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  • 1.
    Bjurling, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Müller, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bouvet, C. J.
    ONERA, France.
    Berberian, B.
    ONERA, France.
    Enabling Human-Autonomy Teaming in Aviation: A Framework to Address Human Factors in Digital Assistants Design2024In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2716, article id 012076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) tools in aviation necessitates more research into human-autonomy teaming in these domain settings. This paper describes the development of a design framework for supporting Human Factors novices in considering human factors, improving human-autonomy collaboration, and maintaining safety when developing AI tools for aviation settings. Combining elements of Hierarchical Task Analysis, Coactive Design, and Types and Levels of Autonomy, the design framework provides guidance in three phases: modelling and understanding the existing system and associated tasks; producing a new function allocation for optimal Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT); and assessing HAT-related risks of the proposed design. In this framework, designers generate a comprehensive set of design considerations to support subsequent development processes. Framework limitations and future research avenues are discussed. 

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  • 2.
    Björkdahl Sundling, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    New perspective on the accessibility of railway transport for the vulnerable traveller2013In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 459, no 1, article id 012021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerable travellers experience various problems in the transport environment. These may reduce public travel confidence and consequently lead to decreased mobility. A goal of our research is to find out how to improve the accessibility to railway travelling, especially, for persons with functional limitations. By reducing barriers, the ability of travelling would be improved, and consequently allow for more flexible travel behaviors. In order to develop a model and a method of measurement for accessibility, we (a) constructed a reference group of representative ‘typical older persons’ (65-85 years) from questionnaire data, and (b) developed an accessibility measure for persons with functional limitations. In this measure barriers have different weights for the different persons depending on their functional ability and travel behavior. This gives the probability of facing a certain barrier when travelling to a certain destination; that is, a measure of accessibility for the individual. The more weight placed on a certain barrier, the less probable it is that the particular journey will take place. These weights will be obtained in forthcoming research on the perception of a set of various travel scenarios representing barriers.

  • 3.
    Bolmsvik, A.
    et al.
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Eriksson, O.
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Tengberg, C Svensson
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Weather protection at the construction site: Work environment and conditions for moisture and mould growth on massive timber2023In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, the use of timber (especially massive timber) has increased worldwide, mainly driven by anticipated environmental benefits. However, there is debate on how to handle the susceptibility against microbial growth for wooden constructions, especially during the construction phase. Sometimes full weather protection is used to avoid exposing the wooden material to outdoor conditions, but oftentimes the structures are fully exposed to precipitation. In an earlier study, one construction site using a full weather protection was studied, and the results showed promising results on the improved hygrothermal conditions and reduced risk of mould growth. Moreover, the site contractor also indicated improved work environment and productivity, however, this was not included in that study. This present study aims to investigate the effects of using full weather protection during construction in seven different construction projects to follow-up and broaden the earlier single project study. The studied aspects include the hygrothermal conditions, potential of mould growth, and influence on the work environment. Temperature and relative humidity were measured and analysed. Samples of cross-laminated timber (CLT) were analysed using a microscope, and the results are compared to theoretical mould growth potential. This is measured both inside the weather protection and outside at the seven construction projects. Furthermore, a work environment questionnaire is distributed to workers at the sites to collect the perceived work environment using a full weather protection. The results of the study partly confirm the conclusions from the earlier study, i.e., reducing the risk of mould growth and causing a slightly warmer and dryer conditions than outside. In addition, the results indicate an improved work environment. The majority of the interviewees wishes a weather protection in their next project regarding the work environment.

