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  • 1.
    Bergentall, Martina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Persson, Ingela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Calmet, Emeline
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    As, Dorine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Plovie, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Malafronte, Loredana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Melin, Petter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Malolactic fermentation in lingonberry juice and its use as a preservative2024Inngår i: Food microbiology (Print), ISSN 0740-0020, E-ISSN 1095-9998, Vol. 121, artikkel-id 104500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lingonberry is a common wild berry that is often sold as jams and beverages. It naturally contains high amounts of the weak acid preservative benzoic acid making it an interesting ingredient for shelf-life extension. Despite this, their use as a raw ingredient is limited by the inherently intense sour taste. This study aimed to improve the taste of lingonberry juice by subjecting it to malolactic fermentation in order to reduce the sourness, and to investigate the benzoic acid in lingonberries as a natural preservative in juice blends by determining the microbial stability. After initial screening of lactic acid bacteria, a Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strain was used as the starter for subsequent investigations. Upon raising the pH, all malic acid was completely converted to lactic acid after seven days. The fermented juice was mixed with blackcurrant juice in different proportions. Challenge tests of the blends showed Listeria monocytogenes could not grow in any juice samples, while Candida albicans only grew in the pure blackcurrant juice. Aspergillus brasiliensis growth was delayed in all samples containing benzoic acid in a concentration-dependent manner. The sourness and astringency were substantially reduced in the juice with added L. plantarum compared to the unfermented juice. © 2024 The Authors

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Costa, Elena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Still just a matter of taste?: Sensorial appreciation of seafood is associated with more frequent and diverse consumption2024Inngår i: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 198, artikkel-id 107369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving health and sustainability outcomes in WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrial, Rich, Democratic) nations necessitates a reduction in red meat consumption. Seafood is often overlooked in achieving this goal. However, simply consuming more of familiar fish species places high stress on production of these species. For this reason, diversification of seafood consumption is also critical. Here the motives for seafood consumption (frequency and diversity) are investigated across two studies by adapting the 4Ns survey to the seafood category. This 16-item survey measures four factors underpinning meat consumption: namely that it is ‘Natural’, ‘Necessary’, ‘Normal’ and ‘Nice’. Swedish consumers’ hedonic and sensory expectations of two herring concepts (traditional pickled contra novel minced and presented as a burger) are also evaluated in relation to the 4Ns. Study 1 (N = 304) revealed that the seafood 4Ns scale had a similar underlying structure to that of meat and had good test-retest reliability. Study 2 (N = 514) showed that consumers expected to like the pickled herring (associated with being ‘seasoned’, ‘salty’, ‘sweet’, ‘firm’, ‘juicy’, ‘chewy’, and ‘slimy’) more than the minced herring (associated with being ‘mushy’, ‘fishy’, ‘grainy’, ‘dry’ and having ‘small bones’), and that ‘Nice’ scores affected expectations of both herring concepts. Food neophobia correlated inversely with seafood consumption frequency, expected liking, the ‘Nice’ subscale, and food agency. Critically, in both studies, enjoyment of seafood (higher ‘Nice’ scores) predicted more frequent and diverse seafood consumption, whilst agreeing that seafood is ‘Necessary’ for health predicted only consumption frequency, not diversity. Communicating the positive sensory attributes of seafood and developing novel product concepts in ways that disconfirm sceptical consumers’ negative sensory expectations may increase acceptance of both familiar and unfamiliar seafood concepts. © 2024 The Authors

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Norman, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Just a matter of taste?: Understanding rationalizations for dairy consumption and their associations with sensory expectations of plant-based milk alternatives2023Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 104, artikkel-id 104745Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although knowledge surrounding the obstacles omnivorous consumers face when substituting meat products with plant-based alternatives has increased dramatically, less is known about their perspectives on plant-based alternatives to dairy products. Here, these perspectives are assessed in two survey-based studies. Study 1 (N = 175) adapts an existing scale (the 4Ns of meat consumption) to dairy products in an effort to identify similarities and differences between rationalizations for meat and dairy consumption. This 16-item scale quantifies four factors (Natural, Necessary, Normal, and Nice) describing common rationalizations for meat consumption. The results revealed that the 4Ns transfer well to the dairy category, and that endorsement of dairy products as Nice was the strongest predictor of dairy consumption, relative to the other 3Ns. This is further supported by evaluation of consumers’ own qualitative descriptions of why they do or do not consume meat/dairy products, where “taste” was the most frequently used word in both categories. Study 2 replicates the relationships between dairy 4Ns scores and reported dairy consumption found in Study 1 and builds upon these results by showing that 4N score could accurately categorize consumers as frequent (N = 192) or infrequent (N = 210) consumers of plant-based milk alternatives (PBMAs). Differences in consumers’ expectations for the sensory characteristics of cow’s milk and PBMAs are identified, and the impact of rationalization (total 4N score) on the likelihood of expected sensory attribute associations is described. The role of rationalization in shaping sensory expectations and impacting dietary choices, in particular resistance to adopting PBMAs, is discussed.

