömning av prestanda och miljöpåverkan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By using detailed dynamic plant-wide models and combining results from one-year simulations of ’within-the-fence’ WWTPs (both water- and sludge lines) with life-cycle analysis, different operational strategies can be developed and evaluated based on the total environmental impact (including external activities) while maximizing resource recovery and energy efficiency, maintaining good effluent quality and keeping track of the operational costs. The methodology has been applied and tested in an extensive case study of Käppala WWTP.

  • 11.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund university, Sweden.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Sustainability Analysis forWastewater Heat Recovery - Literature Review2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report describes the literature review conducted on wastewater heat recovery (WWHR). As part of the urban water cycle, domestic hot water consumes the lion share – up to 90 % – of the total energy requirement for water management. Individual energy consumption of 780 to 1 150 kWh/cay/yr has been estimated in Sweden. Energy can be recovered from wastewater, in buildings close to the source or further downstream in the wastewater system. Depending on wastewater flow and temperature heat exchangers or heat pumps (or a combination of both) can be used for extracting heat the energy. Obstacles for utilizing this potential are for example: clogging and fouling of equipment, potentially negative system impacts and economic feasibility. Examples of various WWHR implementations have been found in Sweden, Switzerland and North America. Some installations have been running for a long time and technical function and financial viability has been evaluated and are reviewed in the report. Generally, heat pumps reach a coefficient of performance of 3 to 7, better the higher the wastewater temperature is, i.e. further up-stream.

    WWHR application in a wastewater system can be modelled. The domestic hot water requirement and associated energy use has been modelled previously and concepts can be adapted for modelling the larger system. Equations for calculating performance and output variables from heat recovery equipment have been reviewed and is presented. For the purpose of assessing single WWHR installations in sewers, detailed models have been developed and presented. There are reviewed in the text. Concepts for estimating temperature variations in sewers are essential to assess the impact on wastewater treatment plants. Performance of wastewater treatment plants and their temperature dependence can be modelled with existing process models. Temperature variations along the course of the treatment plant might be important to consider.

    In Sweden, there are currently some regulations related to WWHR. The temperature of hot water systems in buildings are regulated to prevent Legionella outbreaks. Furthermore, the practice of WWHR is limited in extent and requires a permit from the utility as by the contract between the consumer and the utility. Currently, this limits the implementation of WWHR in Sweden.

  • 12.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lunds university, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Multi-objective performance assessment of wastewatertreatment plants combining plant-wide process modelsand life cycle assessment2017In: Journal of Water and Climate Change, ISSN 20402244, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 715-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective performance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluation of modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also resource efficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost calls for assessment methods including both on- and off-site effects. In this study, a method combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG), detailed energy models and operational cost – and life cycle assessment (LCA) was developed. The method was applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performance assessment study, changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primary treatment was evaluated. The results show that the primary objectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce GHG emissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the global warming potential decreased by 28%. However, due to increased consumption of chemicals, the operational cost increased by 87% and the LCA revealed that the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil resources increased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasize the importance of using plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture both the dynamics of the plant and the potential environmental impacts.

  • 13.
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bolin, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norefjell, Fredric
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nyström, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Norrblom, Hans-Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Tööj, Lars
    Industrial Development Center, Sweden.
    Cirkulära möbelflöden: Hur nya affärsmodeller kan bidra till hållbar utveckling inom offentliga möbler2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har en stark möbelindustri och en stolt tradition av att tillverka tidlösa och högkvalitativa möbler, ofta av naturmaterial. 2016 producerade Sverige möbler för 22,8 miljarder SEK, varav kontorsmöbler stod för nästan en fjärdedel1. Det saknas idag statistik över vad som händer med dessa möbler när de inte längre används, men det står klart att många av dem slängs i förtid när verksamheter flyttar eller när deras behov ändras. Samtidigt syns en tydlig utveckling mot att kunder mer och mer efterfrågar återbrukade eller renoverade möbler som en del i sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Denna utveckling var startpunkten för projektet ”Affärsmodell-innovation för cirkulära möbelflöden”.

    Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden är ett Vinnovafinansierat projekt som under åren 2015-2017 arbetat med att utveckla och testa koncept för cirkulära affärsmodeller för i första hand offentliga möbler. I projektet har tjugo aktörer från hela värdekedjan, från underleverantörer, möbelproducenter, återförsäljare och användare till forskare och branschorgan, samarbetat kring affärsutveckling, kundincitament, produktdesign, logistik, hållbarhets- och certifieringsfrågor.

    Den här skriften belyser hur nya affärsmodeller för mer cirkulära möbelflöden kan bidra till en mer hållbar utveckling och ger smakprov på slutsatser från projektet. Skriften riktar sig framför allt till producenter och återförsäljare av möbler för offentliga miljöer, men även kunder och inköpare tror vi kan ha stor nytta av skriften. Vi hoppas att den även kan fungera som inspiration för andra industrier och branscher som funderar på en övergång till mer cirkulära affärsekosystem.

  • 14.
    Bachmaier, Hans
    et al.
    Centre of Excellence for Renewable Resources, Germany.
    Oehler, H.
    Centre of Excellence for Renewable Resources, Germany.
    Hartmann, Hans
    Centre of Excellence for Renewable Resources, Germany.
    Rönnbäck, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jespersen, M. G.
    Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Jensen, Jeppe H.
    Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Schmidl, Christoph
    Bioenergy 2020+, Germany.
    Reichert, Gabriel
    Bioenergy 2020+, Germany.
    Pelz, Stefan K.
    University of Applied Forest Sciences, Germany.
    Wöhler, Marius
    University of Applied Forest Sciences, Germany.
    Bereal - method for pellet stoves: Field test and round robin2017In: European Biomass Conf. Exhib. Proc., ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2017, no 25thEUBCE, p. 642-647Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent pellet stoves perform excellently under type test conditions. In contrast, typical real life emissions show significantly higher values under usual operational conditions. Consequently, type testing procedures may not account for real life stove operation and, thus, do not allow to distinguish between low- and high-tech appliances. The EU-project beReal aimed at the development of a testing method for pellet stoves that reflects real life operations better and to support innovative pellet stoves that perform well under typical operational conditions. Based on an online survey and field observations, an advanced real life testing procedure for pellet stoves was established reflecting real life user behavior, e.g. regarding different load levels and the ignition phase. A field test was designed at the end of the project to demonstrate the applicability and practical relevance. The field test proved that emission values for beReal at the test stand and in the field stay within the same range. A Round Robin test proved the repeatability and reproducibility of the beReal testing procedure. The beReal method can be reproduced with the same statistical variability or performed even better than the type testing method with exception of PM between different laboratories. © 2017, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Talalasova, Elena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    “Rich narratives”: Scenario analyses for the Lighthouse cities and recommendations2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Deliverable 6.2 “Rich narratives” – Scenario analyses forthe Lighthouse cities and recommendations summarizes the process and outcome of Task 6.3 “Contextual Scenario analysis”. The work was carried out during October 2017 – November 2018.

