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  • 1.
    Hagberg, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gödselbehållare - inspektion och egenkontroll: Informationsskrift2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Verksamhetsutövare ska utföra egenkontroll av de delar i verksamheten som kan ha en negativ påverkan på miljön och människan. En verksamhetsutövare, som lagrar gödsel, ska därför se till att lagringen sker så inte avrinning eller läckage av gödsel sker. Denna skrift ska vara ett hjälpmedel att utföra enklare egenkontroller av gödselbehållar eav betong. Även reparation av gödselbehållare och förebyggande åtgärder för att förhindra skador beskrivs. I skriften avser gödselbehållare främst gödselbrunnar. Många råd kanäven appliceras på laguner och fastgödsellager av betong.

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  • 2.
    Hagberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ahlby, Olof
    "Farmer", Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Västerväte lantbruk AB, Sweden.
    Hallvede, Mats
    Gotlands slagteri AB, Sweden.
    Sundblad, Fredrik
    LRF kött, Sweden.
    Thomsson, Ola
    Gotlands slagteri AB, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ingvar
    Gård och djurhälsan, Sweden.
    Att bygga för grisproduktion på Gotland - en vägledning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gotland Slagteri AB jointly with pig producers experienced that several construction projects of pig facilities were delayed or hindered due to insufficient locally established advisory services, specifically with competence in construction of pig facilities and the associated growth process. In corporation with the unit of Agriculture and Horticulture at Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE) and the farm advisory service, Gård och Djurhälsan, a project was carried out with the aim to write a handbook about the construction and growth process. One of the objectives with the handbook was to serve as a manual in which a pig producer could get more information about a specific topic relevant in the process. The handbook is composed of shorter texts in addition to checklists, "step by step", templates, forms and calculation tools. The project group has had several, so-called dialogue meetings, where specific topics, relevant to the construction and growth process, have been discussed within the group or with the participation of experts. The purpose of these meetings has been to retrieve deeper knowledge of specific topics, e.g., pig production planning, bank and finances, disease control and organic production. All these dialogue meetings have resulted in various chapters in this handbook. Additionally, there are a stand-alone template about writing a work environment plan for construction sites, several calculation tools for the operational phases in pig production, a template for ventilation and heat demand in pig units, a construction investment calculation tool and a time planning tool, i.e., a Gantt chart. The guidance focuses on the administration of a construction project and the growth process related to it. This guide does not contain topics related to e.g., crop production, feed production or manure handling. Neither such administration as required during the actual operational phase of the pig facility, such as systematic work environment plan or systematic fire protection plan. Additionally, the project group went on a study tour to Bornholm, Denmark, to discuss pros and cons operating an abattoir or pig production on an island (Grisproduktion på Bornholm – reseberättelse från studieresa i projektet ”Utökad grisproduktion på Gotland”, RISE report 2021:114).