  • 4.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Oberrauter, Lisa-Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Norman, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensson, Marlene
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Identifying barriers to decreasing meat consumption and increasing acceptance of meat substitutes among Swedish consumers2021Inngår i: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 167, artikkel-id 105643Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A key lifestyle change people could make to reduce their environmental impact is to reduce their meat consumption. However, meat is still a staple in many people's diet, and some consumers are reluctant to cut down. Meat substitutes, if accepted as adequate replacements for meat, may offer a suitable alternative without leaving consumers feeling dissatisfied. The aim of the present study was to identify psychological barriers to reducing meat consumption and increasing use of meat substitutes among Swedish consumers. Participants engaged in focus group discussions around purchasing, preparing, and consuming meat and meat substitutes. Four main themes were identified through thematic analysis: uncertainty, scepticism, health, and identity. These are discussed in relation to previous work on the barriers to reducing meat consumption. Strategies to communicate the environmental impact of meat to consumers and effect change through behavioural interventions are considered. © 2021 The Authors

  • 5.
    Costa, Elena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Exploring seafood choices at the point of purchase among a sample of Swedish consumers2024Inngår i: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 126, nr 13, s. 269-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Seafood consumption in Sweden is below the national recommendations and limited to very few species. This study aims to explore the factors shaping seafood choices at the point of purchase among a sample of current consumers in Sweden, and examines their attitudes regarding seafood consumption more broadly. Design/methodology/approach: Convenience sampling was used to recruit consumers planning to purchase seafood at a supermarket in Sweden. Participants’ shopping trip was recorded using wearable eye tracking glasses and, upon completion, semi-structured interviews were conducted using a cued retrospective think aloud method. This exploratory study integrates qualitative data (N = 39) with eye tracking data (N = 34), to explore how seafood choices unfold when consumers purchase at the point of purchase. Findings: Purchases were mostly restricted to familiar seafood species. Four interlinked main themes were identified from thematic analysis of the interview data: Ambivalence, Nice and Necessary, Proficiency with Seafood and External Influences. Sustainability information (e.g. certifications) faced strong competition from other visual elements at the point of purchase, receiving less attention than product imagery and pricing information. Originality/value: This study is the first to explore the factors shaping seafood choices of current consumers at the point of purchase. The unique approach, combining explicit and implicit measures, enriches understanding of the factors influencing seafood choices and how these may interrelate. The results are valuable for the industry and contribute to the literature by identifying possible routes to improve seafood sustainability communication.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Costa, Elena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    The relationship between food neophobia and hedonic ratings of novel foods may be mediated by emotional arousal2023Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 109, artikkel-id 104931Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood could support the transition away from terrestrial animal-source foods towards more sustainable protein sources. Food neophobia (FN), the reluctance to eat novel foods (which also extends to many familiar foods including seafood), is a known barrier to dietary change. This study investigates the relationship between FN and consumers’ acceptance of novel surimi-based products shaped to resemble pasta; and explores the role of emotional arousal experienced during tasting. Consumers (N = 211) completed the Food Neophobia Scale prior to the tasting session and were quasi-randomized to either the blind (N = 107; given no information about the content of the samples) or informed condition (N = 104; informed that the samples derived from fish), to ensure a similar FN distribution across groups. Respondents tasted three variants (pollock, cod, or salmon) of a surimi-based product at a central location in Sweden. Each sample was rated in terms of hedonics, experienced emotional arousal (from 1-relaxed to 7-anxious), overall perceived aroma and flavor intensity, and freely described for flavor character. Attitudes (positive/negative) towards the concept were also described by respondents with free text. In line with previous studies, results showed negative associations between FN and both hedonic ratings and purchase intention. Moreover, mediation analysis suggested that the relationship between FN and hedonic liking was indirectly explained by emotional arousal, implying that higher arousal may be mechanistic in describing how FN negatively impacts liking. The effect of FN was, however, not observed for the salmon sample which evoked higher levels of arousal overall and may have also been perceived as more familiar due to high salmon consumption in Sweden. These results support the arousal hypothesis of FN and contribute to further understanding the mechanisms underpinning FN, highlighting the relevance of incorporating emotional measurements in sensory evaluations. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 7.
    Costa, Elena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Beyond raw: Investigating alternative preparation methods as a tool to increase acceptance of oysters in Sweden2023Inngår i: Future Foods, ISSN 2666-8335, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 100217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of seafood in supporting transitions towards more sustainable and healthier diets is often overlooked. Oysters, for example, are a nutrient dense aquatic food whose production requires no feed, freshwater, or land use. However, oyster consumption in Sweden is limited, possibly in part due to being traditionally served raw. This study investigated consumer acceptance of oysters when cooked and prepared to resemble familiar foods and examined whether food neophobia (FN) was related to liking. Four oyster-based samples (raw oyster, oyster crepe, oyster burger, and oyster soup) were evaluated in an ecologically valid setting. Participants (N=102; convenience sampling) rated the samples in terms of hedonics (expected liking and liking after tasting), described which aspects of the samples were liked/disliked, and reported the contexts in which oyster consumption is perceived as appropriate. The findings suggest that FN was negatively associated with expected liking of raw oysters, but not with expected liking for cooked oyster-based products that were cooked to resemble familiar foods. On the other hand, familiarity with oysters was positively associated with expected liking of raw oysters. This suggests that expanding oyster preparations beyond its traditional raw format could be a valuable strategy to promote oyster consumption in Sweden. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 8. Danner, L.
    et al.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Wang, Y.
    Kustos, M.
    Muhlack, R. A.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Dynamic viscosity levels of dry red and white wines and determination of perceived viscosity difference thresholds2019Inngår i: American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0002-9254, E-ISSN 1943-7749, Vol. 70, nr 2, s. 205-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wine mouthfeel significantly contributes to the overall sensory perception and quality of wines. However, the influence of dynamic viscosity on the mouthfeel of dry table wines is still not fully understood. The three objectives of this study were to 1) determine the perceived viscosity difference threshold in wine using wine/xanthan gum solutions, 2) measure dynamic viscosity levels of Australian commercial dry Shiraz and Chardonnay table wines, and 3) investigate in wine samples the relationship between dynamic viscosity and chemical parameters, specifically, residual sugar, ethanol, and pH. A wine viscosity difference threshold value of 0.138 mPa·sec at 20°C was determined by ascending two-alternative forced-choice difference threshold tests with a sensory panel (n = 45). The dynamic viscosity for 34 commercial Chardonnay wines at 20°C ranged from 1.448 mPa·sec to 1.529 mPa·sec, and from 1.488 mPa·sec to 1.695 mPa·sec for 29 Shiraz wines. These results indicate that on the basis of the determined threshold values, tasters could likely differentiate wines in terms of viscosity within the viscosity range of this sample set of Shiraz, but not Chardonnay, wines. Furthermore, significant correlations between dynamic viscosity and ethanol concentration, but not for pH and residual sugar, were found for both varieties, indicating that ethanol may have been the main compositional factor that increased dynamic viscosity in commercial dry wines.