    The deliverable describes one “rich narrative” of a plausible and relevant future each for the lighthouse cities of Umeå, Glasgow, and Rotterdam for the year 2033, specifically by providing a maximum credible upscaling potential of the smart solutions, thereby fulfilling the expectations of the project stakeholders and the description in the Grant Agreement.

    The analysis was performed in close cooperation with each lighthouse city, using foresight and innovations system analysis, notably through (1) interviews with smart solution stakeholders, (2) the creation of the visualisation tool UPSCALE (Upscaling System) to determine the upscaling potential of the technical solutions and innovations, and (3) the execution of one workshop for each city, capturing unique conditions and providing each city with a future image, helping determine which options for action are most robust.

    The results in Deliverable 6.2 will influence Task 6.1 “Innovation Platforms” and serve as an input to Task 6.4 “Assessing the long-term scaling potential and energy system effects of the light house smart solutions”.

  • 16.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Talalasova, Elena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Urban Innovation Systems Analysis2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the urban innovation systems analysis is to provide strategy and governance recommendations to support upscaling of the solutions in each lighthouse city.

    First, enablers and barriers for upscaling are identified using the Critical Context and Conditions framework. Then, the Technological Innovation Systems framework is used to analyse the effects of these barriers and enablers on the main innovation functions of the urban innovation systems. The functioning of each function is assessed and the recommendations for improving them are given. As the final step, potential implications of the recommendations for the existing structural elements of innovation systems are presented.

    The report is structured as follows. First, the method for data collection and data analysis is described. Then, for each city, the barriers and enablers for the innovation system are outlined, followed by an analysis of how these barriers and enablers affect the functioning of the system. The recommendations for national, regional and local governance and strategy are introduced as the next step. The report concludes with a brief reflections and discussion of the results.

  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Simon
    et al.
    Promiko, Sweden.
    Fujii, Dan
    Stockholm Vatten och Avfall, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Andersson, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Held, Henrik
    Veolia, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, David
    Sweden Water Research, Sweden.
    Effektiv luftning: Design, drift, underhåll och upphandling av luftningsutrustning för kommunala avloppsre-ningsverk2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, aeration at municipal wastewater treatment plants is described with focus on energy efficiency. Design of aeration systems is described as well as methods for control, operation, follow-up and maintenance with real examples and model simulations. Guidance for procurement of aeration systems is also provided.

  • 18.
    Berg, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Josell, Åsa
    Atria Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Fredrik, Davidsson
    Geoloc AB, Sweden.
    State of the Art Report Insects as Food and Feed2017In: Annals of Experimental Biology, ISSN ISSN:2348-1935, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FAO has considered insects as food since 2003 and is promoting consumption of insects (entomophagy) in the Western world because of the possibilities for sustainable production it offers. Insects as food are considered to leave smaller ecological footprints than conventional livestock (beef, pigs, and poultry) regarding feed, land and water needs, as well as greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions. As an example regarding water, taken from a recent TV documentary, if a family of four people got their protein need from insects one day a week instead of from conventional livestock, over a year they would save the planet about a million Liters of water. This is in agreement with figures above. One of the main reasons that insects for food in general have such positive environmental properties is that they are cold-blooded and thus use no energy to maintain their body temperature, in contrast to mammals (beef, pig) and birds (poultry), so their feed conversion is considerably more effective than that of conventional livestock. However, differences in feed conversion may also have other reasons, and are complicated to explain, as discussed in a recent review of Life Cycle Assessments of edible insects [9]. In addition, insects can be reared on organic side streams. For example, mealworms can recycle organic residues into high-quality potential feed rich in energy, protein and fat. Insects as food are generally considered as healthy, nutritious alternatives to conventional meats such as chicken, pork, and beef. They are rich in protein, 40-60% of dry matter, with content of essential amino acids similar to beef and soy. Unsaturated fat content is 10-30% of dry matter, and they are high in calcium, iron and zinc. However, there are significant differences depending on insect species, rearing method and feed, etc. .

  • 19.
    Björkmalm, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Byrne, Eoin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van Niel, Ed
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    A non-linear model of hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus for diauxic-like consumption of lignocellulosic sugar mixtures2018In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 11, article id 175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is an attractive hydrogen producer suitable for growth on various lignocellulosic substrates. The aim of this study was to quantify uptake of pentose and hexose monosaccharides in an industrial substrate and to present a kinetic growth model of C. saccharolyticus that includes sugar uptake on defined and industrial media. The model is based on Monod and Hill kinetics extended with gas-to-liquid mass transfer and a cybernetic approach to describe diauxic-like growth.

    Results

    Mathematical expressions were developed to describe hydrogen production by C. saccharolyticus consuming glucose, xylose, and arabinose. The model parameters were calibrated against batch fermentation data. The experimental data included four different cases: glucose, xylose, sugar mixture, and wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) fermentations. The fermentations were performed without yeast extract. The substrate uptake rate of C. saccharolyticus on single sugar-defined media was higher on glucose compared to xylose. In contrast, in the defined sugar mixture and WSH, the pentoses were consumed faster than glucose. Subsequently, the cultures entered a lag phase when all pentoses were consumed after which glucose uptake rate increased. This phenomenon suggested a diauxic-like behavior as was deduced from the successive appearance of two peaks in the hydrogen and carbon dioxide productivity. The observation could be described with a modified diauxic model including a second enzyme system with a higher affinity for glucose being expressed when pentose saccharides are consumed. This behavior was more pronounced when WSH was used as substrate.

    Conclusions

    The previously observed co-consumption of glucose and pentoses with a preference for the latter was herein confirmed. However, once all pentoses were consumed, C. saccharolyticus most probably expressed another uptake system to account for the observed increased glucose uptake rate. This phenomenon could be quantitatively captured in a kinetic model of the entire diauxic-like growth process. Moreover, the observation indicates a regulation system that has fundamental research relevance, since pentose and glucose uptake in C. saccharolyticus has only been described with ABC transporters, whereas previously reported diauxic growth phenomena have been correlated mainly to PTS systems for sugar uptake.

  • 20.
    Björn-Hansen, Aksel
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Building Momentum: Scaling up Change in Community Organizations2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Addressing calls in Sustainable HCI to scale up our work in HCI targeting sustainability, and the current knowledge gap of how to do this practically, we here present a qualitative study of 10 sustainability-oriented community organizations that are working to scale up their change making. They are all loosely connected to a local Transition network, meaning that they are aiming at transforming current practices in society, through local and practical action, to meet challenges related to climate change. We wanted to know how they try to scale up their change making, and what role ICT plays in enabling scaling up. The study contributes new insights about three stages of scaling up, in which ICT plays different roles. We conclude with implications for HCI for how to support community organizations in scaling up, while keeping values important for working toward a more resilient society.