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  • 3.
    Hagberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Andersson, Thomas
    Parsteel AB, Sweden.
    Atkinson, Sophie
    Smart djurhantering EF, Sweden.
    Hessle, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lind, Ann-Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lindqvist, Fredrik
    SSAB EMEA AB, Sweden.
    Lundquist, Christer
    Parsteel AB, Sweden.
    Olsson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    Lindahl, Sophie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wahlund, Lotten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lättviktsgrindar av höghållfast stål för säkrare djurhantering och arbetsmiljö2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lightweight gates of high-strength steel for improved worker safety and cattle handling This report presents the work with developing a lightweight gate of high-strength steel for the handling of cattle. The project was conducted as a European Innovation Partnership (EIP) project. The project group consisted of co-workers from the unit of Agriculture and Horticulture and the unit of Process and Environmental Engineering at Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE Jordbruk och trädgård och RISE Kretsloppsteknik), Parsteel AB (former Nilssons Plåtindustri AB), SSAB EMEA AB, Sophie Atkinson at Smart Animal Handling, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) in Skara and the cattle farmer Lars Olsson. The main objectives of the project were to develop a lightweight gate weighing at least 50% less and being three times as strong as a traditional gate for cattle handling. The main motive was to improve the ergonomic conditions and working environment for the animal handlers. Additionally, for the safety of both animals and handlers, the gate must withstand the loads from cattle. Other objectives were to design and construct a gate that does not exceed the price of a high-quality gate and not contribute to increased negative environmental impact. A lightweight gate can be made of various materials such as plastic, fiberglass or steel. Regarding the project group's participants and their competencies, in addition to the numerous requirements placed on a lightweight gate, the choice fell on high-strength steel. High-strength steel is characterized by having high yield strengths, up to 1300 MPa, in comparison with traditional construction steel with yield strength of 355 MPa. For the specific lightweight gate, steel pipes with a yield strength of approximately 750 MPa were chosen. These pipes are mainly used in the automotive and engine industry, where high demands are placed on strength while at the same time a light construction is desired. The gate itself was designed during the project and several details were examined and developed in regard to functionality and safety for both cattle and handlers. The work environment legislation states that gates must be dimensioned and anchored so that the animals cannot break out (AFS 2008:17). The gates must also not pose a risk of injury to the cattle. In order to work safely with cattle, knowledge of cattle behavior is essential and consequently the report contains a chapter describing cattle senses and behavior. Both the lightweight gates and the handling system, built up by the gates, must be adapted to the cattle. In the project, the bud box handling system was tested. The handling system was originally developed to make use of the behavioral characteristics of cattle to encourage forward movement in the desired direction. In the project the handling system's functionality and safety, by using lightweight gates and additional equipment and components, were further designed. The handling system was tested in two groups of heifers at the SLU Götala Beef and Lamb Research Centre. The lightweight gates were also tested in a dairy herd and a beef herd, while hoof trimming, and at a small-scale abattoir. Generally, the light weight of the gates was considered an advantage as the handling of the gates is simplified also resulting in more frequent use of the gates, increasing safety for both animals and humans. During the project, several strength tests were performed by building unique test rigs. In one test rig, the weld of the pipes of the lightweight gate was tested. In another test rig, the strength of lightweight gates, compared with traditional gates on the market, were tested. The outcome of the tests confirmed the original aim of the project, a lightweight gate made of high-strength steel, about 50% lighter and at least three times as strong as traditional gates, had been developed and designed during the project period.

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  • 4.
    Hagberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Eriksson, Ingvar
    Gård och Djurhälsan, Sweden.
    Lind, Ann-Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Thomsson, Ola
    Gotlands Slagteri AB, Sweden.
    Grisproduktion på Bornholm – reseberättelse från studieresa i projektet”Utökad grisproduktion på Gotland”2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pig production on Bornholm – a travelogue about pig production on Bornholm carried out in the project “Growing pig businesses on Gotland” Both Bornholm (Denmark) and Gotland (Sweden) are islands located in the Baltic Sea. Gotland is about five times as large in comparison with Bornholm, but the number of pig producers is twice as many on Bornholm. For both Bornholm and Gotland, pig production is important. Without pig production, a local abattoir would not be operating on the islands. A closure of the local abattoir would result in the loss of 150– 200 jobs. Such closure would affect the whole society. In addition, animal transports to slaughter would be significantly longer. In 2014 there was an imminent threat that the local abattoir on Bornholm would be closed due to profitability issues. With joint efforts the abattoir was rescued, and the production volumes are now expected to be 545,000 slaughtered pigs in 2021/2022. The density of pig herds on Bornholm is a raising concern among veterinarians and pig producers due to the spreading of diseases among the herds. For instance, there is a concern about the spreading of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is not found in Sweden. PRRS was discovered in Sweden in 2007, but the affected pig herds were eliminated and the disease was eradicated. For both Denmark and Sweden there is another imminent threat in African swine fever (ASF), which is found in several countries in Europe. Denmark took measures to hinder the propagation of wild boars in the country, diminishing the risk of the spread of ASF. In Sweden, the wild boar population was established in the 80´s and has grown since then, increasing the risk of bringing ASF into the country. Thus, Gotland has an advantage with no wild boar population established on the island. In general, the surrounding water barrier on an island may be a natural barrier to hinder the introduction and spreading of diseases. In both Danish and Swedish pig production, there are difficulties finding staff. Between 50–70% of the staff in Danish pig production are foreigners. This proportion is significantly lower on Bornholm. So far, there is a market for agricultural properties on Bornholm, but as many pig producers approach retirement, the future situation is uncertain. It is becoming more common for employees to purchase farms in Bornholm when no relatives are interested to take over the business. For both Bornholm and Gotland, it is challenging for younger people to purchase farms due to the large investments. The process also takes many years. Developments towards more automation and digitalization in pig production became clear during the study trip to Bornholm. Danish Crown A/S has developed a mobile application in which the pig producers can report animals for slaughter. On the study tour the project group visited a pig farm with 600 sows and 20 000 fatteners. The pig farmer had invested in several automaton techniques to reduce operating costs for labor. The pig producers on Bornholm use production follow-up programs (corresponding to WinPig in Sweden) to a large extent. In addition, advisers are hired frequently. At Danish Crown A/S, there is an "owner service" that pig producers can join. In the owner service, the abattoir's consultants offer advices of interests for the pig producer. There is also a farm advisory service on Bornholm, namely Bornholms Landbrug och Fødevarer (BLF). BLF administrates several experience groups and on Bornholm there are as many as 17–18 (!) for pig producers and their staff. The intention of the groups is to exchange knowledge between pig producers. Many of the groups are aimed for the staff and are held in the pig barns. In addition, pig producers on Bornholm have a long and appreciated experience of benchmarking. The purpose of benchmarking is to compare the own business results to other pig producer’s. In Denmark, the pig veterinarian visits pig farms continuously, approximately every month. Visits by the pig veterinarian provide additional advices and follow-ups for the pig producer.