  • 9.
    Gärtner, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Biozoon GmbH, Germany.
    Matullat, Imke
    ttz Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Genuttis, Darleen
    Biozoon GmbH, Germany.
    Engelhardt, Sarah
    Biozoon GmbH, Germany.
    Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún
    Matís ohf. Icelandic Food and Biotech R&D, Iceland; University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Rusu, Alexandru
    Biozoon GmbH, Germany.
    Vegan spread applications of alternative protein from torula yeast: product development and consumer perception2023Inngår i: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 1285883Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative protein sources are gaining attraction in food industry and consumers. Proteins obtained by single-cell organisms, such as torula yeast, are of enormous interest, as they are highly scalable, efficient, and sustainable, and the production costs are comparably low. Nevertheless, proteins obtained from yeasts are still mostly known and studied for feed applications, despite their nutritional, functional, and sensory benefits for various food applications. Testing consumer acceptance of products, especially products containing alternative proteins provides insights into, e.g., market success, consumer perception, and optimization potential. In this study, the development of two vegan spread powders, high in protein and containing torula yeast as an alternative protein source, is introduced. The result of food product development using torula yeast were “Leberwurst”-style (14.7% protein) and a “Balkan”-style (9.7% protein) spreads both meeting the criteria “at least 20% kcal from proteins of total product kcal” and thus claimable as “high-protein.” The application of the alternative protein from torula yeast within the final products was studied by a consumer acceptance test (n = 123) within three different countries (Germany, Iceland, and Sweden). Consumers also rated their trust in food production actors, the food industry in particular, and their willingness to try new foods. Overall, both spreads received acceptance values in the range of “like slightly.” It is noticeable that the consumers liked the spread “Balkan style” more than “Leberwurst”-style. The background variables revealed higher neophobic characteristics of Icelandic consumers compared with Swedish or German consumers. However, German consumers felt transparency, and communication was missing, but Icelandic consumers, in general, had more trust in the overall food value chain. This knowledge allows for the development of strategies that address cultural-specific barriers and capitalize on cultural values that promote openness to culinary innovation. The identification of cultural variations in consumer preferences emphasizes the need for customized approaches to product development and marketing. These findings could have implications for businesses and policymakers in understanding and catering to the preferences and concerns of consumers in these respective countries. Businesses might benefit from emphasizing transparency and improving communication strategies. This could involve providing clear information about the sourcing, production, and other aspects of the food value chain.