  • 21.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Enger, Johanna
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Hiller, Carolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Bright Communication: Belysningskommunikation med fokus på perception och energi2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote an efficient use of energyfor lighting, while putting the user's perception and light comfort in focus,this project has developed methods and tools to communicate light and lighting.To ensure that light environments are designed from a user perspective,existing definitions of light quality, which are mainly based on technicalterms, have been supplemented with concepts and definitions of visual and emotionalcharacter of light. The lighting industry and professional purchasers have beeninvolved in all phases of the project in order to develop methods and toolsthat are well-grounded and applicable by different actors involved in theprocess from light planning to the implementation of lighting environments. Lighting accounts for a significant part of the total energy use in buildings,about 20 per cent for households and 40 per cent for premises. The energysaving potential is thus high. Moreover, Europe is facing a shift towards moreenergy efficient lighting as a result of both regulations and technologydevelopment. Still, Swedish consumers tend to prefer incandescent light, as itis perceived to provide better comfort compared to modern light sources.Therefore, in order to motivate property owners and consumers to convert tomore energy-efficient products, it is necessary to focus more on the visual andemotional qualities of light. Today, however, knowledge, concepts and tools to communicateand measure visual light quality are lacking. This challenge has been the motivationand starting point for the development of methods for assessing objective andsubjective light qualities for light sources, luminaires and light environmentswithin this project and to translate the results into tools targeting theindustry. The project has developed a draft communication tool based on the humanperception of light quality. The tool aims to constitute a neutralcommunication point and to supports both the lighting industry and professionalpurchaser, and thus also the end user. By reducing misunderstandings andincreasing the consensus between actors in different parts of the process fromlight planning to implementation, the tool is expected to promote lightenvironments that are both energy-efficient and provide attractive perceptionand comfort.

  • 22.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Larsson, Annika
    Solbruket: Batterilager för ökad solelproduktion i det moderna lantbruket2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for solar power production in the Swedish agriculture is significant but is highly limited by the capacity in the low-voltage grid. The use of battery storages may be a possibility to increase the self-consumption of solar power and reduce the power exchange to the grid, and thereby avoid expensive grid reinforcements.In order to build knowledge about both technical and user-related possibilities and challenges with grid-connected battery storages for Swedish farms with PV, RISE and Vattenfall have built a pilot plant on a farm in Hälsingland and conducted two sociotechnical studies with interviews and questionnaires concerning obstacles, drivers and benefits associated with battery storages, as they are perceived by Swedish farmers at present.The results point at a number of challenges for battery storages to become an attractive investment for farmers, which include:- Reliability: lifetime and performance of the battery technology is unclear.- Economy: profit versus investment costs.- Long-term storage: seasonal storage of energy is perceived as more attractive than short-term storage.- Supporting backup power: an added value that may motivate higher investment costs.- Climate and environmental benefits: important aspects that are unclear for the present battery technology.These challenges need to be addressed in technical system solutions, services and business models in order to motivate this particular group to invest in battery storages to complement their existing PV power plants.The results from the pilot plant also points at a number of practical benefits and possibilities associated with the system solution. Apart from creating value by cutting power peaks and enable increased self-consumption of solar power, the farmers appreciate the increased convenience provided by the batteries. Since the battery storage cuts the highest power peaks and thereby reduces the risk of local power failures, it is no longer crucial when in time power-consuming equipment is used. This offers a new flexibility in the daily routines. The main economic benefit raised by the farmers is the possibility of a lower fuse subscription.The results from Solbruket provide increased knowledge about farmers with PV and how battery storages can create value for the specific target group. This knowledge can be used by product and services developers to develop attractive technical solutions, services and business models targeting the specific market. However, it is crucial to keep in mind that the battery technology is perceived as immature, and that an investment is regarded as a significant risk. Only when there is balance between technical maturity and investment costs, it is reasonable for the consumer to consider different business models.

  • 23.
    Borgqvist, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ågren, Thomas
    ICA Fastigheter, Sweden.
    Westman, Bo
    INCERT, Sweden.
    Swartz, Harry
    Hållbar miljö & strategi, Sweden.
    Certifierad energikonsult livsmedelsbutiker2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har undersökt förutsättningarna för en frivillig, ej ackrediterad certifiering av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker. Det långsiktiga målet är att butiker med hjälp av certifierade energikonsulter skall få effektiva och kvalitativa energikartläggningar som innefattar såväl fastighetens som verksamhetens energianvändning och hur de olika delarna kan samverka för största möjliga energieffektivisering.

    Det finns en mycket stor potential att spara energi i butiker. Dagens genomsnittsbutik kan minska sin energianvändning med en tredjedel. Idag finns också en ökad miljömedvetenhet hos svenska livsmedelsbutiker, och med ett större behov av kyld mat har energifrågorna fått en allt större betydelse. Medlemmar i BELIVS Innovationskluster har länge efterfrågat en certifiering av energikonsulter för livmedelsbutiker, som utgår ifrån beställarnas behov. Detta för att öka andelen butiker med låg energianvändning, säker drift och liten miljöpåverkan.

    Förstudiens resultat består av; identifierade behov ur ett beställarperspektiv, en kravspecifikation som beskriver certifieringens kompetenskrav, en beskrivning av hur en certifiering är tänkt att gå till, samt ett exempel på hur ett certifieringsprov kan se ut. Dessutom har fyra stycken testcertifieringar genomförts, där exempelprovet har testats av energikonsulter. Tanken är att förstudiens resultat skall kunna användas som underlag för att ta fram ett färdigt certifieringsprogram.

    Den generella slutsatsen från förstudien är att certifieringen av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker är genomförbar, men beställarna behöver efterfråga certifieringen i sina upphandlingar av konsulter om denna skall slå på marknaden. Baserat på diskussioner med representanter från konsultsidan, bedömer projektgruppen att det finns ett intresse för certifieringen så länge beställarna kommer att efterfråga detta. Att få fler beställare bakom den föreslagna certifieringen är den viktigaste åtgärden i ett nästa steg.

    RISE har drivit projektet tillsammans med INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop och Hållbar Miljö & Strategi. Projektgruppen har haft kontakt med Bergendahls och Axfood vilka har deltagit vid enstaka arbetsmöten.

    Finansiärer av förstudien är Energimyndigheten, INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop samt Bergendahls.

  • 24.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Systematisk utvärdering av hållbarhet vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det europeiska fastighetsbeståndet är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, men också för att skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor samtidigt som fastighetsägare drivs av ökad ekonomisk bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur mål av detta slag ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier.

    Med hjälp av Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar med hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Med Renobuild Skola utvärderas skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på inte bara ekonomi och miljö, utan också med hänsyn till elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Metodiken genererar en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som ska ge fastighetsägare och samarbetspartners fördjupad förståelse för möjliga hållbarhetskonsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ samt tillfälle att diskutera och göra avvägningar mellan olika mål.

