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  • 1.
    Kaunisto, Erik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wassén, Sophia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    A thermodynamical finite element model of the fibre formation process during extrusion of high-moisture meat analogues2024In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 362, article id 111760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A finite element model of spinodal decomposition in a power-law fluid in the extruder cooling die has been developed to investigate the effects of different parameters on fibre formation and alignment. The model makes use of the Cahn-Hilliard equations with a thermodynamic potential and numerical approximations to simulate local compositions in the separated state. The constitutive model is calibrated towards extrusion-relevant strain rates and temperatures by using a combination of rheometry techniques. The simulations show that the effect of decreased wall cooling has a limited effect on fibre development. Instead, decreasing the die width or increasing the die length can be used somewhat interchangeably to achieve fibre formation at the die exit. Viscosity also seemed to influence fibre formation in the outer viscous regions of the die by yielding comparably finer lamellar structures. The local composition of fibres also varied across the die, which may indicate differences in fibre consistency. 

  • 2.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Miljkovic, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Andersson, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Matsuo, Koichiro
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
    Bolus rheology of texture adjusted food—Effect of age2023In: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 824-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swallowing disorders, or dysphagia, affect a large part of the population due to factors such as degenerative diseases, medication side effects or simply age-related impairment of physiological oropharyngeal function. The management of dysphagia is mainly handles through texture-modified foods of progressively softer, smoother, moister textures, depending on the severity of the disorder. Rheological and physiological-related properties of boluses were determined for a group of five older persons (average age, 74) for a set of texture-modified foods: bread, cheese and tomato and the combination into a sandwich. The softest class was gel food, after which came a smooth timbale; both were compared to boluses of regular food. The subjects chewed until ready to swallow, at which point the bolus was expectorated and measured regarding saliva content, linear viscoelasticity and shear viscosity. The results were compared to those of a previously studied younger group (average age, 38). The general physiological status of the subjects was determined by hand and tongue strength, diadochokinesis and one-legged standing and showed that all subjects were as healthy and fit as the younger group. Age-related properties such as one-legged standing with closed eyes and salivary flow plus bolus saliva content were lower for the older group, but the average chews-until-swallow was surprisingly also lower. Consequently, bolus modulus and viscosity were higher than for the younger group. Overall, the intended texture modification was reflected in bolus rheological and physiological-related properties. Bolus modulus, viscosity, saliva content and chews-until-swallowed all decreased from regular food to timbale food to gel food. © 2023 The Authors.

  • 3.
    Hidaka, R.
    et al.
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
    Masuda, Y.
    Matsumoto Dental University, Japan.
    Ogawa, K.
    Food Care Co Ltd, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Kanazawa, M.
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
    Suzuki, K.
    University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers university of Technology, Sweden.
    Iijima, K.
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Matsuo, K.
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
    Impact of the Comprehensive Awareness Modification of Mouth, Chewing and Meal (CAMCAM) Program on the Attitude and Behavior Towards Oral Health and Eating Habits as Well as the Condition of Oral Frailty: A Pilot Study2023In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 340-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Preserving sufficient oral function and maintaining adequate nutrition are essential for preventing physical frailty and the following long-term care. We recently developed the 6-month Comprehensive Awareness Modification of Mouth, Chewing And Meal (CAMCAM) program, in which participants gather monthly to learn about oral health and nutrition while eating a textured lunch together. This study examined whether the CAMCAM program could improve attitude and behavior towards oral health, mastication, and diet as well as ameliorate oral frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Design: Single-arm pre-post comparison study. Setting and Participants: A total of 271 community-dwelling adults (72.3 ± 5.7 years of age; 159 women [58.7%]) in 4 Japanese municipalities were recruited, of which 249 participants (92%) were assessed at the final evaluation. Intervention: Participants gathered once a month at community centers to learn about oral health and nutrition while eating a “munchy” textured lunch containing proper nutrition. Measurements: Oral frailty, frailty, and eating behavior were evaluated with the Oral Frailty Index-8 (OFI-8), Kihon checklist (KCL), and CAMCAM checklist, respectively. Participants were divided into Oral frailty (OF) and Robust groups according to OFI-8 scores. The differences in KCL and CAMCAM checklist results between the OF and Robust groups were statistically tested along with changes in scores after the program. Results: KCL and CAMCAM checklist scores were significantly lower in the OF group at the initial assessment. OFI-8 and KCL findings were significantly improved in the OF group after completing the program (all P <0.05). Regarding the CAMCAM checklist, awareness of chewing improved significantly in the Robust group (P=0.009), with a similar tendency in the OF group (P=0.080). Conclusion: The findings of this pilot study suggest that the CAMCAM program may improve both oral and systemic frailty in addition to attitudes towards chewing, oral health, and meals, especially in individuals with oral frailty. The CAMCAM program merits expansion as a community-based frailty prevention program. 

  • 4.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Kwang Tan, Chun
    University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Matsuo, Koichiro
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
    Suzuki, Kenji
    University of Tsukuba, Japan; PLIMES Inc, Japan.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Investigating swallowing sounds of viscous fluid of optimized food of dysphagia management2023In: Annals Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 31, p. 161-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problems with swallowing or dysphagia is an increasing problem due to the ageing population. Investigation methods commonly require clinical techniques which are tedious and costly. An alternative analysis is to measure the swallowing time non-invasively through monitoring of swallowing sounds. GOKURI is an AI-powered, smartphone-based, neckband- type device for the assessment of the swallowing function. The present study investigated swallow sounds of food in comparison to those of water swallows. In total 19 healthy subjects were eating a full meal while their swallowing was recorded via the swallowing sensor. The results show that the time it takes for a person to swallow varies greatly. Nevertheless, the length of swallowing solid food differed significantly from water, which were slightly shorter to swallow (0.702s vs. 0.668 s respectively). This correlates well with our previous study where swallowing of water took shorter time compared to thicker Newtonian and a shear-thinning fluids.