  • 10. Jiang, W. W.
    et al.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Ristic, R.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Effects of immersive context and wine flavor on consumer wine flavor perception and elicited emotions2017Inngår i: American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0002-9254, E-ISSN 1943-7749, Vol. 68, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food studies have shown that emotional responses can be influenced by food alone and by its environ­mental context. The influence of context on perception and liking of red wine flavors and on the emotions evoked is poorly understood. The primary aim of this research was to examine the effect of wine flavors and context by immersive environment on consumer-perceived intensities of green and floral flavors, liking, and emotions elicited during wine consumption. Red wine consumers (n = 105) tasted three Cabernet Sauvignon wines: an unaltered control wine (CW), green wine (GW; control wine spiked with 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine), and floral wine (FW; control wine spiked with rose water), in both a “floral” room (FR) and a “green” room (GR). The wine consumers were asked to taste and rate the intensity of green and floral flavors, hedonic liking, and the emotions elicited. The results showed that in both rooms, FW was rated consistently higher in floral flavor and GW was rated higher in green flavor. CW and FW were significantly (p < 0.001) more liked than the GW. Based on wine liking, three clusters were identified. CW and FW evoked significantly higher positive emotions than GW (p < 0.05), while GW evoked significantly higher negative emotions than CW and FW (p < 0.05) in both rooms. The effect of immersive environ­ment did not influence flavor perception, hedonic liking, or emotional responses. Consumers were also separated into three clusters according to their liking of wines tasted, and despite clusters having identical liking for certain wines, the associated emotions differed. 

  • 11. Kang, W.
    et al.
    Bindon, K. A.
    Wang, X.
    Muhlack, R. A.
    Smith, P. A.
    Niimi, Jun
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany; University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Chemical and sensory impacts of Accentuated Cut Edges (ACE) grape must polyphenol extraction technique on shiraz wines2020Inngår i: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 9, nr 8, artikkel-id foods9081027Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accentuated Cut Edges (ACE) is a recently developed grape must extraction technique, which mechanically breaks grape skins into small fragments but maintains seed integrity. This study was the first to elucidate the effect of ACE on Shiraz wine's basic chemical composition, colour, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and sensory profiles. A further aim was to investigate any potential influence provided by ACE on the pre-fermentation water addition to must. ACE did not visually affect Shiraz wine colour, but significantly enhanced the concentration of tannin and total phenolics. Wine polysaccharide concentration was mainly increased in response to the maceration time rather than the ACE technique. ACE appeared to increase the earthy/dusty flavour, possibly due to the different precursors released by the greater skin breakage. The pre-fermentation addition of the water diluted the wine aromas, flavours and astringency profiles. However, combining the ACE technique with water addition enhanced the wine textural quality by increasing the intensities of the crucial astringent wine quality sub-qualities, adhesive and graininess. Furthermore, insights into the chemical factors influencing the astringency sensations were provided in this study. This research indicates that wine producers may use ACE with pre-fermentation water dilution to reduce the wine alcohol level but maintain important textural components. © 2020 by the authors. 