    Renobuild består av en Excelfil och en användarhandbok fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbplats, tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial för den som vill få en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Förhoppningen är att metodiken nu ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 25.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Folland, Anna
    Hedén, Alice
    Renobuild 2.0 – verktyg för systematisk hållbarhetsutvärdering vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fastighetsbeståndet i Sverige och resten av Europa är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor och öka dess ekonomiska bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur dessa mål ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier. I Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar. Analysen tar hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Renobuild Skola utvärderar skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på ekonomi, miljö och sociala aspekter så som elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Resultatet ger en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som fördjupar fastighetsägares och samarbetspartners förståelse för möjliga konsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ. Renobuild består av ett Excelark och en användarhandbok som är fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbsida tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial. En del av det materialet är den här rapporten som ämnar ge en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Rapporten beskriver vad användaren kan utvärdera med hjälp av dessa verktyg, hur verktyget behandlar indata, hur resultatet framställs och visualiseras samt hur den nya version 2.0 skiljer sig från en tidigare version. Här beskrivs också hur bakgrundsdata och teori har används för att utveckla innehållet i verktygen. Dessutom diskuteras det vilka avgränsningar som har gjorts i den miljömässiga, ekonomiska och sociala analysen – alltså reflektioner kring systemgränserna för respektive hållbarhetsdimension. Förhoppningen är att metodiken ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 26.
    Brolin, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Controlling a retailer's short-term financial risk exposure using demand response2019In: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, ISSN 1751-8687, E-ISSN 1751-8695, Vol. 13, no 22, p. 5160-5170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition of the electric power system to reach sustainability goals leads to new market conditions with larger uncertainties. This constitutes new challenges and opportunities for new as well as for existing market players such as retailers. In a future more volatile and unpredictable market, financial risk management becomes an important element for such actors in order to achieve viable businesses. Different instruments can be applied for this purpose, where demand response can contribute in the short-term to manage risks related to price variations and imbalance costs. This study contributes to the enhancement of retailer's businesses by presenting a stochastic optimisation model exploring the possibility to apply demand response to control financial risk exposure. The model considers trading and demand response scheduling for different customer clusters, generating optimal trading volumes for day-ahead markets while also considering the possibility to trade intra-day. The optimisation considers uncertainties in prices and loads as well as imbalance settlement costs. Risk management is integrated into the model by applying conditional value-at-risk as risk measures. The developed model has also been applied in a case study with data from the Swedish and Nordic electricity market together with simulated load profiles for different customer clusters. 

  • 27.
    Brorström, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gränsöverskridande organiseringför hållbar utveckling2019In: INNOVATIONOCHSTADSUTVECKLING : En forskningsantologiom organiseringsutmaningarför stad och kommun / [ed] Jessica Algehed, Erica Eneqvist,Christian Jensen & Jenny Lööf, 2019, p. 149-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att skapa en framtida hållbar stad krävs ambitioner, mål och en tydlighet angående vart staden är på väg och hur förvaltningar och bolag tillsammans ska ta sig dit. Över tid har hållbarhetsfrågan mer och mer kommitatt handla om organisation: hur ska våra organisationer se ut och hur skade arbeta för att kunna hantera alla de utmaningar vi står inför? ForskarnaMoldavanova och Goerdel (2018) menar till exempel att en organisationmåste vara ”self-sustainable”, för att kunna hantera stora utmaningar ochhöga ambitioner. Det innebär att en organisation måste ha kapacitet för attkunna hantera en så stor utmaning som hållbarhet är. När vi pratar om organiseringen av hållbarhetsfrågan har diskussionen rört sig till en ”meso-nivå”, det vill säga en organisationsnivå. Det finns idag en kritik mot attmoderna organisationer ofta är kortsiktigt fokuserade, något som förstärksav New Public Management-paradigmet. Att utvärderas och kontrolleras på kort sikt men samtidigt arbeta motlångsiktiga mål är en problematik som vi har stött på i våra studier avsvenska städer och deras hållbarhetsarbete. Vi möter också ofta uttalandensom tyder på att det tar upp mycket tid och kraft för tjänstepersoner attfundera på hur organisationen ska se ut, vem som ska ingå i olika projekt,hur beslut fattas och hur kultur kan förändras. Våra studier visar också attmånga komplexa frågor som handlar om hur staden ska te sig i framtidenbehandlas i gränsöverskridande samverkan. Detta är i sig inte förvånande,många har konstaterat att de samhälleliga utmaningar vi står inför inte kanhanteras av en organisation enskilt, utan måste hanteras över gränser (Williams, 2012). Men förutom att hållbarhetsfrågan är utmanande i sig, finnsdet också flertalet utmaningar som har att göra med själva organiseringen.I det här kapitlet beskriver vi utmaningarna som uppstår i organisationersom har att arbeta med hållbarhetsfrågan. Vi kommer att utgå från två olikastudier av två städer, där organiseringen skiljer sig åt och där man därförhar valt två olika sätt att lösa ett problem, eller snarare att möta en utmaning. Vi inleder med att först kortfattat beskriva de två städernas arbete föratt sedan beskriva utmaningarna.

  • 28.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Falk, Petter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    What can LCA learnfrom service design: User integration?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a sustainable society, the use of resources and climate issues needs to be reduced, and the introduction of services seems to be the solution in the new “service” economy. Similar to products, services are designed to fulfill costumer needs. However, customers are seldom involved in the design of products, while they are in the process of service design. Here we look at the leisure service sector to find method concepts for sustainable analysis (Berlin & Brunklaus 2016).

    So far, a literature study and LCA studies on services (Brunklaus 2016) like the opera and theatre (Algehed et al 2010), tourist (Brunklaus et al 2015), and film (Brunklaus et al 2015) has been performed using a producer and consumer perspective, which led to discussion about the reuse of scenes at the opera, and discussion about tourist packages and discussion about film production design. To get this even further, we have looked into the area of service design.

    The purpose of this project is to further develop the various LCA based methods (E-LCA, S-LCA, LCC) in order to integrate user into the design process. The questions are: What can the life cycle methodology learn from service design? What are the similarities and differences?

    The service design includes several parts: Prepare and define the problem, capture the service and user through ethograpichly oriented research tools, Understand the employee and the user, Improve the working process, and Renew the user function (SP service LABs 2016). The life cycle methodology includes also several parts: Goal and scope including the problem and the system of study, the Inventory includes the technical system and environmental or social or economic data, the Impact Assessment includes indicators, and the Interpretation includes technical solutions and hot spot analysis of various kinds (Bauman and Tillman 2004).

    The results show that the service design is developed close to the customer, including study visits and observation, which the life cycle methodology seems to lack. On the other hand the life cycle methodology gains in the well-structured goal and scope. In order to develop the life cycle methodology further we therefore recommend integrating the user more and focusing on the implementation and visualization, similar to Service design.

