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  • 1.
    Benavente-Araoz, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ko, Jing
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ekström, Henrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; COMSOL AB, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An Aging Study of NCA/Si-Graphite Lithium-Ion Cells for Off-Grid Photovoltaic Systems in Bolivia2021In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 168, no 10, article id 100541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance and aging of lithium-ion 18650 cylindrical cells containing NCA and Si-graphite composite electrodes are investigated during long-term low current rate (∼0.1C) cycling protocol resembling charge/discharge profile of off-grid photovoltaic battery system. The cells are cycled within 30% and 75% state-of-charge ranges (SOC) with low, middle and high cut-off voltages. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data of full cylindrical cells exhibit severe aging for cells that have been cycled at higher cut-off voltage of 4.2 V. Symmetric cell impedance from each electrode shows that aging of NCA is dominant over aging of Si-graphite. Using a Newman-based impedance model, the NCA symmetrical cells' impedance spectra are parameterized to evaluate the aging modes. The resulting parameterization confirms increased particles' surface film resistance due to possible electrolyte oxidation and tortuosity increase at high cut-off voltages. Cycling the cells with middle and low cut-off voltages causes few significant changes when compared to calendar-aged samples. This opens up the possibility to significantly increase battery lifetime for small photovoltaic battery systems in rural areas of Bolivia. © 2021 The Author(s). 

  • 2.
    Benavente-Araoz, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia.
    Varini, Maria
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Cabrera, Saul
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of Partial Cycling of NCA/Graphite Cylindrical Cells in Different SOC Intervals2020In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 167, no 4, article id 040529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quasi-realistic aging test of NCA/graphite lithium-ion 18650 cylindrical cells is performed during a long-term low c-rate cycling and using a new protocol for testing and studying the aging. This to emulate a characteristic charge/discharge profile of off-grid PV-battery systems. The cells were partially cycled at four different cut-off voltages and two state of charge ranges (ΔSOC) for 1000 and 700 cycles over 24 months. Differential voltage analysis shows that a combination of loss of active material (LAM) and loss of lithium inventory (LLI) are the causes of capacity loss. Cells cycled with high cut-off voltages and wide ΔSOC (20% to 95%) were severely affected by material degradation and electrode shift. High cut-off voltage and narrow ΔSOC (65% to 95%) caused greater electrode degradation but negligible cell unbalance. Cell impedance is observed to increase in both cells. Cells cycled with middle to low cut-off voltages and narrow ΔSOC (35%-65% and 20% to 50%) had comparable degradation rates to calendar-aged cells. Cycling NCA/graphite cells with low c-rate and high cut-off voltages will degrade the electrode in the same way high c-rate would do. However, low c-rate at low and middle cut-off voltages greatly decrease cell degradation compared to similar conditions at middle to high c-rate, therefore increasing battery lifetime. © 2020 The Author(s).

  • 3.
    Chen, Chengdong
    et al.
    Xiamen University, China; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hou, Ruiqing
    Xiamen University, China; Institute of Materials Research, Germany.
    Zhang, Fan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dong, Shigang
    Xiamen University, China.
    Claesson, Per Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Xiamen University, China.
    Lin, Changjian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heating-Induced Enhancement of Corrosion Protection of Carbon Steel by a Nanocomposite Film Containing Mussel Adhesive Protein2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 4, p. C188-C193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of protective coatings on metals may involve a thermal treatment process. In this study, the effect of thermal treatment up to 200?C on the corrosion protection was investigated for nanocomposite films composed of mussel adhesive protein (MAP), CeO2 nanoparticles and Na2HPO4 deposited on carbon steel. The morphology and microstructure of the pre-formed nanocomposite film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The changes in the chemical structure of the nanocomposite film due to the thermal treatment were investigated by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. The corrosion protection of the unheated and heated nanocomposite films on carbon steel was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and details of the corrosion process were elucidated by in-situ AFM measurements in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The results show a certain increase in the corrosion protection with time of the nanocomposite film for carbon steel. The analyses reveal that thermal treatment leads to a reduction of water molecules in the nanocomposite film, and an enhanced cross-linking and cohesion of the film due to oxidation of catechols to o-quinones. As a result, the film becomes more compact and gives improved corrosion protection for carbon steel.