  • 5.
    Wojno, Sylwia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health. EPFL, Switzerland.
    Kádár, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Percolation and phase behavior in cellulose nanocrystal suspensions from nonlinear rheological analysis2023In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 308, article id 120622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the influence of surface charge on the percolation, gel-point and phase behavior of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) suspensions in relation to their nonlinear rheological material response. Desulfation decreases CNC surface charge density which leads to an increase in attractive forces between CNCs. Therefore, by considering sulfated and desulfated CNC suspensions, we are comparing CNC systems that differ in their percolation and gel-point concentrations relative to their phase transition concentrations. The results show that independently of whether the gel-point (linear viscoelasticity, LVE) occurs at the biphasic - liquid crystalline transition (sulfated CNC) or at the isotropic - quasi-biphasic transition (desulfated CNC), the nonlinear behavior appears to mark the existence of a weakly percolated network at lower concentrations. Above this percolation threshold, nonlinear material parameters are sensitive to the phase and gelation behavior as determined in static (phase) and LVE conditions (gel-point). However, the change in material response in nonlinear conditions can occur at higher concentrations than identified through polarized optical microscopy, suggesting that the nonlinear deformations could distort the suspensions microstructure such that for example a liquid crystalline phase (static) suspension could show microstructural dynamics similar to a biphasic system.

  • 6.
    Sepehri, Sobhan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Schaller, Vincent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Grüttner, Cordula
    Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Remote Sensing of the Nano-Rheological Properties of Soft Materials Using Magnetic Nanoparticles and Magnetic AC Susceptometry2023In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a nano-rheological characterization tool to extract the frequency- and scale-dependent rheological properties of soft materials during oral processing. Taking advantage of AC susceptometry, the dynamic magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles blended in the matrix material is measured. The magnetic AC susceptibility spectra of the particles are affected by the viscosity and mechanical modulus of the matrix material and provide the rheological properties of the matrix. Commercially available iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles with 80 and 100 nm particle sizes are used as tracers in the frequency range of 1 Hz&ndash;10 kHz. The AC susceptibility is measured using two differentially connected coils, and the effects of the sample temperature and distance with respect to the detection coils are investigated. The developed measurement setup shows the feasibility of remote nano-rheological measurements up to 2 cm from the coil system, which can be used to, e.g., monitor the texture of matrix materials during oral processing.

  • 7.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kaunisto, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wassen, Sophia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Dahl, Leyla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Pashazadeh, Sajjad
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rheology and fibre formation in extruded meat analogues2023In: Annual transactionsof the Nordic rheology society, Vol. 31, p. 45-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    lant proteins such as soy, pea and wheat gluten are known to form a fibrous structures resembling chicken meat when extruded at elevated temperature with subsequent active cooling. The current hypothesis on the mechanisms responsible for the fibre formation contribute to understanding but are not sufficient to describe the full picture and cannot be used to predict fibre formation ability of protein melts thus hampering the use of more sustainable protein ... interactions between protein chains or polymer crystallites. The aim of the present study to use rheological data of protein melts combined with simulation to elucidate the fibre formation mechanisms and this paper will show an example.

  • 8.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Miljkovic, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards attractive texture modified foods with increased fiber content for dysphagia via 3D printing and 3D scanning2023In: Frontiers in Food Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2674-1121, Vol. 2, article id 1058641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As life expectancy increases so do age related problems such as swallowing disorders, dysphagia, which affects 10%–30% of people over 65 years old. For dysphagia patients the texture and rheological properties of the food, and the bolus, is critical to avoid choking and pneumonia. Texture modified foods, timbals, are often served to these patients due to their ease of swallowing. The main concern with these foods is that they do not look visually alike the food they replace, which can decrease the patient’s appetite and lead to reduced food intake and frailty. This study aims to improve both the visual appearance of texturized food as well as the energy density and fiber content of the timbal formulation. 3D scanning and additive manufacturing (3D Printing) were used to produce meals more reminiscent of original food items, increasing their visual appeal. Rheology was used to ensure the original flow profile was maintained as the timbal was reformulated by reducing starch contents and partially replacing with dietary fibers. The amount of starch was reduced from 8.7 wt% in the original formulation to 3.5 wt% and partially replaced with 3 wt% citrus fiber, while maintaining properties suitable for both swallowing and 3D printing. The resulting formulation has improved nutritional properties, while remaining suitable for constructing visually appealing meals, as demonstrated by 3Dprinting a chicken drumstick from a model generated with 3D scanning.

  • 9.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Andersson, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Edible and sustainable hot-melt adhesive2022In: Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, ISSN 1601-4057, Vol. 30, p. 49-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hot-melt adhesives (HMA) are used for hobby as well as in industrial applications as a fast-setting alternative without solvents. They are used for corrugated boxes and in electronic devices to affix parts and wires, as well as for bookbinding as well as a glue in hygiene products. An edible HMA can be used for e.g. food decorations, for the childcare sector as a safe alternative to other glues as well as in packagings where corrugated boxes and paperboard cartons arc glued. We have developed an edible HMA based on sugars which can be applied by the same application techniques as conventional HMAs. The rheol. properties showed a similar melting behavior as a conventional HMA. A characterization of the mech. properties of the glue showed that the edible HMA was strong but fragile as compared to the more rubbery conventional HMA.

  • 10.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sepehri, Sobhan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Andersson, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nano-rheometry for non-invasive monitoring of texture during food oral processing2022In: Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, ISSN 1601-4057, Vol. 30, p. 53-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food oral processing is the first step in the digestive process which prepares food forswallowing and digestion. The process only lasts a few seconds, yet it determines our complete perception of texture, taste and aroma of the product we are eating. This oral processing is an intricate combination ofvoluntary and involuntary actions, and it involves complex flow geometry, mass transport offluids and gases and signal processing and feedback from the brain. Any attempt of inserting measuring devices in the mouth will fail because the complete oral processing will be influenced. We have developed a remote, non-invasive determination technique using magnetic sensing of magnetic nanoparticles iron oxide particles. A small amount of these particles senses their surrounding texture through their rotation and the nano-viscoelasticity can therefore be picked up without disturbing the oral processing.

