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  • 1.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sjögren, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    STM BALTSAFE : Validation of WP4: Document No: BS_ WP6.2.22021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Vessel Traffic Service Operators (VTSOs) employ their experience and problem-solving skills in order to uphold safety in the controlled traffic area. Human Factors studies focus on the conditions of that work – whether technologies, organizations and interfaces to other stakeholders are adapted to VTS operator activities and needs. For the VTS, the purpose of Sea Traffic Management (STM) services is to allow digital communication and information sharing between the VTS Centre and ships in the controlled area, with an emphasis on simple creation and sharing of ship routes. The aim of this evaluation has been to uncover Human Factors hazards associated with the introduction of STM services developed in STM BALT SAFE WP4, directed towards route creation, sharing and associated safety functions. Analyses have concentrated on three levels of interaction within the sea traffic system: 1. The VTS operator and her immediate working environment (usability and ergonomics of VTS systems and tools affected by STM implementation). 2. The organization of VTS collaboration with other actors in the port and its surroundings. 3. Interaction in the greater context of ship traffic (including both STM and non-STM ships). The evaluation was performed using qualitative methods in a process consisting of three main stages – A first analysis using heuristics from the domain of Human Reliability Analysis, an interview study with sea traffic system stakeholders, and a VTS simulator study. Results indicate that maritime administrations should employ a consistent design process that caters for local VTS Centre characteristics and the needs of their operators. As work with STM continues, technical development should be augmented with an iterative development of VTS system user experience and usability. Aspects of STM that are already known to require a human factors validation are, but not limited to: • That the new information provided to operators through the STM services is presented in a way that does not introduce confusion or obscure information (e.g. cluttering of routes, poor visibility of ships/routes/geographical features). • That alarms and/or alerts are relevant, useful and communicated effectively. Irrelevant alarms or alerts can disturb the work of the VTSO, and even if only relevant alerts are provided, the sum of all alerts can still produce a poor working environment (e.g. with regard to noise). • That STM services are coupled with sufficient support for notetaking and/or marking. With a larger bulk of information available to the operator (e.g. around possible future hazards) comes a larger need to support the operator attention and memory. • That the implementation of STM functions accounts for information management over several work shifts. • That predictive tools (e.g. prediction of future ship movements and associated conflicts) factor in prediction uncertainty, so that the operator is given a truthful representation of possible traffic development. • That there are means of communication suitable for use with the STM functions. Even though chat functionality was excluded from the STM BALT SAFE scope, some informants hold that other means of communication than VHF might be necessary if the ship is to send its route before reaching the VTS area. • That dynamics in VTS-ship interaction may be affected as new forms of communication develop. For example, even if the purpose of the VTS Centre is only to “inform” ships about traffic conditions, creating and sharing routes via STM services might be regarded as something more than a friendly suggestion. This invokes a discussion around VTS authority and responsibility in the event of an incident that needs to be continued. Evaluation data suggests that the use of STM functionality is not appropriate for all operative conditions, and that implementation must be calibrated against the practical needs of local VTS operators. Here, a balance must be struck between allowing for local adaption of STM services and offering a uniform STM interface towards vessels moving between different control areas. A final aspect of adaptation is the relation between VTS technical functionality and how these functionalities are put to practical use. Seeing that STM services could expand the operator time horizon and allow them to work more proactively, technical development should be combined with a review of local VTS procedures, making sure that the VTS operational approach (e.g. procedures for ship interaction or the functional level of VTS implementation) matches all the capabilities afforded by STM.

  • 2.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Öhman, Susanna
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Mapping of Risk Perception and Assessment: Inspiring Methods for National Level Risk Mapping in Sweden2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Our modern society is exposed to multiple hazards and risks. To manage these successfully, it is important to have a good overview of the risks that potentially affect our society and how they are perceived and valued. This pilot study investigated possible ways of mapping and analysing risks that Swedish society and its inhabitants are exposed to and aware of. The aim was to capture complementary perspectives on accidents and crises, and to provide a point of departure for future planning and data collection strategies. To achieve this, previous studies are mapped and critically assessed and an example of a method of analysis is presented. The following questions have guided the work: 1) What methods are currently available to describe risks at a broader societal level? 2) What are the limitations, advantages and disadvantages of these existing methods? 3) Which of these methods are of relevance to Sweden? Summarizing previous studies, the report includes examples of methods, structures and data visualizations for mapping risks nationally or in larger regions. The report analyses 11 types of existing study or report as a source of inspiration and to scope existing gaps for potential improvement. The report makes recommendations for national level risk mapping in a Swedish context, supported by an empirical example.