  • 29.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Choice of social indicators within technology development – the case of mobile biorefineries in Europe2018In: Social LCA: People and Places for Partnership, 2018, p. 162-166Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Aid, Graham
    Ragnsells, Sweden.
    The value of transdisciplinary perspectives duringtransition to a bio-based economy: The prospect for converting mixed food wasteinto bio-based chemicals2018In: Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products andPolicies: From Science to Innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, Spinger , 2018, p. 327-335Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the current political and industrial transition to a bio-based

    economy, food waste can be an alternative resource for biobased chemicals. This

    chapter describes a case study that evaluates the prospect for Swedish production of

    biobased chemicals such as succinic acid from food waste. The evaluation is

    addressed from multiple systems perspectives. From a technical and resource

    system perspective, the results of the case study show that production seems possible.

    However, from a social system perspective succinic acid production currently

    lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for realizing

    development in Sweden. From an environmental and life cycle perspective, the

    scoping of the analysis is decisive for the results. The study shows that multiple

    perspectives complement each other when seeking a nuanced evaluation of technical

    innovation and give insights for the intended value chain.

  • 31.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Carlsson, Erica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    The future of Swedish food waste: An environmental assessment of existing and prospective valorization techniques2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 202, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the current dominant valorization of food waste is the production of biogas. However, as current production has low profitability, other options are sought to find more valuable uses of food waste, e.g. as the feedstock for bio-based chemicals. One example is the use of food waste in the production of bio-based succinic acid. In this paper, a LCA study is presented in order to highlight whether biogas production or the production of succinic acid has the lowest environmental impact as valorization option for mixed food waste, and if mixed food waste could be an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. The LCA study shows that the environmental results depend on the perspective. From a valorization perspective, food waste has the lowest environmental impact the biogas production. From a feedstock perspective, mixed food waste is an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. Although many uncertainties exist because production processes are still being developed, it can be concluded that mixed food waste seems to be a promising feedstock for bio-based chemicals from an environmental point of view, and is of interest to be included in future assessments of bio-based chemicals for the emerging bio-economy. © 2018

  • 32.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Riise, Ellen
    SCA, Sweden.
    Bio-based Materials Within the CircularEconomy: Opportunities and Challenges2018In: Designing SustainableTechnologies,Products and Policies : from Science to Innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, 2018, p. 43-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a circular society, material consumption should be a circular processwhere renewable resources and waste streams are used for new bio-based materials.In such a society, bio-based materials are also reused, repaired, recycled, andremanufactured. Not only choices on resources, but also other life cycle choicespertaining to circularity must be done based on technological, environmental andeconomic basis. For this session, presentations and discussions regarding life cyclemanagement of bio-based materials were suggested. The session had five oralpresentations and six poster presentations that gave a general picture of a broaderenvironmental and a positive economic result on a life cycle basis when renewableraw materials are used, while further exploration of the technical aspects withincircularity and end-of-life challenges are needed in the future.

  • 33.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Schnurr, Maria
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    8 ton society Sweden: Assessing the material footprint of sharing and circular lifestyles in housing,mobility and food2019In: Life Cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9, article id 96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The average Swedish household throws away 480 kg of solid garbage per year. But this amount of material is only a small share of the resource consumption that our lifestylegives rise to. Our homes need to be built, goods produced, we are transported,and food is produced. In today's linear consumption society, every individual inthe EU is estimated to have a material footprint of 29 tons/year on average – afootprint that needs to shrink to 8 tons in order to stay within “planetaryboundaries”. In a circular system, products are recycled and shared leading toless resources and materials needed, but do we know how much? Which resourceand material consumption is generated in Sweden? What could we achieve througha transition to a sharing and circular economy, and how would our consumptionpatterns look like within a sustainable material lifestyle? The goal of thisstudyis to assess the material footprint of sharing and circular lifestyles inhousing, mobility and food system. "8 ton society" takes athree-level method approach: (1) National: assessing the material footprint ofsharing and circular lifestyles in housing, mobility and food systems on anational level. (2) Municipal: Mapping material and waste streams at municipallevel (for the three Swedish municipalities Göteborg, Malmö och Umeå), by whichmunicipalities can identify opportunities for a circular society, for exampleby supplementing existing climate strategies and waste plans with circularaction plans. (3) Household: Combined with a household level analysis ofmaterial footprints, the project contributes to behavioral change at householdlevel as well as strengthened decision making and innovation at national andmunicipal level. The results of the study are material footprints and scenariosthat are used as basis for the development of reduction measures. The scenariosdescribe potential “8t societies” for Sweden, meaning potential policy andsocietal innovations that allow for a drastic reduction of material footprint.These include sharing and circular solutions. Additionally, the project willcontrast the Swedish results to similar projects that have been carried out in Finland and Germany.

  • 34.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stahl, Selim
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Socio-economic analysis based on a life cycle perspective: The comparison of existing and emerging production process for trimethyl phosphite2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Byrne, Eoin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Krisztyna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Van Niel, Ed W. J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Svensson, Sven-Erik
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kreuger, Emma
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Reduced use of phosphorus and water in sequential dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and the application of ensiled steam-pretreated lucerne as a macronutrient provider in anaerobic digestion2018In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Current EU directives demand increased use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector but restrict governmental support for production of biofuels produced from crops. The use of intercropped lucerne and wheat may comply with the directives. In the current study, the combination of ensiled lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) and wheat straw as substrate for hydrogen and methane production was investigated. Steam-pretreated and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw [WSH, 76% of total chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and ensiled lucerne (LH, 24% of total COD) were used for sequential hydrogen production through dark fermentation and methane production through anaerobic digestion and directly for anaerobic digestion. Synthetic co-cultures of extreme thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species adapted to elevated osmolalities were used for dark fermentation. Results: Based on 6 tested steam pretreatment conditions, 5 min at 200 °C was chosen for the ensiled lucerne. The same conditions as applied for wheat straw (10 min at 200 °C with 1% acetic acid) would give similar sugar yields. Volumetric hydrogen productivities of 6.7 and 4.3 mmol/L/h and hydrogen yields of 1.9 and 1.8 mol/mol hexose were observed using WSH and the combination of WSH and LH, respectively, which were relatively low compared to those of the wild-type strains. The combinations of WSH plus LH and the effluent from dark fermentation of WSH plus LH were efficiently converted to methane in anaerobic digestion with COD removal of 85-89% at organic loading rates of COD 5.4 and 8.5 g/L/day, respectively, in UASB reactors. The nutrients in the combined hydrolysates could support this conversion. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the possibility of reducing the water addition to WSH by 26% and the phosphorus addition by 80% in dark fermentation with Caldicellulosiruptor species, compared to previous reports. WSH and combined WSH and LH were well tolerated by osmotolerant co-cultures. The yield was not significantly different when using defined media or hydrolysates with the same concentrations of sugars. However, the sugar concentration was negatively correlated with the hydrogen yield when comparing the results to previous reports. Hydrolysates and effluents from dark fermentation can be efficiently converted to methane. Lucerne can serve as macronutrient provider in anaerobic digestion. Intercropping with wheat is promising.