  • 12. Kang, W.
    et al.
    Muhlack, R. A.
    Bindon, K. A.
    Smith, P. A.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Potato protein fining of phenolic compounds in red wine: A study of the kinetics and the impact of wine matrix components and physical factors2019Inngår i: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 24, nr 24, artikkel-id 4578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Producing wines within an acceptable range of astringency is important for quality and consumer acceptance. Astringency can be modified by fining during the winemaking process and the use of vegetable proteins (especially potato proteins) as fining agents has gained increasing interest due to consumers’ requirements. The research presented was the first to investigate the effect of a potato protein dose on the kinetics of tannin and phenolic removal compared to gelatin for two unfined Cabernet Sauvignon wines. To further understand the results, the influence of the wine matrix and fining parameters (including pH, ethanol concentration, sugar concentration, temperature, and agitation) were tested according to a fractional 25-1 factorial design on one of the Cabernet Sauvignon wines using potato proteins. The results from the factorial design indicate that potato protein fining was significantly influenced by wine pH, ethanol concentration, fining temperature as well as an interaction (pH × ethanol) but not by sugar content or agitation. Insights into the steps required for the optimisation of fining were gained from the study, revealing that potato protein fining efficiency could be increased by treating wines at higher temperatures (20 ◦C, rather than the conventional 10–15 ◦C), and at both a lower pH and/or alcohol concentration. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 13. Kang, W.
    et al.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Reduction of red wine astringency perception using vegetable protein fining agents2018Inngår i: American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0002-9254, E-ISSN 1943-7749, Vol. 69, nr 1, s. 22-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of vegetable proteins to fine astringent compounds in wine has gained increased interest due to the pressure of consumer demand. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of alternative vegetable proteins (derived from rice, soy, pea, or potato) to reduce tannin and thereby astringency, relative to that of traditional fining agents (gelatin and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone [PVPP]) in a commercial wine with added grape seed extract. Total tannin and phenolics, SO2-resistant pigments, pH, and color of the treated wines were determined, and astringency intensity perception was evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). Potato, pea, soy, and gelatin proteins similarly reduced total tannin concentration. Similar to PVPP, addition of rice or soy protein reduced total phenolics. These alternative vegetable proteins also influenced the chroma, which may change the depth of wine color. Furthermore, this study was the first to evaluate the change in astringency sensation resulting from the use of rice and soy proteins as alternative fining agents. The type of vegetable proteins used appeared to fine different types of polyphenolic compounds, an observation that was reflected on astringency perception and requires further investigation. The chemical and sensory measures showed that rice and potato proteins have the potential to replace PVPP and gelatin, respectively. 

  • 14. Kang, W.
    et al.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Muhlack, R. A.
    Smith, P. A.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Dynamic characterization of wine astringency profiles using modified progressive profiling2019Inngår i: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 120, s. 244-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wine astringency is important for quality and consumer acceptance. Perception of this mouthfeel is temporal and can be separated further into unique textural sub-qualities. Quantitative data on these astringent sub-qualities in wine however are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the dynamic astringency profiles of 13 Australian commercial red wines and 2 rosés made from 11 grape varieties using modified progressive profiling by a trained sensory panel (n = 8). Seven attributes generated and defined by the panel (overall astringent intensity and 6 sub-qualities: pucker, mouth coat, dry, grippy, adhesive and graininess) were scored at six time periods (each lasting 10 s), with 20 s gap between each time period. Attributes were rated on 15 cm scales with anchors at 10 and 90% and samples were evaluated in duplicate. The wine composition as well as phenolic profiles were determined. Intensities of astringent sub-qualities were correlated with overall intensity, but the sub-quality profiles at a specific evaluation period and the progression of an attribute varied differently depending on the wine. The discrimination of wines at each time interval was dependent on attribute, and the relative importance of each astringent sub-quality varied at different evaluation periods. Correlations between mouthfeel attributes and chemical measures were established. This study demonstrated the utilisation of modified progressive profiling for wine astringency evaluation, providing a tool to capture quantitative data on astringent sub-qualities in wine.