  • 11.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Andersson, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Holmberg, Fredrik
    Animato, Sweden.
    A mechanical model of the human throat for swallowing rheology2021In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 29, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Miljkovic, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bolus rheology of food for dysphagia management2021In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, p. 43-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bolus rheology of texture-modified food - effect of degree of modification.2021In: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603, Vol. 52, no 5-6, p. 540-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swallowing disorders, or dysphagia, require an intake of texture-modified foods progressively softer, smoother and moister depending on the severity of the disorder. Bolus rheology was determined for five healthy subjects for a set of such solid foods regularly given to dysphagia patients. The softest class was gel food, then a smooth timbale which both were compared to the corresponding regular, un-modified food. The foods investigated were bread, cheese, tomato and the combination as a sandwich, all for the respective texture class: gel, timbale and regular food. The subjects chewed until ready to swallow and the expectorated bolus was immediately measured for complex shear modulus and viscosity, and moisture and saliva content were determined. Rheology show that texture-modification influenced bolus rheology with decreased viscosity and modulus for increased degree of modification. Also saliva content as well as chews-to-swallow decreased with degree of modification. Overall, the bolus saliva content was lower for the combination (sandwich) than for the individual components. Saliva content was fairly constant irrespective of food moisture content. The phase angle for all boluses was also relatively constant, indicating a similar bolus structure. All boluses of the texture-modified foods showed high extensional viscosity, which is important for bolus cohesiveness. Bolus rheology rather than food texture determines if a food is safe to swallow and the results show that the intended texture-modification is reflected in the flow properties of the respective boluses. 

  • 14.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Compression of plant seeds assuming soft spheres2021In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 29, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Introduction to rheology for educated beginners2021Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Physical properties of a model set of solid, texture-modified foods2021In: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603, Vol. 52, no 5-6, p. 578-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Those suffering from swallowing disorders, or dysphagia, require texture-modified foods for safe swallowing. The texture is modified according to the severity of the disorder, as maintained by the guidelines outlining classes of texture-modified foods, ranging from viscous soups to soft, solid foods. As a basis for studies of bolus rheology and oral response of solid texture-modified foods, a set of well-defined, solid foods has been identified and characterized regarding texture and physical properties. Gelled food is compared to both the firmer timbale class and to the corresponding regular food. Foods eaten at room temperature were chosen to avoid temperature effects: bread, cheese, tomato, and the combination into a sandwich. All foods were tested as gel, timbale, and regular food. The texture was determined by compression and penetration tests, thereby showing a decrease in strength (compression stress), stiffness (modulus), and penetration force for increased degree of modification. The moisture content increased with increased degree of modification. The structural change from room to oral temperature was monitored by the complex shear modulus that showed a decrease with increasing temperature. Cheese and the gelatine-based tomato gel showed a distinct melting when the temperature was increased to 37°C. The texture-modified foods were softer and moister in all aspects as compared to the regular foods, which follows the intended modification. The classes for the texture-modified foods were qualitatively comparable to other national classification systems with regard to solid foods, but there is a lack of objective, physics-based classification of texture, especially for solid, texture-modified foods.

  • 17.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Reologi för välutbildade nybörjare2021In: Dysfagi – Farligt, vanligt och ofta förbisett / [ed] Olle Ekberg and Ola Björgell, Svenska Läkaresällskapet , 2021Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Kwang Tan, Chun
    University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Dushyantha, Jayatilake
    PLIMES Inc, Japan.
    Suzuki, Kenji
    University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sound analysis of swallowing a shear-thinning fluid2021In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 29, p. 47-50Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Sharafi, Nooshin
    et al.
    Sepehri, Sobhan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Schaller, Vincent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Grüttner, Cordula
    micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nanorheological analysis of xanthan/water solutions using magnetic nanoparticles with different particle sizes2020In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 28, p. 147-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied nanorheological properties (viscosity and shear moduli) of aqueous xanthan solutions, in the oscillation frequency range up to 10 kHz by using magnetic particles that undergo Brownian relaxation and frequency dependent AC susceptibility (ACS). We used two magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) systems with different mean particle sizes of 80 nm and 100 nm. The determined viscosity and shear modulus of the diluted xanthan solutions from the ACS measurement of the two particle systems agree with traditional oscillatory rheological measurements. However, there is a particle size dependency that could be explained by comparing particles sizes with the xanthan microstructure

  • 20.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Optimisation of applied harmonics in Fourier Transform Rheology to enablerapid acquisition of mechanical spectra of strain-sensitive,time dependent materials2020In: Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, ISSN 1601-4057, Vol. 28, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological fluids such as food boluses are complex fluids which often are inhomogeneous, change over time and have a limited linear region. The rheological properties of a food bolus determine how easy it is to swallow which is crucial for those suffering from swallowing disorders. It is advantageous to use Fourier transform rheology to quickly obtain the mechanical spectrum of a bolus as it changes over time. Several harmonic strains are superimposed, and the resulting stress response is transformed into a mechanical spectrum. A novel optimisation algorithm was applied to minimise the maximal strain and strain rate applied to the sensitive bolus sample. The time to obtain a mechanical spectrum was reduced from 10 to 3.5 minutes.