  • 4. Forslund, M
    et al.
    Leygraf, C
    Claesson, Per M
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Pan, J
    Octadecanethiol as corrosion inhibitor for zinc and patterned Zinc-Copper in humified air with Formic Acid2014In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 161, no 6, p. C330-C338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion inhibition efficiency of octadecanethiol (ODT) for zinc and a zinc-copper patterned model sample (Zn-Cu) has been explored during exposure in an atmosphere that mimics indoor atmospheric corrosion containing humidified air (80% relative humidity at 20◦C) and formic acid (around 100 ppb). The corrosion kinetics were monitored in situ with infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and the local nature of corrosion effects post-analyzed with complementary scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy. ODT shows initially a corrosion inhibiting ability both on zinc and on Zn-Cu. This ability decreases with time due to local removal of ODT, which causes micro-galvanic effects that eventually result in corrosion rates that exceed those for the uncovered samples. On bare and ODT-covered samples, the presence of a copper-zinc junction results in both accelerated corrosion and in structurally more developed corrosion products. Overall, the results suggest that ODT can function as a temporary corrosion inhibitor in representative indoor environments on zinc and zinc with zinc-copper junctions.

  • 5.
    Forslund, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leygraf, Christoffer
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lin, Changjian
    Xiamen University, China.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Micro-galvanic corrosion effects on patterned copper-zinc samples during exposure in humidified air containing formic acid2013In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 160, no 9, p. C423-C431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion in indoor atmospheric environments is often triggered by carboxylic acids, especially at higher relative humidity. Microgalvanic effects can lead to severe corrosion, particularly important in miniature devices with small-sized metallic components. To elucidate the mechanism of micro-galvanic corrosion effects, well-defined zinc-copper patterned samples were investigated during exposure to 100 ppb formic acid (HCOOH) and 80% relative humidity at 20°C. The corrosion effects were monitored quantitatively with in situ infrared absorption spectroscopy, and the corrosion products characterized with scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The nature of corrosion on zinc on the patterned samples was compared with that on pure zinc and turned out to result, not only in several times higher corrosion kinetics, but also in different corrosion products with respect to distribution, morphology, and composition. Local electrochemical and chemical gradients across the copper-zinc borders resulted in characteristic hemispherically shaped corrosion products at the zinc-copper junction, and in the formation of zinc formate dihydrate (Zn(HCOO)2 · 2H 2O) and crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO), phases not identified on pure zinc. In all, the micro-galvanic effects on the patterned samples resulted in accelerated corrosion kinetics and in structurally more developed corrosion products.

  • 6.
    Fuertes Casals, Nuria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Influence of mechanical stress on the potential distribution on a 301 LN stainless steel surface2015In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 9, p. C465-C472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work was to study the influence of the stress on the electrode potential of the austenitic stainless steel 301LN using Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP). It was found that elastic deformation reversibly ennobles the potential whereas plastic deformation decreases the potential in both tensile and compressive deformation mode and this decrease is retained even 24 h after removal of the load. To interpret the stress effects, different surface preparations were used and the composition and thickness of the passive film were determined by GDOES. Slip steps formed due to plastic deformation were observed using AFM. The effect of plastic strain on the potential is explained by the formation of dislocations, which creates more a defective passive film.

  • 7.
    Fuertes, Nuria
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Pettersson, R.
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Review-passive film properties and electrochemical response of different phases in a Cu-alloyed stainless steel after long term heat treatment2016In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 7, p. C377-C385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the influence of copper (0-4 wt%) on the microstructure, passive film properties and local electrochemical response of 25Cr7Ni-type duplex stainless steel is investigated after long term heat-treatment at 800◦C for 6 months. This heat-treatment was done to promote the formation of different phases which could be studied in terms of passive film properties and electrochemical response. The unique microstructures of the alloys comprise austenite, sigma phase, Cr2N nitrides and, for the 2 wt% and 4 wt% Cu alloys, epsilon-Cu phase. The results show that alloying with Cu increases slightly the amount of isothermal Cr2N nitrides and epsilon-Cu phase, but decreases the sigma phase fraction. The location of pitting corrosion as well as the Electrochemical Potential (EP), or electron work function, measured with Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (SKPFM) show that the epsilon-Cu phase has the lowest corrosion resistance. The EP appears to depend more on the composition of the underlying phase than on the thickness of the passive film. Cr-nitrides have the highest EP followed by sigma phase, austenite and epsilon-Cu phase. There is a clear decrease of EP of the austenitic phase when 2 wt% Cu is added in the alloy. 