  • 15.
    Kim, Ansung
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Öström, Åsa
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Consumers’ attachment to meat: Association between sensory properties and preferences for plant-based meat alternatives2024Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 116, artikkel-id 105132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For the sake of both the environment and human health, it is necessary to reduce meat consumption. However, increased consumer adoption of plant-based meat alternatives (PBMAs) will only occur when such products are attractive. PBMAs with meat-like sensory attributes and those that can be cooked similarly to meat are known to be preferred, but the preference for meat-likeness varies depending on the consumer’s attitude towards meat. This study determined the relationship between consumers’ level of meat attachment (MA) on their sensory perceptions of and preference for commercial PBMAs, and their drivers of liking. MA was measured by the Meat Attachment Questionnaire (MAQ); consumers with either low or high MA (LMA and HMA, respectively) were invited to participate in the study (n = 99). The sensory characteristics of seven PBMAs were evaluated using a rate-all-that-apply (RATA) questionnaire, along with an ideal profile and product hedonics. Consumers with LMA had significantly higher overall, aroma, and taste liking, compared with consumers with HMA. Both LMA and HMA consumers similarly discriminated among the sensory properties of PBMAs and the ideal profile. Nevertheless, a further adapted penalty analysis showed subtle differences in consumers’ penalisation of sensory attributes depending on MA level. These findings could be used for future research and the development of PBMAs based on consumers’ MA; they could also be extended for application in a meal context where the PBMAs are consumed. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Loren, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Albin, Rickard
    Culinar AB, Sweden.
    Rytter, Elisabet
    Swedish Food Federation, Sweden.
    Bjerre, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sodium reduction in foods: Challenges and strategies for technical solutions2023Inngår i: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 88, nr 3, s. 885-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many parts of the world, sodium consumption is higher than recommended levels, representing one of the most important food-related health challenges and leading to considerable economical costs for society. Therefore, there is a need to find technical solutions for sodium reduction that can be implemented by food producers and within food services. The aims of this review are to discuss the barriers related to sodium reduction and to highlight a variety of technical solutions. The barriers relate to consumer perception, microbiology, processing, and physicochemistry. Existing technical solutions include inhomogeneous salt distribution, coated salt particles, changing particle sizes and forms, surface coating, multisensory combinations, sodium replacements, double emulsions, adapted serum release by microstructure design, and adapted brittleness by microstructure design. These solutions, their implementation and the associated challenges, and applicable product categories are described. Some of these solutions are ready for use or are in their early development stages. Many solutions are promising, but in most cases, some form of adaptation or optimization is needed before application in specific products, and care must always be taken to ensure food safety. For instance, further research and innovation are required in the dynamic evolution of saltiness perception, consumer acceptance, the binding and migration of sodium, juiciness, microbiological safety, and the timing of salt addition during processing. Once implemented, these solutions will undoubtedly support food producers and food services in reducing sodium content and extend the application of the solutions to different foods. © 2022 Research Institutes of Sweden, Swedish Food Federation and Lyckeby Culinar AB.

  • 17.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Alcoholic beverages in context: Chapter 292019Inngår i: Context : The Effects of Environment on Product Design and Evaluation / [ed] Herbert L. Meiselman, Elsevier Science , 2019Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18. Niimi, Jun
    Sensory Perception and Measurement2021Inngår i: Handbook of Dairy Foods Analysis: Chapter 31 / [ed] Fidel Toldrá, Leo M.L. Nollet, CRC Press, 2021, 2nd ed, s. 24 pp-Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The human senses play an important role in the consumption of food and beverages. Multiple senses are activated which gives consumers the sensory characteristics of a product at the point of consumption. All five senses or modalities of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing are active during consumption. The combination of sensory characteristics within a product inevitably drives how products are liked and ultimately contributes to the decision to purchase the products. The senses can be used to the analyst’s advantage to measure perceptual differences between products, profile the sensory characteristics of the product, measure perceptual changes as a function of consumption time, and determine product liking. The current chapter first introduces briefly the five senses relevant to the dairy products along with the concept of sensory perception. The remaining chapters are followed by an up-to-date coverage of the available measurement methods for sensory perception. Measurement methods covered will be in the categories of discrimination testing, profiling methods, qualitative tests, temporal tests, and affective tests. Finally, a brief section on precautions for sensory testing is discussed.

  • 19.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nilsson Pingel, Torben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Niimi, Claudia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Saltiness enhancement: Impact of acid added to bread with heterogeneously distributed sodium chloride2023Inngår i: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 176, artikkel-id 114557Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current global sodium consumption exceeds recommended daily intakes and there is a great need to reduce the sodium content in foods for a healthier society. The current study investigated the effect of combining sensory interaction principles and heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in bread on sensory properties, structure, and NaCl distribution. Breads were prepared in three different arrangements of NaCl distribution: homogenous, layered, and layered with lactic acid. Within each arrangement, four NaCl levels were tested. The breads were evaluated by a sensory panel for perceived saltiness, sourness, and qualitative texture, measured for stiffness, and the NaCl distribution was determined by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). Perceived saltiness was significantly enhanced in breads beyond heterogeneous NaCl distribution when lactic acid was added. Stiffness measurements were affected by layering of bread, the layers without NaCl were stiffer with an increase in overall salt concentration. The heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in layered breads could be visualised by XFM and textural consequences of layering bread are discussed. The current study demonstrates the potential of combining principles of pulsation of taste and sensory interactions together to enhance salt perception, and hence suggesting the approach as a possible further strategy for NaCl reduction in bread.