  • 4.
    Cano, Stefan J.
    et al.
    Modus Outcomes, UK.
    Vosk, Ted
    Pendrill, Leslie R.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Stenner, L. Jack
    MetaMetrics Inc, USA; University of North Carolina, USA.
    On Trial: the Compatibility of Measurement in the Physical and Social Sciences2016In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 772, no 1, article id 012025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we put social measurement on trial: providing two perspectives arguing why measurement in the social and in the physical sciences are incompatible and counter with two perspectives supporting compatibility. For the case 'against', we first argue that there is a lack of definition in the social sciences. Thus, while measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence, calibrated instruments, and predictive theory that work together to test the quantitative nature of properties, measurement in the social sciences, in the main, rests on a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data, does not require calibrated instruments, and rarely articulates predictive theories. The second argument for the case 'against' introduces the problem associated with psychometrics, including different approaches, methodologies, criteria for success and failure, and considerations as to what counts as measurement. Making the first case 'for', we highlight practical principles for improved social measurement including units, laws, theory, and metrology. The second argument 'for' introduces the exemplar of the Lexile Framework for reading that exploits metrological principles and parallels the paths taken by, for example, thermometry. We conclude by proposing a way forward potentially applicable to both physical and social measurement, in which inferences are modelled in terms of a measurement system, where specifically the output of the instrument in response to probing the object ('entity') is a performance metric, i.e. how well the set-up performs the assessment.

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  • 5.
    Johannisson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Ohlsson, Fredrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Rusu, Cristina
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Multi-axis piezoelectric energy harvesting using MEMS components with slanted beams2016In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 773, no 1, article id 012080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the manufacturing of MEMS components, slanted beams can be produced in the etching process. We show that this can be used to produce skew motion that causes deflection of a proof mass out of the device plane also when the excitation is confined to the device plane. This allows construction of an energy harvester that uses a planar manufacturing process and produces power also with in-plane excitation. To obtain this with traditional methods it would be necessary to manufacture separate components and then mount them with their sensitive axes orthogonal to each other.

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  • 6.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sellén, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sparr, M.
    Länsforsäkringar Alliance Research Foundation, Sweden.
    Evaluation of cleaning products on the viability of mould growth on facades and decks2023In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfungi, algae and cyanobacteria may cause discolouration when growing on facades and deckings. When the extent of growth is such that it is no longer aesthetically acceptable, cleaning is often performed to make the façade or deck as similar to the original as possible. Different cleaning methods may have different effects. Choosing a cleaning method is difficult because one does not always know which works best for the current conditions. Also, the best cleaning method probably cannot remove all the growth. In this study, the effect of 15 different cleaning chemical products on the viability of mould growth on painted facade boards and impregnated wood deck boards was studied in the laboratory. Results showed varying results; the best products killed or removed almost all growth, while the worst had the same effect as clean water. The results can not be used to predict the efficiency of the different products on discolouration authentic facades or wooden decks over time. It will be investigated in other studies of the same project as this study belongs. 

  • 7.
    Lidén, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Stenvall, Brita
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Proposed flood risk classification of buildings - A case study with a heavy rain event2023In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and associated risks create high costs and must be considered in both city planning and construction. The increasing recognition of threats influences how investments are made both in future projects and in the valuations of existing assets. A feasibility study was performed on how a climate resilience certificate (CRC) can create a tool for better valuation for contractors, and property owners to increase efforts regarding climate change adaptation, easy-to-understand benchmarks for climate resilience of properties for comparability, and to reduce uncertainty if insurance coverage can be guaranteed. This study focuses on a risk classification, tested, and evaluated in a Swedish case study on a property level, with emphasis on heavy rain, as a base for a potential CRC. The study discusses the benefits and drawbacks of on-site assessments versus what is digitally available. Furthermore, this study also highlights vulnerabilities of the evaluated buildings, and where the focus should be placed concerning climate adaptive measures. 

  • 8.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, D.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Femenias, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eriksson, P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Donarelli, A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Energy use patterns and renovations of Swedish second homes2023In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During and post pandemic more people spent time in their second homes, which is expected to have led to higher energy use for heating. The knowledge of energy performance, heating systems, energy renovation and use patterns of second homes is still poor. The aim of the research is therefore to compile available information from building registers but also to empirically investigate user patterns, heating source and the renovation and energy efficiency measures carried out in second homes. A first step is to synthesize existing knowledge and develop a method for a broad mapping in a next step. The methods used are analysing statistics from national building registers and collecting information from owners/users through a pre-survey that is developed and tested. In this paper statistics on Swedish second homes and results from a pre-survey responded by 92 second homes owners/users are reported. From statistics, the energy performance and the main heating source for second homes with an EPC are identified. Despite the limited sample, the results from the pre-survey give an indication of user patterns, energy renovation measures carried out, and also whether the owners care about cultural values. Based on the experience from the pre-survey, a national survey has been initiated in Sweden.