  • 3.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

    In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

    The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

    The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
  • 4.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Challenges in coordination: Differences in perception of civil and military organizations by comparing international scientific literature and field experiences2015Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, nr 7, s. 989-1007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The extreme pressure resulting from modern-day disasters in terms of severe shortages of resources, mass casualties, infrastructure breakdown, large-scale damage and their impact necessitate coordination between all the agencies involved in disaster response. Better coordination in international disaster response operations will make them more effective in organizing the different phases of relief, rehabilitation and recovery. Recent disasters such as the hurricane Katrina, the Indian Ocean tsunami and the earthquake in Haiti have seen multiple civil agencies and the military working together. However, challenges have been identified in civil-military coordination. Differences in working procedures and a lack of knowledge on the others organizational identities resulted in stereotyping and prejudices, which are root obstacles to coordination. The aim of this study was to identify the perception-related challenges in civil-military coordination, and how they are perceived in the field by civil and military teams, and to investigate whether perception-related challenges and their implications have been reported in the international literature. A systematic literature review and 12 semi-structured interviews were carried out to answer these questions. Nine out of the 12 respondents were practitioners from the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) and the Swedish military, with experience of international disaster response missions that involved civil-military interactions, and 3 were trainees from Karlberg Military Academy, Stockholm, who were expected to participate in similar operations in the near future. The questions asked during the interviews were based on the systematic literature review. National backgrounds, attitudes and perceptions of the professionals towards the other organization were found to be key factors influencing civil-military coordination. This indicates that comparisons between the perceptions of professionals from both civil and military teams with different nationalities and different political histories should be carried out in future research.

  • 5.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Chapter 11: Armed forces in disaster response: Problems and perspectives on disaster governance in India2018Ingår i: Governance of Risk, Hazards and Disasters: Trends in Theory and Practice, London, UK: Routledge, 2018, s. 190-205Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter looks at the challenges of disaster governance in India. It highlights the problems of engaging the Armed Forces as the responder to disasters given the prevalent sociological dynamics within the communities. The Armed Forces in India have successfully responded to several catastrophes such as the Gujarat earthquake, the Indian Ocean tsunami, the Kashmir earthquake and the mudslides in Himachal that severely hit India. The findings from the interviews analyse the reasons behind the growing involvement of the Armed Forces in disaster response and recovery in India. They also capture the challenges of involving the Armed Forces from a critical perspective. The sophisticated logistical processes, techniques and equipment owned by the Armed Forces have been utilised in immediate response and relief operations to large-scale disasters in several countries, including India, to support the otherwise overwhelmed State-owned response mechanisms. The level of women's involvement in the growing presence of the Armed Forces in disaster response and recovery is negligible.

  • 6.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    City of Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Diversity and Inclusion in Businessas a Tool to Enhance Business Continuity2021Ingår i: Know Disasters Magazine, Vol. May-June, s. 26-29-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    If we appreciate thesociological complexities andinterconnectedness of our21st-century society, we willrealise that the immediatechallenges of businesscontinuity can be resolvedby practising diversity andinclusion. The solutions lie among us; what we need is the intent.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7. Pramanik, Roshni
    Interorganizational Collaboration In Crisis Response Management: Exploring The Conditions For Improving Collaborative Behaviour Across Organizational Borders.2015Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the conditions to improve collaborative behaviour between organizations in crisis response management. It takes an explorative approach and begins by identifying several challenges to interorganizational collaboration. A systematic review of the international scientific literature in conjuction with semi-structured interviews with crisis management professionals in civil-military collaboration context identified several challenges and their underlying reasons.Indications on ways to minimize such challenges are also explored. Based on these indications, two factors are chosen that are tested with the help of experiments involving 111 crisis management professionals from the Swedish police force, fire and rescue services, defense forces and the Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB). The experiments were performed to test whether changing the degree of these factors can potentially influence collaborative behaviour. Findings of the study indicate that by changing familiarity and expectation of future cooperation the extent of utilizing resources and the extent ofcontributing resources can be influenced. With greater degree of familiarity and long term commitment between organizations, greater knowledge on capabilities and equipment of other actors in crisis response, there is a higher extent of utilization of resources from other organizations in a joint task. Similarly higher degree of familiarity and long term commitment also make organizations to be more willing to contribute in terms of resources, equipment, knowledge and capabilities in a joint task. This means by fostering higher degree of familiarity and long term commitment, organizations areexpected to share, allocate and mobilze resources between them more effectively. Since this most likely will contribute to improve overall collaborative efforts in crisis response management, steps to increase familiarity and long term commitment between organizations seem to be a promising strategy to improve interorganizational collaboration. The thesis also discusseshow increased familiarity and long term commitments may also help organizations to adapt to changed conditions that arise during crises. The thesis has implications for crisis planning, preparedness and overall improvements of collaborative efforts in crisis response management.

  • 8.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Resource mobilization and contributing resources to a collective task by emergency responders: an experimental study on collaboration in crisis response: Mobilizingresources incrisis response2021Ingår i: Continuity & Resilience Review, ISSN 2516-7502, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 149-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose – Twenty-first century crises reaffirm the need of faster mobilization of resources during crises.Without interorganizational collaboration and resource mobilization, organizing efficient response is notpossible. Resource mobilization is an essential aspect of response. It ensures a faster and better response.Collaboration between teams of emergency responders may include commonly known boundary spanningactivities such as resource sharing, information sharing and communication. The purpose of this paper is tocontribute our knowledge of how to organize a better crisis response through collaboration. More precisely,what strategies work as drivers for emergency responder teams during collaboration in crisis scenarios.