  • 20.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergentall, Martina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Melin, Petter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Malolactic conversion of lingonberry juiceimpact on sensory properties and microbialstability2023Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Lingonberry is a popular fruit in the Nordic countries, where many variations of lingonberryproducts are available. The berry naturally contains high amounts of antioxidants andantimicrobial substances which make it an ideal natural preservative. The jui ce of lingonberryis also naturally low in pH which is often perceived as too sour in taste. To better utiliselingonberry juices as themselves or in combination with other ingredients, transformation ofthe juices is required to improve the palatability. The current study explored the possibility ofconverting malic to lactic acid using lactic acid bacteria, determine the changes in sensorycharacteristics of the fermented juices as well as blends thereof with blackcurrant juice, andinvestigate the microb ial stability of the juices when challenge tested. Lingonberries werepressed and the juices were fermented with L. plantarum. In order for the fermentation to beunimpeded due to active benzoic acid and successfully complete the conversion from malicacid to lactic acid, the pH of lingonberry juice was increased from 3.0 to 5.2. The resulting pHafter fermentation had stabilised to 4.9 after 7 days.To prepare the fermented lingonberry juices in a context of a mixture of juices, fermentedjuices were pasteurised and prepared in blends with diluted blackcurrant juice (25%) in fivedifferent proportions of lingonberry/blackcurrant juice; 0/100, 25/75, 5 0/50, 75/25, and 100/0.These five juices were evaluated with a sensory panel using descriptive analysis, along with anon fermented lingonberry juice. The juices evaluated showed that fermentation significantlyp <0.001) reduced the perceived sourness and astringency, seen from the difference betweenfermented and non fermented lingonberry juices. The fermentation had also significantlyp <0.001) increased the perceived sweetness of the juices.The five blends were also subjected to challenge tests using three microbial speciescommonly found in juices. In none of the samples the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes wereable to grow likely due to the low pH (3.07 4.98) possibly in combination with benzoic acid.The yeast, Candida albicans were only able to grow in 0/100 lingonberry/blackcurrant juice,which did not contain any benzoic acid. When testing Aspergillus brasiliensis, full growthcould only be observed in 0/100 lingonberry/blackcurrant j uice. In the blends, mould growthswere delayed in a concentration dependent manner where no growth was observed in the 100% fermented lingonberry juice even after six weeks. The challenge test overall indicated thatblends containing lingonberry juice pr event fungal growth although a high concentrationmight be required to prevent mold growth.

  • 21.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Adelaide, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Boss, P. K.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Sensory profiling and quality assessment of research Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines; quality discrimination depends on greater differences in multiple modalities2018Inngår i: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 106, s. 304-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensory profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay research wines were determined and analysed together with wine quality scores of expert judges. Research Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines from three and two vintages, respectively, were evaluated. Wines of both varieties were produced with grapes harvested from across South Australian wine making regions throughout 2013–2016 vintages. Wines within varieties were vinified identically across samples and also across vintages. Wines were profiled in triplicate using descriptive analysis with a panel of trained assessors (n = 9–11) and graded for quality in triplicate by winemakers (n = 6–9) using a sorting task based on similarity of quality and with the aid of definitions formed by the winemakers prior to sorting. The data sets were analysed using canonical variate analysis (CVA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS). The scores from CVA and MDS per variety per vintage were analysed using Generalised Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Differences in Cabernet Sauvignon samples by provenance were determined, where associations with regions by sensory attributes were observed in all vintages. These wines were consistently sorted based on quality by the winemakers, evident from GPA. Chardonnay in comparison were poorly discriminated in both sensory profiles and quality. The combination of descriptive sensory analysis with sorting was complimentary to each other and was able to uncover additional information about the sensory properties of wines when the two methods were used in concert, such as balance and complexity. However the red wine variety had more intrinsic characteristics that lead to better discrimination based on sensory properties and hence quality than the white wine variety.

  • 22.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Adelaide, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Boss, P. K.
    Jeffery, D.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Linking sensory properties and chemical composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries to wine2017Inngår i: American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0002-9254, E-ISSN 1943-7749, Vol. 68, nr 3, s. 357-368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is conventional wine industry practice for winemakers and grapegrowers to taste winegrapes to determine their fitness for producing various wine styles of different quality. However, the ability to predict wine style from tasting grapes is unverified, and the relationship among the sensory characters of grapes and wine is poorly understood. The objective of the study was to investigate the sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and the corresponding wines, and to determine the relationships between the two data sets. Grapes were harvested between 23 and 25 Brix from eight locations across the state of South Australia over two vintages and vinified using a standardized protocol. A total of 25 samples from across the eight locations were harvested for each vintage. The grapes and wines were evaluated by a sensory panel trained in descriptive analysis. Grapes were evaluated using the berry sensory assessment (BSA) methodology previously described in the literature, and the basic chemical parameters of the grapes and wines were measured. Samples were consistently discriminated by their chemical and sensory properties within the grape and by wine data sets across the vintages. Five sensory attributes of wine were consistently modeled with moderate to high regressions using BSA attributes and berry-chemical measures. Finding berry sensory attributes that consistently relate to wine style and profile remains challenging. The basic chemical measures, including Brix, anthocyanins, and chroma of grape homogenates, were reliable contributors to wine sensory attributes for both vintages. 