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  • 21.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Mansoor, Rashid
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simultaneous X-ray Video-Fluoroscopy and Pulsed Ultrasound Velocimetry Analyses of the Pharyngeal Phase of Swallowing of Boluses with Different Rheological Properties2020In: Dysphagia (New York. Print), ISSN 0179-051X, E-ISSN 1432-0460, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 898-906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique allows real-time, non-invasive flow mapping of a fluid along a 1D-measuring line. This study explores the possibility of using the UVP technique and X-ray video-fluoroscopy (XVF) to elucidate the deglutition process with the focus on bolus rheology. By positioning the UVP probe so that the pulsed ultrasonic beam passes behind the air-filled trachea, the bolus flow in the pharynx can be measured. Healthy subjects in a clinical study swallowed fluids with different rheological properties: Newtonian (constant shear viscosity and non-elastic); Boger (constant shear viscosity and elastic); and shear thinning (shear rate-dependent shear viscosity and elastic). The results from both the UVP and XVF reveal higher velocities for the shear thinning fluid, followed by the Boger and the Newtonian fluids, demonstrating that the UVP method has equivalent sensitivities for detecting the velocities of fluids with different rheological properties. The velocity of the contraction wave that clears the pharynx was measured in the UVP and found to be independent of bolus rheology. The results show that UVP not only assesses accurately the fluid velocity in a bolus flow, but it can also monitor the structural changes that take place in response to a bolus flow, with the added advantage of being a completely non-invasive technique that does not require the introduction of contrast media. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 22.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Waqas, Mohamad Qazi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Holmberg, F
    Animato Konstruktions AB, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kotze, Richard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ekberg, O.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A Device that Models Human Swallowing2019In: Dysphagia (New York. Print), ISSN 0179-051X, E-ISSN 1432-0460, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 615-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pharynx is critical for correct swallowing, facilitating the transport of both air and food transport in a highly coordinated manner, and aberrant co-ordination causes swallowing disorders (dysphagia). In this work, an in vitro model of swallowing was designed to investigate the role of rheology in swallowing and for use as a pre-clinical tool for simulation of different routes to dysphagia. The model is based on the geometry of the human pharynx. Manometry is used for pressure measurements and ultrasonic analysis is performed to analyze the flow profiles and determine shear rate in the bolus, the latter being vital information largely missing in literature. In the fully automated model, bolus injection, epiglottis/nasopharynx movement, and ultrasound transducer positioning can be controlled. Simulation of closing of the airways and nasal cavity is modulated by the software, as is a clamping valve that simulates the upper esophageal sphincter. The actions can be timed and valves opened to different degrees, resembling pathologic swallowing conditions. To validate measurements of the velocity profile and manometry, continuous and bolus flow was performed. The respective velocity profiles demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the flow characterization necessary for determining bolus flow. A maximum bolus shear rate of 80 s−1 was noted for syrup-consistency fluids. Similarly, the manometry data acquired compared very well with clinical studies.

  • 23.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Kotze, Reinhardt
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessment of the Food-Swallowing Process Using Bolus Visualisation and Manometry Simultaneously in a Device that Models Human Swallowing2019In: Dysphagia (New York. Print), ISSN 0179-051X, E-ISSN 1432-0460, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 21-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of the flows of boluses with different consistencies, i.e. different rheological properties, through the pharynx have not been fully elucidated. The results obtained using a novel in vitro device, the Gothenburg Throat, which allows simultaneous bolus flow visualisation and manometry assessments in the pharynx geometry, are presented, to explain the dependence of bolus flow on bolus consistency. Four different bolus consistencies of a commercial food thickener, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Pa s (at a shear rate of 50 s −1 )—corresponding to a range from low honey-thick to pudding-thick consistencies on the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) scale—were examined in the in vitro pharynx. The bolus velocities recorded in the simulator pharynx were in the range of 0.046–0.48 m/s, which is within the range reported in clinical studies. The corresponding wall shear rates associated with these velocities ranged from 13 s −1 (pudding consistency) to 209 s −1 (honey-thick consistency). The results of the in vitro manometry tests using different consistencies and bolus volumes were rather similar to those obtained in clinical studies. The in vitro device used in this study appears to be a valuable tool for pre-clinical analyses of thickened fluids. Furthermore, the results show that it is desirable to consider a broad range of shear rates when assessing the suitability of a certain consistency for swallowing. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 24.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Koelewijn, Ingrid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. University of Applied Sciences HAS Den Bosch, The Netherlands.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of zein protein and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on the texture of model gluten-free bread2019In: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 341-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of zein protein and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the texture and volume of gluten-free bread was investigated. The addition of HPMC to starch affected the dough viscoelasticity and it improved the bread volume during baking since it acts as an emulsifier. The addition of zein protein to gluten-free bread increased the crumb firmness and reduced the crust hardness within the range of concentrations investigated. No zein protein network could be observed in the bread crumb. The zein protein, cold mixed at low concentration, did not enhance the dough elasticity. Due to the lack of a protein network noncovalent interactions may stabilize the bubble structure stabilization within the crumb, rather than covalent links of the protein chain. With an optimized amount of zein protein and HPMC hydrocolloid, the gluten-free bread showed similar texture and staling behavior to that of model wheat bread. The optimized recipe, compiled into a spreadsheet, is available in the supporting information. The microstructural observations suggest that zein could be replaced with another protein for this recipe resulting in a similar bread texture.

  • 25.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Emanuel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Extrusion Parameters for Foaming of a β-Glucan Concentrate2019In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1167-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics is a group of materials commonly encountered on a daily basis by many people. They have enabled rapid, low-cost manufacturing of products with complicated geometries and have contributed to the weight reduction of heavy components, especially when produced into a foamed structure. Despite the many advantages of plastics, some drawbacks such as the often fossil-based raw-material and the extensive littering of the material in nature, where it is not degraded for a very long time, needs to be dealt with. One way to address at least one of the issues could be to use polymers from nature instead of fossil-based ones. Here, a β-glucan concentrate originating from barley was investigated. The concentrate was processed into a foam by hot-melt extrusion, and the processing window was established. The effect of different blowing agents was also investigated. Water or a combination of water and sodium bicarbonate were used as blowing agents, the latter apparently giving a more uniform pore structure. The porous structure of the foamed materials was characterized mainly by using a combination of confocal laser scanning microscope and image analysis. The density of the samples was estimated and found to be in a similar range as some polyurethane foams. A set of 3D parameters were also quantified on two selected samples using X-ray microtomography in combination with image analysis, where it was indicated that the porous structure had a pre-determined direction, which followed the direction of the extrusion process. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 26.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nylander, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundman, Malin
    Essity Hygiene and Health AB, Sweden.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Westman, Gunnar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hot-mould foaming of modified hemicelluloses and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose2019In: Journal of polymer research, ISSN 1022-9760, E-ISSN 1572-8935, Vol. 26, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics are a material group which have revolutionized the materials industry during the past century. However, the often fossil origin and littering of the material is problematic. Therefore, this study aims at exploring natural polymers, such as cellulose derivatives and hemicelluloses from different botanical origins, and demonstrate the possibility to use these polymers in a foaming application. The hemicelluloses were chemically treated in order to enhance their performance and foams with ratios as high as 4:1 of hemicellulose and the cellulose derivative, respectively, were successfully produced by a hot-mould foaming technique. The foams were found to be thermally stable up to about 280 °C. The chemical modifications were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and the foams were evaluated with regard to their liquid absorption capacity as well as their density. After 1 min the best foam absorbed 12.5 g/g of liquid and after 30 min soak time and centrifugation the foams had absorption capacities between 2 and 5 g/g. All foams exhibited densities below 0.1 g/cm3. In both the absorption test and density evaluation, the foams produced from mainly hemicellulose performed in a similar way as the reference foams based only on the cellulose derivative, which is considered an impressive result since cellulose is often reported to have superior properties to hemicelluloses.