  • 8.
    Gil, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Leygraf, C.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    GILDES model simulations of the atmospheric corrosion of copper induced by low concentrations of carboxylic acids2011In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 158, no 12, p. C429-C438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computer simulation with a GILDES-based model using the COMSOL multiphysics software was performed for copper exposed to low concentrations of carboxylic acids in humidified air at room temperature. GILDES is a six-regime computer model (Gas, the Interface between gas and liquid, the Liquid, the Deposition layer, the Electrodic region near the surface and the Solid). The simulations were compared to previously published in-situ results for copper at the same conditions analysed by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Experimental and calculated results agree with each other with respect to the effect of corrosion, showing formic acid as the most aggressive followed by acetic and propionic acid. This is supported by a higher ligand- and proton-promoted dissolution found in formic acid exposures, followed by acetic and propionic exposures. The dominating precipitated phases were Cu2O, Cu(OH)2, Cu(CH 3COO)2 H2O, Cu(HCOO)2 4H 2O and Cu(CH3CH2COO)2 H 2O. Besides Cu2O, the simulations suggest that the hydrated form of the respective carboxylates is the most likely compound to be formed in this type of atmospheres. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  • 9.
    Gil, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Leygraf, C.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    GILDES model simulations of the atmospheric corrosion of zinc induced by low concentrations of carboxylic acids2012In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 159, no 3, p. C123-C128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The GILDES computer based model was successfully applied to the atmospheric corrosion of zinc exposed to low concentrations of carboxylic acids in humidified air at room temperature. Under these exposure conditions the expected precipitated phases are zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc hydroxide (Zn(OH) 2) and several forms of hydrated zinc carboxylate, Zn(CH 3CH 2COO) 22H 2O, Zn(CH 3COO) 22H 2O and Zn(HCOO) 22H 2O. The results were compared to those from laboratory exposures obtained in the same conditions. The model correctly predicts the trend for ZnO and zinc carboxylate formation found in experimental exposures for the three acids tested. According to the simulations, surface protonation, surface acid base reactions, as well as ligand- and proton- induced dissolution reactions play a major role in the initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc. Henrys law constant (K H) is found to be an important parameter but uncertain due to different reported literature values. When K H is increased the formation rate of zinc carboxylate also increases. K H increases in the sequence propionic acid acetic acid formic acid, the same order as found for the calculated dissolution rate. © 2012 The Electrochemical Society.