  • 36.
    Chen, Huijuan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stensson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Energy performance of door solutions2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project aim was to develop knowledge about the energy performance of different door solutions. The door types that we have focused on are automatic sliding doors and revolving doors. Losses through a door depend on its U-value, infiltration leakage through the seal when closed and unintended air exchange when the door is open and in use. It is the last factor, the unintended air exchange when in use, which is mostly addressed in this report and it is also the most significant part when it comes to energy losses through entrance doors.

    To achieve environmental targets, energy use in buildings must be reduced. There is a gap regarding knowledge about the energy losses through the entrances and how it affects the total energy use of the building. The problems regarding entrances are neglected in calculations of low energy buildings, even though they in many cases may have a large impact on the energy use. Meanwhile, the unintended air exchange through the doors is a parameter that has a large uncertainty and that is difficult to predict in energy calculations. To achieve a better accuracy in calculated energy performance, better methods and estimations regarding the unintentional air exchange through the entrances is needed.

    In the project we measured air exchange rates through a revolving door and investigated the effect of temperature difference and door rotation speed in our laboratory, based on a reduced scale revolving door with the scaling 1:2.  Both temperature measurements and tracer gas measurements were performed, and the temperature measurements gave more stable results. The measured air exchange rate was affected more by the door rotation speed than the temperature difference, within the measuring ranges that was tested.

    Further, we have also analyzed and applied existing calculation models for entrance doors. Calculations for estimating the energy losses for a door was made for a simple case study of an office building in Gothenburg, based on a number of different calculation models for sliding doors and revolving doors. The calculation results for this specific study show that the revolving door can prevent up to 60-90% of the losses compared to a sliding door depending on which air flow scenario, i.e., single sided- or cross ventilation, is considered for the sliding door. Better knowledge is needed to understand the actual air flow profile of real cases when the sliding door is installed in a building. Furthermore, additional studies are needed for the revolving door to ensure the results from this study by e.g., extended laboratory measurements and also field tests. Also, how other parameters such as wind (magnitude, direction and incidence angle) and door usage affecting air exchange through a revolving door is needed to be investigated further. Next step to develop a reliable model for revolving doors is to repeat the measurements performed in this project on a full scale revolving door and with a larger test range.

  • 37.
    Coutiño, Ana Martha
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wahlberg, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    McNamara, Greg
    Dublin City University, Ireland.
    Demonstration project to prove the techno-economic feasibility of using algae to treat saline wastewater from the food industry2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable is a process report of tasks 7.2 and 7.3 concerning the techno-economic and environmental evaluation of the SaltGae system. It also describes the plan forward to execute task 7.4 and 7.5 regarding the social and integrated sustainability assessments. The last section also includes a process report of the SaltGae Visualisation tool (SVT).

  • 38.
    Dahlqvist, Peter
    et al.
    SGU Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindhe, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rosén, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nisell, Jakob
    SGU Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Hellstrand, Eva
    SGU Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Holgersson, Björn
    SGU Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Potential benefits of managed aquifer recharge MAR on the Island of Gotland, Sweden2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Island of Gotland (3000 km2), east of mainland Sweden, suffers from insufficient water availability each summer. Thin soils and lack of coherent reservoirs in the sedimentary bedrock lead to limited reservoir capacity. The feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is explored by identifying suitable areas and estimating their possible contribution to an increased water availability. MARis compared to alternative water management measures, e.g., increased groundwater abstraction, in terms of costs and water availability potential. Results from GIS analyses of infiltration areas and groundwater storage, respectively proximity to surface water sources and surface water storage were classified into three categories of MAR suitability. An area of ca 7700 ha (2.5% of Gotland) was found to have good local conditions for MAR and an area of ca 22,700 ha (7.5% of Gotland) was found to have moderate local conditions for MAR. These results reveal the MAR potential on Gotland. The water supply potential of MAR in existing well fields was estimated to be about 35% of the forecasted drinking water supply and 7% of the total water demand gap in year 2045. It is similar in costs and water supply potential to increased surface water extraction. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 39.
    Davidsson, Kent
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stålenheim, Annika
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Boman, Katarina
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Sotningsmetoder för pannor som använder besvärliga bbränslen2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Erfarenheter samt finansierings- och driftkostnader har tagits fram för en rad

    sotningsmetoder.

    Resultatet visar att av de studerade anläggningarna finns det ingen metod som generellt

    bara fungerar bra, eller generellt inte fungerar alls. Alla har sina för och nackdelar och

    fungerar olika bra på olika pannor. Kostnadsmässigt är det också stor spridning men det

    beror delvis på ett ganska litet underlag. I vissa fall blir kostnaderna väldigt höga om

    bristande funktion leder till mycket stilleståndstid eller att man exempelvis får minska

    lasten under sotningssekvensen, medan det i andra fall är relativt låga kostnader för

    samma metod.

    Ett trettiotal anläggningar av rost- och fluidbäddtyp, vilka eldades med avfall eller

    biobränsle har ingått i undersökningen.

  • 40.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hostile urban architecture: A critical discussion of the seemingly offensive art of keeping people away2017In: Etikk i praksis, ISSN 1890-3991, E-ISSN 1890-4009, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 27-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, some urban architecture has aimed to exclude unwanted groups of people from some locations. This type of architecture is called “defensive” or “hostile” architecture and includes benches that cannot be slept on, spikes in the ground that cannot be stood on, and pieces of metal that hinder one’s ability to skateboard. These defensive measures have sparked public outrage, with many thinking such measures lead to suffering, are disrespectful, and violate people’s rights. In this paper, it is argued that these views are difficult to defend and that much more empirical research on the topic is needed.

  • 41.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Justifying Antibiotic Resistance Interventions: Uncertainty, Precaution and Ethics2018In: Ethics and Drug-Resistant Infections:  Collective Responsibility for Global Public Health / [ed] Jamrozik E. och Selgelid M.J, Springer, 2018, 5Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter charts and critically analyses the ethical challenge of assessing how much (and what kind of) evidence is required for the justification of interventions in response antibiotic resistance (ABR), as well as other major public health threats. Our ambition here is to chart and briefly discuss main issues, and point to ways in which these need to be further advanced in future research. This will result in a tentative map of complications, underlying problems and possible challenges. This map illustrates that the ethical challenges in this area are much more complex and profound than is usually acknowledged, leaving no tentatively plausible intervention package free of downsides. This creates potentially overwhelming theoretical conundrums when trying to justify what to do. We therefore end by pointing out two general features of the complexity we find to be of particular importance, and a tentative suggestion for how to create a theoretical basis for further analysis.