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  • 5.
    Hagberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gilbertsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Asp, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Projektrapport om läckage från gödselbehållare av betong: inspektion och egenkontroll2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manure storages should be inspected regularly to prevent leakage of manure due to for example damages on the pit. The legislation states that an operator is responsible forprotecting both the environment and people from harm and inconvenience. Damage onthe pit could lead to negative impact on the environment with addition of nutrients to the surroundings as well as reduced water quality. The legislation also state that amanure storage must be constructed and maintained to prevent run-off and leakage.

    In this project, a concrete expert has visited farms and inspected concrete manure storages to record common damages on the pits as well as assess causes of damages andsuggest different repair methods. The inspections have been complemented withliterature review and complied in this report.

    Damages to concrete manure storages are caused by mechanical damages or chemical attacks. The most common mechanical damage is caused by collision with the tractor or manure spreader into the pit. Chemical attacks can be different acid attacks on the concrete.

    The condition of a manure storage should be checked regularly. Taking a photo of anemerged damage is valuable when in contact with an expert to clarify the nature of thedamage as well as required repair method. Repair of damages should always be precededby consulting an expert. Experts are for example engineers working as concrete expertsas well as specialists at the manufacturers’.

    It’s important to prevent damages on the manure storages. One of the most importantfactor is to follow the manufacturer's instructions how to operate and use the storage aswell as to follow the precautions that are necessary.

    In Denmark there is a state control system for manure storages where certified inspectorsregularly visit farms to inspect manure storages. This Danish control system is brieflydescribed in this report. In addition, the Swedish environmental and work environment legislations are described based on various aspects.

    The aim of this report has been to facilitate for operators to carry out minor inspectionsand controls of manure storages. The report can also serve as a tool for inspectors andadvisors who want to learn more about leakage from concrete manure storages, damagesand repair methods.