  • 10.
    Ha, H.
    et al.
    University of Virginia.
    Taxén, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Cong, H.
    University of Virginia.
    Scully, J.R.
    University of Virginia.
    Effect of applied potential on Pit propagation in copper as function of water chemistry2012In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 159, no 2, p. C59-C73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of potential on pit propagation as a function of water chemistry was investigated using artificial pit electrodes. In both 0.01 M HCO 3 - 0.01 M SO 4 2- and 0.01 M HCO 3 - 0.01 M Cl - solutions, pits grew faster at higher applied potentials. However the magnitude of the pitting rate depends on the solution chemistry. A higher pitting rate was observed during pit growth in 0.01 M HCO 3 - 0.01 M SO 4 2- solution compared to 0.01 M HCO 3 - 0.01 M Cl - solution. The chemistry of the water determined the morphology and the molecular identity of corrosion products deposited inside and outside of the pits. Thick and porous layers of malachite and brochantiteposnjakite covered pits in 0.01 M HCO 3 - 0.01 M SO 4 2- solution. In contrast, thin and compact layers of malachite, cuprite and atacamitenantokiteeriochantite covered pits in 0.01 M HCO 3 - 0.01 M Cl - solution. Modeling successfully predicted these corrosion products. Applied potential determined the amount, the structure and the distribution of corrosion products in both experiment and model. However, the effect of potential was more pronounced in 0.01 M HCO 3 - 0.01 M SO 4 2- solution in comparison to 0.01 M HCO 3 - 0.01 M Cl - solution. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  • 11.
    Hagberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    High precision coulometry of commercial PAN-based carbon fibers as electrodes in structural batteries2016In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 8, p. A1790-A1797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon fibers have the combined mechanical and electrochemical properties needed to make them particularly well suited for usage as electrodes in a structural lithium-ion battery, amaterial that simultaneously works as a battery and a structural composite. Presented in this paper is an evaluation of commercial polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers in terms of capacity and coulombic efficiency, as well as a microstructural and surface evaluation. Some polyacrylonitrile based carbon fibers intercalate lithium ions, resulting in a similar capacity as state-of-the-art graphite based electrodes, presently the most commonly used negative electrode material. Using high precision coulometry, we found a capacity of around 250-350 mAh/g and a very high coulombic efficiency of over 99.9% after ten cycles, which is even higher than a commercial state-of-the art graphitic electrode evaluated as reference. The high coulombic efficiency is attributed to the very low surface area of the carbon fibers, resulting in a small and stable solid-electrolyte interface layer. A highly graphitized ultra high modulus carbon fiber was evaluated as well and, compared to the other fibers, less lithium was inserted (corresponding to approximately 150 mAh/g). We show that the use of carbon fibers as an electrode material in a structural composite battery is indeed viable.

  • 12.
    Kharitonov, Dmitry S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Belarusian State Technological University, Belarus.
    Örnek, Cem
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sommertune, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Zharskii, Ivan M.
    Belarusian State Technological University, Belarus.
    Kurilo, Irina I.
    Belarusian State Technological University, Belarus.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloy AA6063-T5 by Vanadates: Microstructure Characterization and Corrosion Analysis2018In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 5, no 3, p. C116-C126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA6063-T5 by vanadates (NaVO3) in 0.05 M NaCl solution has been investigated by electrochemical and weight loss measurements, and associated with microstructure and Volta potential data. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of micrometer-sized Fe-rich Al4.01MnSi0.74, Al1.69Mg4Zn2.31, and FeAl3intermetallic phases (IMPs) and nanometer-sized CuAl2, ZnAl2, and Mg2Si precipitates in the microstructure. Scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements showed Volta potential differences of up to 600 mV between the microstructure constituents indicating a high susceptibility to micro-galvanic corrosion, with interphase boundary regions exhibiting the highest propensity to corrosion. Most IMPs had cathodic character whereas some nanometer-sized Mg-rich particles exhibited anodic nature, with large Volta potential gradients within interphase regions of large cathodic particles. Electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization measurements indicated that the vanadates provided mixed corrosion inhibition effects, mitigating both oxygen reduction, occurring on cathodic IMPs, and anodic metal dissolution reaction, occurring on anodic sites, such as Mg2Si and interphase boundary regions. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the sodium metavanadate inhibitor blocks active metal dissolution, giving high inhibition efficiency (>95%) during the initial exposure, whereas long-term weight loss measurements showed that the efficacy decreases after prolonged exposure.

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  • 13.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thermal Modelling of Cell-to-Cell Fire Propagation and Cascading Thermal Runaway Failure Effects for Lithium-Ion Battery Cells and Modules Using Fire Walls2016In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 14, p. A2854-A2865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model is presented for predicting the cell-to-cell propagation of a thermal runaway/fire in a lithium-ion battery cell to neighboring cells by simulating the temperature development in neighboring cells. The modelling work comprises of two major steps; setting up a model of the cells including the thermal properties of the cells, and then validating the model through experiments where the boundary conditions in the validation test must be determined carefully. The model is developed to allow a fast evaluation of several different preventive means of thermal insulation, it is not modelling the pack and cells to a great detail. Still the experimental validation indicates that the model is good enough to fulfil its purpose of the model. A feasibility study using the model is conducted assessing two different types of fire walls between battery modules of 10 cells. The results show that there is a substantial risk for a cascading of thermal events in a battery pack, although cooling systems and fire walls may mitigate these risks