  • 27.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    In vitro models for simulating swallowing2019In: Dysphagia: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2019, p. 549-562Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives an overview of the in vitro models that are currently used for studying swallowing. The focus is on the construction, geometry, and performance of mechanical models. Swallowing simulations and mathematical modeling are also considered. The in vitro models that are concerned with the oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases of swallowing linked to bolus properties are discussed. The pharyngeal phase is given special consideration, as it is involved in both food transport to the stomach and air transport to the lungs, and therefore constitutes the most critical phase of swallowing.

  • 28.
    Sriviriyakul, Thana
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Bogren, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Schaller, Vincent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Blomgren, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Ahrentorp, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Grüttner, Cordula
    micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Zeng, Lunjie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Nanorheological studies of xanthan/water solutions using magnetic nanoparticles2019In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, E-ISSN 1873-4766, Vol. 473, p. 268-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show results of nanorheological studies of different concentrations of xanthan (non-Newtonian fluid) in water using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) together with the AC susceptibility (ACS) vs frequency method. For comparison we also show the ACS response for different concentrations of glycerol in water (Newtonian fluid). The ACS response is measured, and the data is modelled using dynamic magnetic models and different viscoelastic models. We study the ACS response (in-phase and out-of-phase ACS components) at different concentrations of xanthan in water (up to 1 wt% xanthan) and with a constant concentration of MNPs. We use MNP systems that show Brownian relaxation (sensitive to changes in the environmental properties around the MNPs). ACS measurements are performed using the DynoMag system. The Brownian relaxation of the MNP system peak is shifting down in frequency and the ACS response is broadening and decreases due to changes in the viscoelastic properties around the MNPs in the xanthan solution. The viscosity and the storage moduli are determined at each excitation frequency and compared with traditional macroscopic small amplitude oscillatory shear rheological measurements. The results from the traditional rheological and nanorheological measurements correlate well at higher xanthan concentration.

  • 29.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lopez-Sanches, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Challer, V.
    Johansson, C.
    Nano-rheometry for food oral processing2019In: Annual transactions of the nordic rheology society, 2019, Vol. 27, p. 117-120Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rheology of the bolus during pharyngeal transport2019In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, p. 47-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human swallowing taking place in the pharynx is a complex process demanding precise co-ordination amongst the organs involved. People suffering from swallowing disorders are restricted to texture altered foods/drinks which are shear thinning necessitating the knowledge of shear deformation during pharyngeal transport. In this work, the shear rate during bolus transport using shear thinning boluses was measured and reported both during in-vivo and in-vitro experiments.

  • 31.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carrillo Aguilera, Marc
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlson, Leif
    Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals AB, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chain-Length Shortening of Methyl Ethyl Hydroxyethyl Cellulose: An Evaluation of the Material Properties and Effect on Foaming Ability2018In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 4211-4220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past century, plastics have become a natural element in our every-day life. Lately however, an awareness about the fossil origin and often non-degradable nature of many plastics is rising. This has resulted in the emergence of some bio-based and/or biodegradable plastics, often produced from renewable resources. One possible candidate for bioplastics production could be found in cellulose. This paper aims at contributing information regarding a cellulose derivative, which could possibly be used in foamed plastics applications. Therefore, the reduction of the chain-length of a methyl ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (MEHEC), assessed by size exclusion chromatography, and the effect of chain-length on the foaming behaviour were studied. The foaming was accomplished with a hot-mould technique using aqueous polymer solutions. The generated steam was here used as the blowing agent and important parameters were polymer concentration and solution viscosity. The density of the produced foams was assessed and was in some cases comparable to that of commodity foams. It was found that reducing the chain-length enabled an increase of the initial polymer concentration for the foaming process. This is believed to be beneficial for creating more structurally stable foams of this type.

  • 32.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flow Behaviour and Microstructure of a β-Glucan Concentrate2018In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 3352-3361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensional viscosity is an important rheological characteristic of polymer melts. It is however not as frequently reported on as the shear viscosity. The extensional viscosity is of special interest when considering polymeric materials for foaming and film blowing processes. Here, the extensional (and shear) viscosity along with the melt strength and the tensile properties of the corresponding solid film of a β-glucan concentrate are reported on. A capillary viscometer equipped with a hyperbolic die, yielding a contraction flow, was used to assess the extensional viscosity of the aqueous β-glucan compound at room temperature and at elevated temperatures (110 and 130 °C). In general, the extensional viscosity as well as the shear viscosity decreased with increasing deformation rate. The influence of two different amounts of added water (40 and 50%) was also examined. As expected, both types of viscosities decreased with increasing temperature. It is suggested that gelatinization of the starch fraction in the concentrate at 110 and 130 °C contributes to temperature dependence of the viscosity. To some extent, this is supported by light microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy studies of the microstructure of the materials. The results reported here indicate that the β-glucan concentrate might, after some modifications, be used as a complement to fossil-based polymers and processed by conventional manufacturing techniques. 