  • 42.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Russell Hardin: Trust and trustworthiness2017In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 52-61Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 43.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    PRISMA: Processverktyg för social hållbarhet i stadsdelsomvandling2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett verktyg som kan användas av små och mellanstora kommuner som ett processtöd i stadsplaneringsprocesser.

  • 44.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Munthe, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nijsingh, Niels
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    TESTING INTERVENTIONS FOR DRASTICPUBLIC HEALTH THREATS: "SOCIAL VALUE", PRAGMATIC RISKS AND THE CHALLENGE OF HEALTH-RELATED RESEARCH ETHICS THE CASE OF DRUG RESISTANCE2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    de Jong, Sierk
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Hoefnagels, Ric
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Faaij, Andre
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Junginger, Martin
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 195, p. 1055-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations (i.e. supply chains with an intermediate pre-treatment step to reduce biomass transport cost). The model assessed biofuel production levels ranging from 1 to 150 PJ a−1 in the context of the existing Swedish forest industry. Biofuel was produced from forestry biomass using hydrothermal liquefaction and hydroprocessing. Simultaneous implementation of all cost reduction strategies yielded minimum biofuel production costs of 18.1–18.2 € GJ−1 at biofuel production levels between 10 and 75 PJ a−1. Limiting the economies of scale was shown to cause the largest cost increase (+0–12%, increasing with biofuel production level), followed by disabling integration benefits (+1–10%, decreasing with biofuel production level) and allowing unimodal truck transport only (+0–6%, increasing with biofuel production level). Distributed supply chain configurations were introduced once biomass supply became increasingly dispersed, but did not provide a significant cost benefit (<1%). Disabling the benefits of integration favors large-scale centralized production, while intermodal transport networks positively affect the benefits of economies of scale. As biofuel production costs still exceeds the price of fossil transport fuels in Sweden after implementation of all cost reduction strategies, policy support and stimulation of further technological learning remains essential to achieve cost parity with fossil fuels for this feedstock/technology combination in this spatiotemporal context. © 2017 The Authors

  • 46.
    Edo Gimenez, Mar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Manual för plockanalyser av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Edo Giménez, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rapp, Magnus
    Ragn-Sells Recycling AB, Sweden.
    Radlert, Åke
    Swerock AB, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    PROFU, Sweden.
    Weiss, Monika
    SRV återvinning AB, Sweden.
    Manual för plockanalyser av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This manual provides instructions on how to perform sorting analyses of combustible construction and demolition waste studied in the project Framtidens avfallsbränsle – Uppströmsarbete och kvalitet.The sorting strategy described in this manual recommends sorting out the content of the waste sample based on its composition (referred to as main fractions) and functionality (referred to as subfractions). In this way, four material fractions are identified and sorted out (i.e. plastic, paper, wood and “others combustible and non-combustible materials”), and up to 48 different subfraction (i.e. plastic pipes, wooden furniture, packaging paper, cables, metal pieces etc.).It is important to mention that the subfractions listed in this report are indicative: not all of the subfractions listed are always found in the combustible construction and demolition waste. Additions or substitutions may be necessary to ensure the best outcomes from the sorting analyses depending on the aim and goals of the project.The way the waste sample is handled before a sorting analysis is performed is essential. For that reason, this manual also includes instructions about sample collection, identification and storage once the sample is received at the sorting waste plants; as well as brief recommendations about how to perform a pre-sorting of those materials with a potential for recycling and waste which can be easily removed.

  • 48.
    Edo, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu, Sweden.
    Engman, Martin
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    Profu, Sweden.
    Solis, Martyna
    Profu, Sweden.
    Reduktion av mängden brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I övergången mot en cirkulär ekonomi är nyttiggörande av avfall och att använda detta som resurser en viktig hörnsten. Bygg- och rivningsavfall är en av de största avfallsströmmarna i Europa och uppskattas till omkring 800 miljoner ton per år inom EU (Europeiska kommissionen, 2019). I Sverige uppkommer omkring 10 miljoner ton bygg- och rivningsavfall varje år (Naturvårdsverket, 2018). Bygg- och rivningsavfall anses vara en avfallsström med stor potential till en förbättrad avfallshantering genom materialåtervinning jämfört med idag. Samtidigt har underlaget om vad det brännbara bygg- respektive rivningsavfallet innehåller varit väldigt knapphändigt.

    Projektets ambitioner har varit dels att öka kunskapen kring sammansättningen av brännbart bygg- respektive rivningsavfall och dels att med hjälp av diskussioner och intervjuer mellan/med olika led i värdekedjan ta fram rekommendationer till åtgärder för att säkerställa att det avfall som går till energiåtervinning bara består av sådant som inte kan återvinnas effektivare på annat sätt. Ett visst fokus har också varit kring plast som har en viktig inverkan på miljöavtrycket både för bygg- och rivningssektorn såväl som på energisektorn.

    I projektet gjordes plockanalyser på byggavfall och på rivningsavfall. Som ett resultat av detta arbete utvecklades en manual tillsammans med aktörerna som utförde plockanalyserna. Denna manual finns publicerad som en separat SBUF rapport för att underlätta användandet av den.

    Även om mängden plockanalyser var begränsat och inte kan sägas utgöra ett medel för respektive avfallstyp kunde fortfarande intressant observationer göras. Analyserna visade att det finns en hel del material i de brännbara fraktionerna som borde ha sorterats ut för materialåtervinning. I snitt utgjordes det brännbara byggavfallet till drygt 30 % av pappers och plastförpackningar. Detta är strömmar som omfattas av producentansvar och där det redan idag finns fungerande processer för materialåtervinning. Plast i sig stod för nästan 30% av det brännbara byggavfallet och av det utgjordes 50% av förpackningar. När det gällde rivningsavfallet fanns det exempel där mer än 50% av den så kallade brännbara fraktionen utgjordes av icke-brännbart material (främst gips).

    De förbättringsåtgärder som identifierats i projektet är en mix från komplexa åtgärder för normändring, ny affärslogik och kommunikation i värdekedjan till konkret om antal containrar vid sortering, förbättrade möten vid projektuppstart, och behov av ett utökat återtagande av förpackningar.

    Några av de största hindren för en ökad återvinning idag är:

    • Huvudsakligen kostnadsdrivna processer där avfall och resurshushållning får en underordnad betydelse

    • Otydlighet om miljönyttan – representanter för byggföretag påtalar att man saknar en tydlig information, kvantifiering och kommunikation om miljönyttan av att materialåtervinna istället för att energiåtervinna de brännbara avfallsfraktionerna.