  • 14.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Abuse by external heating, overcharge and short circuiting of commercial lithium-ion battery cells2014In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 161, p. A1611-A1617Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion batteries offer great energy and power densities but the thermal stability is an issue of concern compared to other battery technologies. In this study different types of abuse testing have been performed in order to compare the battery safety for different types of commercial lithium-ion battery cells. The results show large differences in abuse response for different cells. Exposed to external heating laptop cells with cobalt based cathode developed a thermal runaway resulting in pressure release, fire and temperatures over 700°C. Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) is known to be a very thermally stable cathode material and LFP-cells showed a significantly lower thermal response, a thermal runaway could, however, be detected for some of the cells in the external heating test. The overcharge tests of LFP-cells were in most cases uneventful but in one case the test resulted in a violent fire. The short circuit tests showed modest temperature increases of the cells in spite of high currents peaking at around 1000 A. Although the development of safer lithium-ion battery cells has been successful thermal runaway events may still occur under extreme conditions.

  • 15.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Joiret, Suzanne
    CNRS, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    The role of chromate conversion coating in the filiform corrosion of coated aluminum alloys2003In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 150, no 12, p. B561-B566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms of inhibition of chromate conversion coating on the filiform corrosion of coated aluminum alloy AA6016 was investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. The results showed that Cr(VI) was preferably leached out at the opening of the filament, whereas Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) at all other locations. The leached out Cr(VI) accumulated mainly in the pitting area, located in the scratch just outside the filament. The chromate released from the CCC was partly reduced to Cr(III) in the pit. The formation of an Al/Cr mixed oxide was observed in the pitting area. The repassivation of pits in the scratch by the chromate leaching from the CCC close to the scratch explains the low propagation of filiform corrosion observed for the chromated surfaces.

  • 16.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    In situ studies of the initiation and propagation of filiform corrosion on aluminum2004In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 151, no 7, p. B440-B445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the initiation and propagation of filiform corrosion on coated aluminum surfaces using a new experimental set-up for in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and the scanning Kelvin probe. During the initiation partially hydrolyzed aluminum chloride was formed in a defect on the coated surface. The conditions in the defect resembled the environment that is found in growing pits with low pH and high chloride concentration close to the coating interface. This weakened the adhesion of the organic coating and initiated the formation of a filament. The movement .of the active head was followed with in situ FTIR microspectroscopy in humid air using the characteristic IR band around 2500 cm-1 from Al(H 2O)6 3+. This band is present in spectra from partially hydrolyzed aluminum chloride, which was found in the head during propagation of the filament. The absorption of water in the hygroscopic corrosion products in the head of the filament was followed by measuring the changes in the intensity of the Al(H2O)6 3+ band during variations in the relative humidity. The hygroscopic properties of the aluminum hydroxy chloride salts formed in the head have important consequences for filiform corrosion, especially concerning the influence of climatic parameters such as the relative humidity and the effect of wet/dry transitions on the propagation of filiform corrosion.

  • 17.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Stoulil, J.
    VSCHT, Czech Republic.
    Atmospheric corrosion of zinc-aluminum alloyed coated steel in depleted carbon dioxide environments2018In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 7, p. C343-C353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NaCl induced corrosion of Zn-0.2Al, Zn-5Al and Zn-55Al coated steel was investigated at low and ambient CO2 levels.Weight loss measurements revealed an enhancement of the corrosion of Zn-0.2Al and particularly Zn-5Al in low CO2. This was connected to an increase of surface pH in a low CO2 atmosphere promoting the formation of ZnO and layered double hydroxide for Zn-5Al. For Zn-55Al, CO2 depletion did not affect the surface pH due to the acidification effect of Al3+. Preferential dissolution of zinc rich phase was observed on cross-sections, particularly in depleted CO2 experiments. Different sequences of corrosion product formation were proposed for the different Zn-Al coatings. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/),