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  • 6.
    Hagberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Malyugina, Svetlana
    Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic; Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd, Czech Republic.
    Oscarsson, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Ringmar, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Wall, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Wigfeldt, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Biokol i ströbädd för frigående värphöns för förbättrad arbets- och djurmiljö2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochar in bedding for loose housed laying hens - for the improvement of work and animal environment The aim of this project was to study how the ambient air environment in barns for loose housed laying hens is affected by mixing biochar into the bedding. The objectives were to investigate the bedding’s effect on the ammonia and the dust/particulate matter (PM) concentrations. Studies were performed by laboratory studies and by field trials in aviaries with loose housed laying hens. In the lab study, dust formation was tested by tumbling (stirring) three different types of biochar and one product of wood shavings. Wood shavings were used as a control/comparative bedding material, as it is the most common source of litter in Swedish laying hen flocks. The dust formation was higher for biochar compared to the wood shavings. Additionally, a higher dry matter content in the biochar resulted in higher dust concentrations. Presumably, this is because biochar is a porous material, which easily falls apart during mechanical processing. In practice, the mechanical processing will supposedly not be so forcefully because of e.g., the hens pecking in the bedding. However, it might be an aspect to consider during some work tasks, e.g., removal of the bedding. During the field trials, data of ammonia concentrations and PM were collected in four aviaries with 100 loose housed laying hens per aviary. Each aviary was provided with different mixtures of bedding material. The mixtures were 1) wood shavings and a bacteria/fungi additive, 2) only wood shavings, 3) wood shavings and biochar, and 4) peat or peat mixture (80% peat and 20% wood shavings). The measurements of ammonia were collected with a hand-held aspirator pump, one sample above the slatted flooring and two samples above the bedded flooring. No differences of the ammonia concentrations were obtained in the different aviaries, bedding materials and flooring. Differences in ammonia concentrations were not assumed above the slatted flooring, but above the bedded flooring. In future studies, continuous measurements and more data sampling would be relevant to analyze, to compare differences in the ammonia concentrations, depending on the bedding material, and correlate it to the time of day, the behavior/activity level of the laying hens, etc. The fractions of PM measured during the field trials were PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10 and total-PM. In each of the four aviaries, approximately 500 samples were taken with a laser photometer. The results were slightly different compared to the laboratory study. For all the PM fractions, the PM concentrations were highest in the bedding with only wood shavings. An influencing factor may be the dry matter content of the bedding materials, 90% for wood shavings and 70% for biochar. Another aspect is the laying hens’ activation and encouragement to process the bed by pecking, dust bathing etc. Both the laying hens and the eggs, in the aviary with biochar, appeared to have a greyish color at times. This study shows that the dry matter content of bedding materials is important for the dust/PM concentrations in the ambient air in animal production facilities. How different biochar with different properties, e.g. dry matter content and size fractions, affect the behavior of the laying hens (encouragement to process the bedding) is a topic for future research. One conclusion is that different biochar may have very different properties and that these varying properties can have quite different effects on the behavior of the laying hens, animal environment and work environment.

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  • 7.
    Hagberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Pourazari, Fereshteh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ny teknik inom grisproduktionen2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Investments in pig operations often involve investments in various technical equipment and systems. Automatic feeding and automatic regulation of the ventilation in pig units are commonly installed today. The future technologies, being under development, are more advanced technical solutions as the pigs' growth, behavior, well-being, and health are monitored with the aim to give the pig producer real time data of the production and eventually, what measures required to be taken. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) aims to combine hardware, e.g., cameras, microphones and sensors, with computer software to collect and analyze data. By real time automatic monitoring, the production results and pigs’ welfare and health are easier to follow-up instantly. The PLF technology function as a warning system for disturbances in the pig units before the stockperson has had time to notice the changes making it possible for quick and targeted interventions. Different types of cameras are being developed to record different behaviors in pigs, such as aggressive behaviors. Face recognition, by a mobile phone application, is being developed for individual recognition of pigs and as a replacement of ear tags. In addition, attempts are made to monitor the pigs' activity and body measurements with camera technology to obtain information about pig health and growth. Finding a reliable system for automatic weight estimation of the pigs would gain profitability. Thermal cameras, IR technology, will be of great importance in pig production in the future. Other equipment already on the market are sensors for sound analysis with the aim to early detect any respiratory disturbances among the pigs. Prior to any technology investment, it is essential that the pig producer has been ensured that the system and equipment have been carefully tested, and especially applied in commercial herds. Some of the technologies presented in this report have only been tested in small herds and in controlled research environments, and therefore need further development before commercialization. Additionally, the technologies must have been tested under different production conditions, e.g., among different pig categories, housing conditions and pen designs. Future commercial technologies preferably include continuous monitoring of the individual pig's behavior, well-being, and health, along with production results and indoor environmental parameters. It is important that the techniques are developed based on the needs of the pig and the stockperson to avoid any inconveniences. The technologies must also be profitable and user-friendly.

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