    Design/methodology/approach – Through design of experiments, using tabletop exercises and onlinesurveys, this study investigates the drivers of collaboration during a crisis scenario. Participants of this studyare decision makers and emergency responders from various public actors in crisis management from Sweden.

    Findings – Collaboration is essential to manage cross-functional services in normal times, as well as meet thegrowing needs during crises. In absence of collaboration, boundary spanning activities such as sharingresources or information to provide any kind of service will not be possible. For teams to survive in fastchangingenvironment, they must be able to adapt to the changing demands accordingly. This paperdemonstrates which factors are drivers for emergency responders to mobilize resources, especially duringcrises. It captures the tension between individual and collective goals in crisis response and highlights thedrivers that affect decision-making during crises.

    Originality/value – The novelty of the paper lies in its methodology using tabletop exercises, design ofexperiments as part of Six Sigma toolbox and online surveys in combination with weightage of agreements anddisagreements and free text answers. Although scientific research so far has demonstrated the need forcollaboration during crises, however, which factors act as drivers for emergency responders to collaborate, islacking scientific evidence. Incentives for collaboration have not been studied enough. These can tell us whichstrategies can improve collaboration during crises. This research paper is a scientific contribution in thatdirection.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Technology and Innovation for Societal Resilience Through Multistakeholder Collaboration: Chapter 142022Ingår i: Technology Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development: Disaster Risk Reduction: Methods, Approaches and Practices / [ed] Professor Rajib Shaw & Professor Pradip Ray, Singapore: Springer Nature, 2022, s. 265-275Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter engages in exploring possibilities of innovation and use offuture technology arising from multistakeholder collaboration in essential societalfunctions such as public services, critical infrastructure systems and public policyarena. Multistakeholder collaboration is the key to adaptation and resilience amidstthe fast-changing twenty-first century world around us. Owing to increased interconnectednessand interdependencies of complex socio-technical systems, criticalinfrastructures and essential services, our socio-technical relationships have alsogrown more complex. On one hand, the tightly coupled systems, services and infrastructuresare highly optimized while on the other, because of their high optimizationand tightly coupled nature, these systems are often more prone to catastrophic disruptionsand crises. So, what is the way forward to effectively increase adaptation andresilience? The chapter engages in the discussion of boundary spanning activitiessuch as the essential public services where multistakeholder collaboration amongvarious actors, i.e., public, private, academia and the industry is inevitable due tocross-cutting issues, demands and challenges.With examples of successful cases andevidence from scientific literature, the chapter makes a convincing case in favour ofmultistakeholder collaboration as a powerful tool to raise societal resilience.

  • 10.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Stina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Harbour Battery Energy Storage Systems: Hazards and potential mitigation measures2023Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 62, s. 28-29Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) is a vital part of electrification of the shipping industry. However, there are potential risks that must be considered for BESS installation. The article presents HAZID as an earlystage hazard identification method for installation of harbour BESS. The HAZID identified critical factors such as proximity to the marine environment and safe distances between BESS containers

  • 11.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ekman, O.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hassel, H.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Tehler, H.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Organizational Adaptation in Multi-Stakeholder Crisis Response: An Experimental Study2015Ingår i: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 234-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern day crises demand organizations to collaborate and adapt to new roles, functions and structures. In such situations, lack of collaborative behaviour and openness between organizations can result in reduced adaptive ability. Therefore, it is important to facilitate collaboration between organizations. We have studied the extent to which crisis managers are prepared to work with personnel and resources from organizations other than their own when responding to crises. An experiment was designed with four different organizations in Sweden, which involved decision making concerning whether the participants systematically favoured their own organization over others. Findings indicate that increasing familiarity and expectation of future cooperation with other organizations increased the likelihood that decision makers would be prepared to work with other organizations in joint crisis management.

  • 12.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hassel, H.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Tehler, H.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Motivating factors towards willingness to contribute in collaborative tasks: A crisis cooperation perspective2015Ingår i: Safety and Reliability of Complex Engineered Systems - Proceedings of the 25th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2015, CRC Press/Balkema , 2015, s. 237-243Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction among various stakeholder organizations in modern crisis response is very similar to negotiation where each organization has its own goal in addition to a common goal. Decision makers in stakeholder organizations most often have to settle for win-win situations to attain higher joint benefit. In such cases willingness to contribute in joint tasks becomes a prerequisite. In our present study performed with 111 crisis management professionals from various stakeholder organizations in decision making roles, we study familiarity and expectation to future cooperation as constructs that can motivate decision makers to be more willing to contribute to joint tasks in crisis response.

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