  • 18.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ecco, Luiz
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Fedel, Michele
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In situ AFM and electrochemical study of a waterborne acrylic composite coating with CeO2 nanoparticles for corrosion protection of carbon steel2015In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 10, p. C610-C618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion protection of a waterborne acrylic composite coating with 1 wt% ceria nanoparticles (CeNP) coated on carbon steel in 3 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by ex-situ and in situ as well as electrochemical atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations, combined with open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The synthesized CeNP were stabilized by acetic acid. The transmission electron microscopy characterization showed fine nano-size of as-synthesized CeNP, the ex-situ AFM imaging revealed uniform dispersion of the CeNP in the composite coating and greatly reduced nano-sized pinholes in the coating. The in situ and electrochemical (EC) AFM investigations indicate release of some CeNP and aggregates from the coating surface and then precipitation of some particles and cerium-compounds during the exposure. The OCP and EIS results demonstrated that the addition of 1 wt% CeNP leads to a significantly improved long term barrier type corrosion protection of the waterborne acrylic composite coating for carbon steel in 3 wt% NaCl solution. The beneficial effect of the CeNP is attributed to the blocking of nano-sized defects and inhibition by the cerium compounds originated from the acetic acid stabilized CeNP.

  • 19.
    Liew, YanHam
    et al.
    National University of Singapore, Singapore; Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore.
    Örnek, Cem
    Istanbul Technical University, Turkey.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Wijesinghe, Sudesh
    National University of Singapore, Singapore; Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore.
    Blackwood, Daniel
    National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    In-situ time-lapse SKPFM investigation of sensitized AA5083 aluminum alloy to understand localized corrosion2020In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 167, no 14, article id 141502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensitized AA5083-H2 aluminum alloy was exposed to chloride-laden thin-film electrolyte at ambient temperature (20%–85% relative humidity) and the local Volta potential measured, in-situ and in real-time, using the Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy, with the intention to elucidate the earliest stage of localized corrosion. Positive Volta potentials vs alloy matrix were measured for magnesium silicides in ambient air, which, however, underwent a severe nobility loss during corrosion, causing their nobility to invert to active potentials (negative) relative to the alloy matrix. The reason for the nobility inversion was explained by the preferential dissolution of Mg2+, which resulted in an electropositive surface. Aluminides, both with and without silicon, were seen to form the main cathodes at all exposure conditions. The local alloy matrix next to closely-separated aluminides were seen to adopt the Volta potential of the neighbor aluminides, which, hence, resulted in local corrosion protection. The phenomenon of nobility adoption introduced in this work raises questions regarding the anode-to-cathode ratio, which was observed to change during corrosion, and the resulting impact to localized micro-galvanic corrosion. This work further demonstrates that it is necessary to measure the Volta potential during corrosion to reflect the true relationship between the Volta potential and corrosion potential or breakdown potential. © 2020 The Author(s). 

  • 20. Maffre, Marion
    et al.
    Bouchal, Roza
    Freunberger, Stefan A
    Lindahl, Niklas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Favier, Frédéric
    Fontaine, Olivier
    Bélanger, Daniel
    Investigation of electrochemical and chemical processes occurring at positive potentials in “water-in-salt” electrolytes2021In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 168, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Nazarov, Andrej P.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Prosek, Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Protective action of vanadate at defected areas of organic coatings on zinc2005In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 152, no 7, p. B220-B227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetics of vanadate release from an organic coating and the stability and protective ability of the newly formed vanadate-based films on zinc surfaces have been studied with respect to self-healing ability of vanadate-pigmented organic coatings. The results were compared with those obtained with chromate. The kinetics of vanadate release from a polyester coating was comparable to that of chromate. The methods of X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and scanning Kelvin probe were used for studying the mechanism of inhibition and the kinetics of vanadate reduction on bare zinc. XANES proved to be a powerful tool for determination of the oxidation state of vanadium in surface films. The experiments showed that vanadate was reduced more rapidly than chromate under the same atmospheric conditions. However, addition of magnesium phosphate resulted in a significantly lower reduction rate of vanadate. The results are discussed in light of the increased adsorption ability of the more negatively charged vanadium(V) species at higher pH, while the oxygen reduction process on zinc is inhibited due to the presence of phosphate. Thus, vanadate in combination with another inhibitor could provide corrosion protection at defects of organic coatings on zinc comparable to that of chromate.