    • Företagsledningarnas prioriteringar - de är avgörande för att bryta normer och ställa om till ett mer cirkulärt tänk

    • Tidsbrist vid inventeringar samt brist på utrymme för källsortering

    • Att sorteringsanläggningarna idag snarast är optimerade för bränsletillverkning än för att sortera ut så mycket återvinningsbart material som möjligt

     

    Projektet drar följande slutsatser, grupperade inom olika delar:

    Sammansättning:

    • Studien ger ett unikt, offentligt dataunderlag kring sammansättningen av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall, som tidigare saknats. Underlaget ger en indikation på framförallt vad som finns i byggavfallet och kan användas när avfallsstrategier uppdateras/tas fram.

    • Byggavfall och rivningsavfall måste separeras när man diskuterar åtgärder för såväl minimering som återvinning och återbruk eftersom förutsättningarna avsevärt skiljer sig åt mellan de två avfallsströmmarna.

    • Resultatet visar att brännbart rivningsavfall kan innehålla en betydande andel icke brännbart avfall, en andel som i vissa fall uppgått till så mycket som 50 procent varav gips utgjort den största andelen.

    • Den genomsnittliga koncentrationen av klor i både byggavfall och rivningsavfall är i samma storleksordning som den i RDF-avfall. Hårdplast är den fraktion som bidrar mest till klorinnehållet i båda avfallsströmmarna.

    • Byggavfall visade högre kvicksilverinnehåll jämfört med rivningsavfall och RDF och SRF. Det var inte möjligt att identifiera källan till kvicksilver i de analyserade proverna.

     

    Potential för materialåtervinning

    • Det brännbara byggavfallet skulle kunna minskas med upp till 33 procent enbart genom en väl fungerande källsortering och insamling av förpackningar (plast, papper och kartong).

    • Det finns en stor potential att öka återvinningen av plast från det brännbara byggavfallet - plockanalyserna visade att av plasten är det upp till 49 procent mjukplastförpackningar, som ingår i producentansvaret och har befintliga system för materialåtervinning

     

    Beteende, policies och prioriteringar

    • Den största utmaningen för minskade avfallsmängder och förbättrad avfallsbehandling är att företagsekonomisk rationalitet driver företagens dagliga verksamhet, och att avfall och avfallsbehandling ofta är en underordnad fråga.

    • Det pågår arbete för förbättrad resurshushållning och avfallshantering inom bygg- och rivningssektorerna för att utbilda och sprida kunskap, samt få branschaktörer att i praktiken agera efter befintlig kunskap.

    • Företagsledningens prioriteringar har stor potential att förändra normer och prioriteringar för inköpsprocesser för avfallsförebyggande, kvalitetssäkring för återanvändning och ökad källsortering. Dessa insatser upplevs medföra en större arbetsinsats, som innebär högre kostnader, än dagens norm med överbeställningar och avfallsgenerering.

    • Det finns ett stort behov av att sprida kunskapen om vikten av återvinning och avfalls-minskning längs hela värdekedjan.

    • Det finns ett stort behov av tidig och detaljerad planering av bygg- och rivningsprojekt, som inkluderar plan för avfallshantering genom hela projektet. I de nya avfallsriktlinjerna från Sveriges Byggindustrier rekommenderas att inventering ska göras även på återanvändbart och återvinningsbart material

    • Utökad sortering och återvinning av rivningsavfall hindras huvudsakligen av brist på tid för inventering och selektiv rivning, samt brist på utrymme för sortering.

    • Det finns ett behov av att förändra ordningen att dagens sorteringsanläggningar av blandat bygg- och rivningsavfall primärt syftar till att ta fram en bränslefraktion, snarare än att sortera avfallet för materialåtervinning

     

    Några rekommendationer från projektet till aktörer i byggsektorn:

    • Skapa strategi och samarbete för normförändring genom hela kedjan från tillverkare, byggherre och byggentreprenör som alla måste prioritera arbetet med att minimera och sortera avfall, för att nå en förändring. En väg kan vara att öka utbildning om resurshushållning som också prioriteras högt vid projektering, planering och implementering av byggprojekt.

    • Förtydliga och utöka samarbete mellan olika affärsenheter såsom ledning, hållbarhet, teknik, särskilt i stora organisationer. Hållbarhetsavdelningen är vanligen väl insatt i frågorna om avfallsförebyggande och hanteringen, men kan ha svårt att nå ut och nå förändring i praktiken.

    • Ökad kunskap om sammansättningen på avfallsströmmar genom systematiska plockanalyser och hantera avfallsströmmar från byggnation respektive rivning olika, med skilda behov av åtgärder för förbättring.

    • Sätt branschgemensamma mål och identifiera vägar för uppföljning för ökad resurshushållning och att nå bättre avfallsbehandling. Men ett gemensamt mål kan företag sporra varandra att prestanda mot samma mål.

    • Gör medvetna resursstyrda inköp.

    • Skapa ett forum för samverkan mellan aktörerna i värdekedjan från ägare av byggnader/infrastruktur hela vägen uppströms till producenterna av materialen/produkterna som används och nedströms till avfallsmottagarna.

  • 49.
    Edo, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    International perspectives of energy from waste: Challenges and trends2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Energy from waste technologies (EfW) constitute a meeting point for waste management and energy sectors to work together and benefit from each other in the most efficient manner. EfW technologies provide a solution for waste management; while generate energy (e.g. electricity, heat or fuel transport) to meet the actual fossil-free fuels high demand. Selection of the most suitable technology is based on social, economic and technical factors and environmental strategies to ensure the best outcomes.

    This paper describes the importance of EfW in today´s society, gives a picture of the situation of the EfW market in different regions all over the world and discuss the main challenges that the EfW market is facing.

  • 50.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Macias Aragones, Marta
    Fundación Corporación Tecnológica de Andalucía, Spain; University of Seville, Spain.
    Arroyo Torralvo, Fatima
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Dunon, Vincent
    ARCHE Consulting, Belgium.
    Angel, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Komnitsas, Konstantinos
    Technical University of Crete, Greece.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    A review of carbon footprint of Cu and Zn production from primary and secondary sources2017In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 168-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with their unique propertiesare central for economic growth, quality of life and creation of new jobs. The base-metalproducing sector is, however, under growing public pressure in respect toenergy and water requirements and needs to meet several challenges, includingincreased demand and lower ore grades generally associated with larger resourceuse. The development of technologies for metal production from secondarysources is often motivated by increased sustainability and this paper aims to providefurther insights about one specific aspect of sustainability, namely climatechange. The paper presents a review of carbon footprints (CF) for Cu and Znproduced from primary and secondary raw materials, by analyzing data taken fromscientific literature and the Ecoinvent database. Comparisons are carried outbased on the source of data selected as reference case. In the case of Cu,reduced CF of secondary production is indicated, although there is large datavariation. As for Zn, production of this metal from secondary sources seems to bebeneficial but the number of data and cases to be compared is much smallercompared to Cu. The general variation of data suggests that standardization ofcomparison is needed when assessing the environmental benefits of production inline with the principles of waste valorization, zero waste approach andcircular economy.

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