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  • 33.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Moser, Josefine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Modelling the continuous relaxation time spectrum of aqueous xanthan solutions using two commercial softwares2018In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 26, p. 183-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT The continuous relaxation time spectrum was modelled from the mechanical spectrum of a xanthan aqueous solution both using the TA Instruments TRIOS® software, and with the rheology software IRIS®1 . Two types of calculation were applied to obtain the relaxation modes since the software bundles used in this study base the calculation upon two different algorithms, named “parsimonious” as it models continuous relaxation spectra using a minimum number of modes to obtain continuous relaxation times2 , and a nonlinear regularization method that provides a larger spectrum with several modes3 . The results were overall comparable but slightly different for long relaxation times.

  • 34.
    Moore, Helene A.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marucci, MariaGrazia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Härdelin, Linda
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hjärtstam, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Corswant, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anette
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    New insights on the influence of manufacturing conditions and molecular weight on phase-separated films intended for controlled release2018In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 536, no 1, p. 261-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate how manufacturing conditions influence phase-separated films of ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) with different molecular weights of HPC. Two HPC grades, SSL and M, with weight average molecular weights (Mw) of 30 × 103 g/mol and 365 × 103 g/mol, respectively, were combined with EC 10 cps (70:30 w/w EC/HPC) and spray-coated from ethanol solutions onto a rotating drum under well-controlled process conditions. Generally, a low spray rate resulted in a more rapid film drying process and, consequently, in smaller HPC-rich domains in the phase-separated film structure. For EC/HPC films with the low Mw HPC (SSL) the most rapid drying process resulted in a shift from a HPC-discontinuous to a partly bicontinuous structure and an increase in the permeability for water. In contrast, films containing the high Mw HPC (M) all showed bicontinuous structures, which resulted in overall higher water permeabilities and polymer release compared to the low Mw films. Interestingly, a maximum in permeability was observed for the high Mw films at intermediate spray rates. Below this spray rate the permeability decreased due to a lower amount of polymer released and at higher spray rates, the permeability decreased due to a loss of pore connectivity (or increased tortuosity). To conclude, this study shows that different Mw systems of EC/HPC can respond differently to variations in manufacturing conditions.

  • 35.
    Martín-Alfonso, Jose
    et al.
    University of Huelva, Spain.
    Cuadri, Antonio
    University of Huelva, Spain.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Relation between concentration and shear-extensional rheology properties of xanthan and guar gum solutions2018In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 181, p. 63-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of concentration on the shear and extensional rheology properties of aqueous solutions of xanthan and guar gums was studied in this work. Shear rheology involved small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS), flow curves and transient flow, while the extensional rheology was analyzed using hyperbolic contraction flow. In addition, the mechanical properties during solutions manufacture were monitored in situ through the evolution of torque with processing time by mixing rheometry. The results showed that the hydrocolloids exert a great influence on the process rheokinetics and on the resulting rheological response. SAOS tests showed that the xanthan gum solutions behaved as weak gels, whereas guar gum solutions suggest the presence of entanglement and the formation of a viscoelastic, gel-like structure. All the systems exhibited shear-thinning behaviour. Guar gum solutions obeyed the Cox-Merz rule, with some divergence at high rates for the more concentrated solutions, while the Cox-Merz rule was not followed for xanthan gum in the range of concentration studied. The extensional viscosity exhibited an extensional-thinning behaviour within the strain range used and all solutions were characterized by a high Trouton ratio.

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  • 36.
    Lundahl, Meri
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ago, Mariko
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Rojas, Orlando
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Shear and extensional rheology of aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanofibrils for biopolymer-assisted filament spinning2018In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 109, p. 367-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shear and extensional rheology of aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were investigated under dynamic and steady flow fields. The results were compared to those for two biopolymer solutions, cellulose acetate, CA, and guar gum, GG. Wet-spinning experiments were conducted for each system and the outcome related to the respective rheological profile. The spinnability of the system correlated with strong Newtonian and viscous responses under shear as well as long breakup time in capillary breakup experiments. CA solution was the most spinnable, also displaying the strongest Newtonian liquid behavior and the longest capillary breakup time. In contrast, the most shear-thinning and elastic CNF suspension showed instant capillary breakup and was considerably less spinnable. This is due to the limited entanglement between the rigid cellulose fibrils. In order to enable continuous wet-spinning of CNF without filament breakup, GG and CA were used as carrier components in coaxial spinning. The shear and extensional rheology of the system is discussed considering both as supporting polymers.

  • 37.
    Krona, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Klose, Felix
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gold, Julie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kadar, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Developing cultured meat scaffolds of extruded vegetable-based proteins2017In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 25, p. 311-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle cells from animals can becultivated in cell culture medium, but to beused as a meat food product, they need asolid matrix to grow on that can alsocontribute to the texture. In this project wehave created promising fibrous growthsubstrates from extruded plant basedproteins that the cells are able to attach toand grow on. Cultured meat is still far froma commercial product, but may, in the longrun, give even tastier, healthier and moreenvironmentally friendly meat products.

  • 38.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Development of extruded high-protein alternatives to meat2017In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 25, p. 39-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining rheology, food science, materials science and creative culinary ingenuity we have developed healthy, plantbased protein foods with low carbon footprint that are equally attractive to meat. Starting from a mixture of proteins we have extrude structures with fibrous, desirable texture and chewiness. The taste and flavour is bland and an experienced chef has applied his magic to create succulent protein food dishes.

  • 39.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Koelewijn, Ingrid
    University of Applied Sciences HAS Den Bosch, Netherlands.
    Johansson, Kalle
    Lyckeby Starch AB, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of cellulose-based hydrocolloids and starch chemical modification on the rheology of gluten-free dough2017In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 25, p. 77-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of cellulose-based hydrocolloids on the rheology of flour doughs based on corn starch and potato starch. Adding cellulosebased hydrocolloids or a chemically modified waxy starch to this gluten-free dough imparted a shear-thinning behavior similar to that of wheat flour dough.