  • 22.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Vivier, V.
    Sorbonne Universités, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Tribollet, B.
    Sorbonne Universités, France.
    Effect of mechanical stress on the properties of steel surfaces: Scanning Kelvin probe and local electrochemical impedance study2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 2, p. C66-C74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of mechanical stress on the electrochemical properties of ferritic steel SAE 1008 and austenitic stainless steel 301LN was studied using Scanning Kelvin Probe and Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (LEIS) techniques. The probe-working electrode Volta potential difference was mapped in situ under load. It was found that the influence of elastic deformation on the potential was small. Plastic deformation decreased the potential of steel by 150–300 mV, whereas the relaxation of the load from the plastic domain increased the Volta potential. However, some locations, which can contain residual stress, remained at low potential. The pre-strained surfaces were characterized by X-ray Photo Electronic Spectroscopy and by Atomic Force Microscopy. Distribution of the capacitance across strained and strain-free surfaces was studied by LEIS in boric/borate electrolyte. The plastic stress increases the capacitance and decreases the ability of the steels to passivate the surface indicating that emerging of pile-ups of dislocations create defective oxide films. © The Author(s) 2017.

  • 23.
    Peuvot, Kevin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lignin based electrospun carbon fiber anode for sodium ion batteries2019In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 166, no 10, p. A1984-A1990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are emerging as an alternative battery technology to lithium ion batteries because they have the potential of having a similar energy density and the advantage of sodium being more environmentally friendly than lithium. Hard carbon has been shown to be one of the best candidates as anode material for SIBs. However, several challenges need to be solved before commercializing SIBs such as finding cheaper and more efficient precursors to produce hard carbon and increasing the stability of hard carbon electrodes with the electrolyte. Herein, we report a new bio-based free standing electrode made from lignin based electrospun carbon fibers (LCFs) with a high specific capacity of 310 mAh.g−1 and a first coulombic efficiency of 89%. By using high precision coulometry on the LCFs at different carbonization temperatures, it was found that the cycling stability was dependent on the carbonization temperature. The results show that LCFs are a viable and renewable source to be used as anodes in future SIBs. © The Author(s) 2019.

  • 24.
    Pinate, S.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Electrocodeposition of nano-SiC particles by pulse-reverse under an adapted waveform2019In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 166, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work has explored the potential of using pulse reverse (PR) plating for increasing the deposited fraction of SiC nanoparticles. Two PR waveforms were selected, a short pulse (500 Hz) waveform and a newly modified and adapted pulsed sequence that equals the plating thickness to the particles’ diameter (50 nm) for the on-time and half-diameter during the anodic time. The pulse waveforms were designed with 4 and 10 A•dm−2 as the average current density and cathodic peak current density, respectively. Direct current (DC) deposits at the same values were also produced as reference. In all cases, the codeposition of nano-SiC particles influenced the microstructure. The electroplating under DC 10 A•dm−2 showed the strongest grain refinement and increased the content of the particles (up to 2% vol.) PR using high-frequency achieved a similar codeposition. The maximum particle incorporation was achieved by the proposed adapted pulse waveform, doubling the SiC content produced by other set-ups (up to 4% vol.); increasing the microhardness of the deposits to 400 HV, despite no grain refinement compared to the pure metal. From these results, it was observed a relationship between the influence of the plating method on the microstructure, the particle content, and the material’s hardness. 