  • 9.
    Olsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Lang, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bok, Gunilla
    WSP, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Development of laboratory experiments to determine critical moisture condition of CLT constructions2023In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased interest in using Cross-laminated timber (CLT) in construction, but many buildings are erected without weather protection, which poses a risk of moisture impact if wood is exposed to precipitation during construction. The construction industry argues that there are no documented critical moisture levels for CLT and no specific test method. In the study, a laboratory test set-up was developed to study mould growth under realistic and controlled climatic conditions after exposure to distilled water and spore suspension. In the experiments, small test specimens of CLT structures were exposed to distilled water for 1 day or 1 week. During the development of the method it was found that exposed for one day and then given the opportunity for open drying did not give rise to mould growth. On the other hand, growth occurred on surfaces that could not dry immediately, for example at connection points. For specimens exposed for one week, mould growth arose regardless of whether the surfaces could dry immediately or not. The conclusions apply primarily to the climates studied. The methodology needs to be further developed, with other scenarios being studied, and calibrated against samples exposed to outdoor air, dust, dirt and rainwater. 

  • 10.
    Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    Hogskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Hogskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Mylly, Nina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Lin, Jing
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Malardalen University, Sweden.
    A Critical Review of Lighting Design and Asset Management Strategies. Illuminating Practices and Lessons Learned for Swedish Public Libraries2023In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most lighting is only designed to meet the visual needs in most public library environments in Sweden. Although lighting-related impacts are relevant to six Unite Nations sustainability goals, some important lighting considerations, such as circadian phase disruption, mode and productivity impact, and energy-efficient operation, are missing in current lighting operating practices. Moreover, most of the current lighting asset management practice in public buildings remains "fix it if only it breaks". With respect to people-centric health factors, visual index, and lighting asset energy-efficient operation, this study sublimates lighting into a new perspective. Finally, the suggested comprehensive lighting operating strategies integrating digital twins can help designers and operators in defining the optimal design/control strategy in public-built environments, like public library. Digital twin-based decision-making is expected to be applied to lighting design and control in public spaces that improves visual acuity and comfort, positively impact mood and productivity, and provides recommendations on engagement principles under Environment Social Governance (ESG) framework to asset manager/operators.

  • 11.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Experimental Development and Field Validation of Rock Anchors for Sustainable Onshore Foundations2024In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2745, article id 012011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of an innovative rock anchor prototype manufactured using high strength steel sheets produced locally in Sweden is the core of the PROWIND concept. Steel sheets provide a design freedom to easily manufacture complex geometries, which can be advantageous to enhance the shear force transmission in the bond-length segment of the anchor. The underlying challenge of this concept has been to design a solution which meets the design requirements of today and future technological advancements, all while keeping conventional installation practices in mind. The project followed a 4-step development process: (1) concept analysis and modelling, (2) small-scale prototypes testing and (3) large scale lab-validation and lastly (4) field validation. The performance of the developed rock anchor prototype and grouting material was experimentally quantified on both small and large-scale test specimens and also validated in full scale in the field concerning installation process, proof-loading and maintaining the prestress over time. The PROWIND anchors with the end feature with ribbed design have 4-5 times higher load bearing capacity. The experience from the anchor installation proved that the developed grout and anchors are faster and easier to install. The field test in two different geological conditions has proven that the news design is reducing the required anchorage length to just 1 meter. The restressing of anchors is fully possible with the proposed lock-off solution with a nut. All of those contribute to lower costs of installations and possibly longer service-life.

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