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  • 1.
    Rafiei, Shirin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Dima, Elijs
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Augmented Remote Operating System for Scaling in smart mining applications: Quality of Experience aspects2022In: Proceedings of Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2022 / [ed] Damon Chandler, Mark McCourt, Jeffrey Mulligan, 2022, Vol. 34, article id HVEI-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote operation and Augmented Telepresence are fields of interest for novel industrial applications in e.g., construction and mining. In this study, we report on an ongoing investigation of the Quality of Experience aspects of an Augmented Telepresencesystem for remote operation. The system can achieve view augmentation with selective content removal and Novel Perspective view generation. Two formal subjective studies have been performed with test participants scoring their experience while using the system with different levels of view augmentation. The participants also gave free-form feedback on the system and their experiences. The first experiment focused on the effects of in-view augmentations and interface distributions on wall patterns perception. The second one focused on the effects of augmentations on depth and 3D environment understanding. The participants’ feedback from experiment 1 showed that the majority of participants preferred to use the original cam-era views and the Disocclusion Augmentation view instead of the novel Perspective views. Moreover, the Disocclusion Augmentation, which was shown in combination with other views seemed beneficial. When the views were isolated in experiment 2, the impact of the Disocclusion Augmentation view was found to be lower than the Novel Perspective views.

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  • 2.
    Rafiei, Shirin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Singhal, Chetna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Indian Institute of Technology, India.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Human Interaction in Industrial Tele-Operated Driving: Laboratory Investigation2023In: 2023 15th International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), 2023, p. 91-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tele-operated driving enables industrial operators to control heavy machinery remotely. By doing so, they could work in improved and safe workplaces. However, some challenges need to be investigated while presenting visual information from on-site scenes for operators sitting at a distance in a remote site. This paper discusses the impact of video quality (spatial resolution), field of view, and latency on users’ depth perception, experience, and performance in a lab-based tele-operated application. We performed user experience evaluation experiments to study these impacts. Overall, the user experience and comfort decrease while the users’ performance error increases with an increase in the glass-to-glass latency. The user comfort reduces, and the user performance error increases with reduced video quality (spatial resolution).

  • 3.
    Singhal, Chetna
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology, India.
    Rafiei, Shirin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Real-time Live-Video Streaming in Delay-Critical Application: Remote-Controlled Moving Platform2023In: 2023 IEEE 98th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Fall), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancement in multimedia and communication network technology have made interactive multimedia and tele-operation applications possible. Teledriving, teleoperation, and video-based remote-controlling require real-time live-video streaming and are delay critical in principle. Supporting such applications over wireless networks for mobile users can pose fundamental challenges in maintaining video quality and service latency requirements. This paper investigates the factors affecting the end-to-end delay in a video-based, remotely controlled moving platform application. It involves the real-time acquisition of environmental information (visually) and the delay-sensitive video streaming to remote operators over wireless networks. This paper presents an innovative experimental testbed developed using a remote-controlled toy truck, off-the-shelf cameras, and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) network. It achieves ultra-low end-to-end latency and helped us in performing the delay, network, and video quality evaluations. Extending the experimental study, we also propose a real-time live-media streaming control (RTSC) algorithm that maximizes the video quality by selecting the best streaming (network, video, and camera) configuration while meeting the delay and network availability constraints. RTSC improves the live-streaming video quality by about 33% while meeting the ultra-low latency (< 200 milliseconds) requirement under constrained network availability conditions.

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