  • 25.
    Qiu, P.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Leygraf, C.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc induced by carboxylic acids: A quantitative in situ study2009In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 156, no 12, p. C441-C447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc induced by formic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid has been followed in situ with infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). An optical model was applied to quantify the IRAS data, which enabled the absolute amounts of the two main species detected, ZnO and zinc carboxylate (mainly hydrated or hydroxyl zinc carboxylate), to be derived. The formation rate of zinc carboxylate increases as propionic<acetic

  • 26.
    Qiu, P.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Leygraf, C.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Initial oxidation of zinc induced by humidified air: A quantified in situ study2009In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 156, no 3, p. C81-C86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multianalytical approach with in situ capability has been used to explore the initial oxidation of zinc in air with 90% relative humidity at 20°C. The only surface species identified were zinc oxide (ZnO) and reversibly adsorbed water. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed the homogeneous nucleation of ZnO grains. The kinetics of ZnO formation was followed quantitatively by in situ IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) integrated with a quartz crystal microbalance up to an average film thickness of 50 nm after 72 h of exposure. The quantitative results exhibit good agreement with ex situ cathodic reduction and with optical calculations of IRAS data and provide further evidence of IRAS as an in situ analytical tool with quantification capability. The ZnO growth followed the logarithmic rate law as predicted by Fehlner and Mott [Oxid. Met., 2, 59 (1970)]. © 2008 The Electrochemical Society.

  • 27. Sababi, Majid
    et al.
    Zhang, Fan
    Krivosheeva, Olga
    Forslund, Mattias
    Pan, Jinshan
    Claesson, Per M
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Thin composite films of mussel adhesive proteins and ceria nanoparticles on carbon steel for corrosion protection2012In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 159, no 8, p. C364-C371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin composite films of the mussel adhesive proteins (Mefp-1) and ceria nanoparticles were deposited on substrate surfaces by alternating immersions. The film formation was studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring. Both the changes in frequency and dissipation recorded by QCM-D demonstrate buildup of a composite film of Mefp-1 and nanoceria. Micro-and nanostructure and composition of the film on carbon steel were characterized by optical and atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA) and confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM). Optical and EPMA observations of the film show micron-sized aggregates and AFM imaging of the compact and smooth areas reveal the nanostructure. EPMA elemental mapping indicates that the micron-sized aggregates are rich in ceria and Mefp-1, whereas CRM analysis shows the presence of Mefp-1-Fe complexes in the film. Corrosion protection of the composite film on carbon steel was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in NaCl solution, and compared with Mefp-1 added in the solution as an inhibitor. The measurements show that the composite film provides a higher corrosion resistance compared with Mefp-1 added as inhibitor. The corrosion resistance increases with exposure time and approaches a high level.

  • 28.
    Van den Steen, N.
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Simillion, H.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Terryn, H.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Deconinck, J.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Comparing modeled and experimental accelerated corrosion tests on steel2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 9, p. C554-C562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four different accelerated corrosion tests on steel are simulated with a Dynamic Electrolyte Film Corrosion model. Based on the time dependent temperature and humidity, combined with the presence of hygroscopic salts, a time dependent electrolyte thickness is calculated. At every timestep, the modeled film thickness dictates the corrosion current. Focussing on the thickness predictions, an elementary corrosion model is adopted to enable the corrosion depth estimations. The trends of the simulated corrosion depths are compared with experimental data obtained with an electrical resistance corrosion sensing system, demonstrating the importance of the electrolyte thickness and composition for a thorough understanding and modeling of atmospheric corrosion on steel. © The Author(s) 2017.

  • 29.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fedel, Michele
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Deflorian, Flavio
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Effect of Si content and morphology on corrosionresistance of anodized cast Al-Si alloys2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 7, p. C435-C441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the influence of Si content and Si particle morphology on the corrosion protection of anodized oxide layers on Al-Si alloys. Two Al alloys with low Si concentrations (2.43 wt-% and 5.45 wt-%, respectively) were studied and compared with 6082-T6 via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3 wt-% NaCl solution prior to oxide layer sealing. Si particles were also modified by the addition of Sr to study the influence of Si particle morphology on the corrosion protection of the oxide layer. The EIS showed that the corrosion protection provided by the oxide layer on Al-Si alloys is significantly affected by the presence of Si particles. Si particles make the oxide layer locally thinner and more defective in the eutectic region, thereby increasing the ease of substrate corrosion attack. However, the addition of Sr can improve the corrosion protection of anodized Al-Si alloys significantly. Furthermore, it was proved that higher Si level influences negatively the anodized oxide corrosion protection due to the higher amount of cracks and defects, but Sr modification is efficient in preventing this negative effect.

1 - 29 of 29
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