  • 40.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bordes, Romain
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Effect of dispersed particles on instant coffee foam stability and rheological properties2017In: European Food Research and Technology, ISSN 1438-2377, E-ISSN 1438-2385, Vol. 243, no 1, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Properties of instant coffee foam constitute the focus of this study. The coffee, obtained from commercial sources, was dispersed in water at a concentration in the range of standard use. The resulting solution contained a substantial amount of micron and submicron size particles that were filtered with membranes having difference size cut-offs in order to investigate the relationship foam properties—particles size. The foams produced from these solutions have been imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and their moduli and stability have been measured by oscillatory rheology, using an in-house developed rheometric set-up. The results show that particles larger than 0.8 µm have little effect on the reduction of drainage while a clear strengthening effect on the foam was evident. This was a result of their diffusion to the lamellae borders, which increases the viscosity of the liquid–air interface. Particles smaller than 0.2 µm affect bubble coarsening and likely hinder the migration of soluble surface active species to the bubble surface. Particles also participate in the stabilization of the air–water interface, and this affects both the foam stability and mechanical properties. Established models developed for ideal foam systems containing particles are difficult to apply due to the complexity of the system studied. Despite this limitation, these results provide increased understanding of the effect of particles on instant coffee foams.

  • 41.
    Nyström, Magda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tamaddon Jahromi, HR
    Swansea University, UK.
    Webster, MF
    Swansea University, UK.
    Hyperbolic contraction measuring systems for extensional flow2017In: Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials, ISSN 1385-2000, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 55-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an experimental method for extensional measurements on medium viscosity fluids in contraction flow is evaluated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. This measuring technique measures the pressure drop over a hyperbolic contraction, caused by fluid extension and fluid shear, where the extensional component is assumed to dominate. The present evaluative work advances our previous studies on this experimental method by introducing several contraction ratios and addressing different constitutive models of varying shear and extensional response. The constitutive models included are those of the constant viscosity Oldroyd-B and FENE-CR models, and the shear-thinning LPTT model. Examining the results, the impact of shear and first normal stress difference on the measured pressure drop are studied through numerical pressure drop predictions. In addition, stream function patterns are investigated to detect vortex development and influence of contraction ratio. The numerical predictions are further related to experimental measurements for the flow through a 15:1 contraction ratio with three different test fluids. The measured pressure drops are observed to exhibit the same trends as predicted in the numerical simulations, offering close correlation and tight predictive windows for experimental data capture. This result has demonstrated that the hyperbolic contraction flow is well able to detect such elastic fluid properties and that this is matched by numerical predictions in evaluation of their flow response. The hyperbolical contraction flow technique is commended for its distinct benefits: it is straightforward and simple to perform, the Hencky strain can be set by changing contraction ratio, non-homogeneous fluids can be tested, and one can directly determine the degree of elastic fluid behaviour. Based on matching of viscometric extensional viscosity response for FENE-CR and LPTT models, a decline is predicted in pressure drop for the shear-thinning LPTT model. This would indicate a modest impact of shear in the flow since such a pressure drop decline is relatively small. It is particularly noteworthy that the increase in pressure drop gathered from the experimental measurements is relatively high despite the low Deborah number range explored.

  • 42.
    Gómez-Heincke, Diana
    et al.
    University of Huelva, Spain.
    Martínez, Immaculada
    University of Huelva, Spain.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gallegos, Crispulo
    University of Huelva, Spain.
    Partal, Perdro
    University of Huelva, Spain.
    Improvement of mechanical and water absorption properties of plant protein based bioplastics2017In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 73, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioplastics deriving from plant proteins are becoming an increasingly popular source of raw material for plastic products since they are not only biodegradable but renewable resources. However, these bioplastics require improved mechanical and water absorption properties to be suitable for many applications, such as packaging. For this reason, this study considers potato and rice proteins as a new source for the manufacture of bioplastics. The proteins were mixed with different glycerol concentrations followed by thermomoulding at temperatures from 60 to 180 °C. The resulting bioplastic is characterized in terms of thermo-mechanical properties, water absorption and molecular weight distribution. Compared to well-known wheat gluten, these bioplastics required higher temperatures for their thermomoulding. However, both of them were more structured materials and exhibited less water absorption (e.g. as low as 9 wt.%) than those obtained for wheat gluten blend. Potato protein-based bioplastics showed complex modulus values comparable to synthetic polymers such as Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE).

  • 43.
    Qasi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shear and extensional rheology of commercial thickeners used for dysphagia management2017In: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 507-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People who suffer from swallowing disorders, commonly referred to as dysphagia, are often restricted to a texture-modified diet. In such a diet, the texture of the fluid is modified mainly by the addition of gum or starch-based thickeners. For optimal modification of the texture, tunable rheological parameters are shear viscosity, yield stress, and elasticity. In this work, the flow properties of commercial thickeners obtained from major commercial suppliers were measured both in shear and extensional flow using a laboratory viscometer and a newly developed tube viscometry technique, termed Pulsed Ultrasound Velocimetry plus Pressure Drop (PUV+PD). The two methods gave similar results, demonstrating that the PUV+PD technique can be applied to study flow during the swallowing process in geometry similar to that of the swallowing tract. The thickeners were characterized in relation to extensional viscosity using the Hyperbolic Contraction Flow (HCF) method, with microscopy used as a complementary method for visualization of the fluid structure. The gum-based thickeners had significantly higher extensional viscosities than the starch-based thickeners. The rheological behavior was manifested in the microstructure as a hydrocolloid network with dimensions in the nanometer range for the gum-based thickeners. The starch-based thickeners displayed a granular structure in the micrometer range. In addition, the commercial thickeners were compared to model fluids (Boger, Newtonian and Shear-thinning) set to equal shear viscosity at 50s−1 and it was demonstrated that their rheological behavior could be tuned between highly elastic, extension-thickening to Newtonian. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 44.
    Qazi, Waqas Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A swallowing model for efficient food product development2016In: The Materials Science Graduate Student Days 2016, 2016, p. 38-, article id P20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysphagia refers to difficulties in swallowing, caused by conditions ranging from trauma to neurological disorders such as dementia. People suffering from dysphagia cannot adequately transfer food from the mouth to the stomach especially low viscosity, fluid foods. Texture modification is imperative to ensure safe passage of food from mouth into the stomach. Food products with elastic properties, i.e. high extensional viscosity, have been identified as helpful in promoting safe swallowing. However, this hypothesis is difficult to prove by clinical studies due to ethical issues and availability of suitable patients. Moreover, the problems of individual patients vary largely in nature and extent which further complicates the matter as identified in our previous research (1). We are currently constructing an in vitro human swallowing apparatus mimicking swallowing through the pharynx to the esophagus. The apparatus will have the pressure and ultrasound sensors to monitor real time flow properties of the bolus as it travels along the swallowing tract. This will enable us to measure relevant parameters during swallowing such as residence times and bolus velocity along the way. The model can be adjusted to different dysphagic conditions such as abnormal epiglottis closure. The goal of the project is to develop food products for safe swallowing and currently we are determining the rheological properties of commercial dysphagia thickeners, as well as model fluids. Two companies active in dysphagia foods are contributing (Fresenius Kabi and Findus). The shear and extensional properties have been shown to vary significantly, which has been correlated with fluid microstructure.

  • 45.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Kotzé, Reinhardt
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Correlation between in-line measurements of tomato ketchup shear viscosity and extensional viscosity2016In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 173, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The viscosity and shear thinning behavior are essential characteristics of tomato ketchup. A real-time monitoring of those characteristics during processing is important to obtain a good quality of the final product and to reduce production waste. This work investigates the measurement of rheological in-line flow properties of tomato ketchup, using a real-time technique that combines ultrasound velocity profiling (UVP) and pressure difference (PD) assessment. In-line data were compared to those obtained off-line using a rotational viscometer. There was a poor correlation with the Bostwick measurement, whereas the flow curves calculated from flow velocimetry data were very similar to those measured off-line. The extensional viscosity of ketchup was determined through the measurement of Hyperbolic Contraction Flow; the curve followed a trend similar to that for the shear viscosity over the deformation rate investigated.

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  • 46.
    Nyström, Magda
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tamaddon Jahromi, Hamid R.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Webster, Michael F.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Extracting extensional properties through excess pressure drop estimation in axisymmetric contraction and expansion flows for constant shear viscosity, extension strain-hardening fluids2016In: Rheologica Acta, ISSN 0035-4511, E-ISSN 1435-1528, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 373-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, hyperbolic contraction–expansion flow (HCF) devices have been investigated with the specific aim of devising new experimental measuring systems for extensional rheological properties. To this end, a hyperbolic contraction–expansion configuration has been designed to minimize the influence of shear in the flow. Experiments have been conducted using well-characterized model fluids, alongside simulations using a viscoelastic White–Metzner/FENE-CR model and finite element/finite volume analysis. Here, the application of appropriate rheological models to reproduce quantitative pressure drop predictions for constant shear viscosity fluids has been investigated, in order to extract the relevant extensional properties for the various test fluids in question. Accordingly, experimental evaluation of the hyperbolic contraction–expansion configuration has shown rising corrected pressure drops with increasing elastic behaviour (De=0∼16), evidence which has been corroborated through numerical prediction. Moreover, theoretical to predicted solution correspondence has been established between extensional viscosity and first normal stress difference. This leads to a practical means to measure extensional viscosity for elastic fluids, obtained through the derived pressure drop data in these HCF devices.

  • 47.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kádár, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Processing window for extrusion foaming of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose2016In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 1675-1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foamed materials are gaining an increased interest due to their good mechanical properties in relation to their low densities and an increased industrial demand can be expected. A few less attractive issues can however be associated with commodity foamed products. For instance the raw-material often originates from non-renewable, fossil-based, sources. Furthermore, degradation in nature is slow, therefor the disposed product is burned or end up in landfills. One possibility to reduce the impact on nature could be to produce foams from natural polymers such as starch or cellulose. In this study the possibility to produce foams from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with water as blowing agent, by continuous extrusion, was investigated. A pre-study using a capillary viscometer, batch-extruder, was conducted to evaluate the foamability of HPMC. Due to promising results further experiments were conducted with a single-screw extruder. The goal was to find an adequate processing window for foaming. It was concluded that HPMC could successfully be foamed by continuous extrusion, although a careful tailoring of the processing parameters was required. Crucial parameters were here the temperature, pressure and residence time distribution in the extruder. Regions of the extruded foams were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy and HPMC foams with a density in the range of that of fossil-based polymeric foams could be produced.

  • 48.
    Qazi, Waqas Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rheological modification of fluid foods for patients with dysphagia2016In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, 2016, Vol. 24, p. 75-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swallowing disorders, or dysphagia, is a growing problem especially as the population gets older. Fluid thickening is a well-established strategy for treating dysphagia, but the effects of thickening on the physiology of impaired swallowing are not fully understood and the relations to basic rheology are scarce. Commercial thickeners studied showed different behavior in both shear thinning, yield stress and first normal stress difference, and even larger differences in extensional viscosity.

  • 49.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rheological modification of fluid foods for patients with dysphagia2016In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 24, p. 77-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Muskens, Erwin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. HAS University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rheology of natural and imitation mozzarella cheese at conditions relevant to pizza baking2016In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 57, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheology of mozzarella and imitation cheese was studied at 60 °C, with small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS), shear and extensional flow measurement at low strain rates in the range 0.01-1 s-1. These conditions were chosen to replicate those experienced by the cheese during pizza baking and consumption. The extensional viscosity measurements were carried out by means of hyperbolic contraction flow, an alternative method to traditional extensional measurements. The extensional viscosity measured by hyperbolic contraction flow was related to the cheese elasticity and consequently to its stretchability, a major quality characteristic when this is consumed on pizza pies. The rheology of the two cheese materials could be explained by the structural observations made by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

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