  • 23.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Adelaide, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Boss, P. K.
    Jeffery, D. W.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Linking the sensory properties of chardonnay grape Vitis vinifera cv. Berries to wine characteristics2018Inngår i: American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0002-9254, E-ISSN 1943-7749, Vol. 69, nr 2, s. 113-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal or informal sensory analyses of grapes are often used to determine when a parcel of fruit should be harvested to produce a certain wine style. This study investigated whether relationships exist between sensory perceptions and basic chemical measures of Chardonnay grape berries and the corresponding wines. Chardonnay grape parcels were harvested at commercial maturity from across South Australia in vintages 2015 and 2016, yielding a total of 25 and 24 samples, respectively. Grapes were evaluated using berry sensory assessment (BSA) and vinified identically using small-scale winemaking, and the resulting wines were evaluated with descriptive sensory analysis. Sensory assessors were trained in the respective sensory evaluation methods. Chardonnay grape and wine samples were discriminated by the panel according to sensory attributes, and the fruit could also be discriminated by basic chemistry measures. However, differences in Chardonnay wines were subtle compared with those in grapes, as indicated by low effect sizes. Moderate validation models (R2 Val = 0.53 to 0.81) of partial least squares regression (PLSR) 1 were determined in the 2015 vintage, using BSA attributes as x-variables and wine sensory attributes as y-variables, but poor models were obtained with the 2016 vintage (R2 Val &lt; 0.5). In the 2015 models, relationships were found for wine attributes of heat, sourness, and astringency, possibly due to slight variations in ripeness. Strong relationships that revealed wine style from variations in grapes were not found. Overall, relating the sensory characteristics of Chardonnay grapes to the wines was challenging and indicated that variation in style of these varietal wines does not greatly depend on the raw grape material.

  • 24.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Danner, L.
    Bastian, S. E.
    Wine leads us by our heart not our head: emotions and the wine consumer2019Inngår i: Current Opinion in Food Science, ISSN 2214-7993, E-ISSN 2214-8000, Vol. 27, s. 23-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental purpose of wine consumption is for enjoyment. There are deep emotional connections between consumers and wine, and it is usually imbibed in social settings. Consumers’ emotions evoked by wine, as well as from external factors during wine consumption, have valuable implications for consumer science and industry. Current perspectives on emotions and wine research are examined with a focus on the role of wine intrinsic and extrinsic factors on consumers’ wine-evoked emotions. Future directions of where wine emotions research may head will be explored. 

  • 25.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Danner, L.
    Li, L.
    Bossan, H.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Wine consumers' subjective responses to wine mouthfeel and understanding of wine body2017Inngår i: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 99, s. 115-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wine mouthfeel is considered important for wine quality by experts, while consumers understanding of mouthfeel and the role of wine body in their wine choice is unknown. One experiment determined the influence of intrinsic wine mouthfeel on consumers' wine liking and emotions, and the other, how consumers understand the term wine body. The first experiment used a 2 astringency level × 2 body level experimental design. The samples were base wine with; nothing added (control), added xanthan gum (for increased body), added grape seed extract (GSE, for increased astringency), and with both added xanthan gum and GSE. The consumer taste trial (n = 112) indicated that wine with increased body did not influence wine liking and emotions; while increased astringency decreased liking and elicited more intense negative emotions. The second experiment examined consumers' knowledge of wine body through an online survey (n = 136). Consumers described wine body most frequently using words such as flavour, fullness, and strength. Wine body was therefore understood by consumers predominantly as a holistic multi-sensory perception of flavour. Wine flavour was indicated by consumers to be the most important factor driving purchase decisions followed by balance of flavours and wine body. It is crucial that wine professionals carefully communicate wine characteristics to consumers to prevent possible misunderstandings such as the meaning of wine body and as a result better meet consumer expectations. In future, the term body may benefit from a clearer definition for academic research as well as industry.  

  • 26.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.
    Deveau, A.
    Universite ́ de Lorraine, France.
    Splivallo, R.
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.
    Aroma and bacterial communities dramatically change with storage of fresh white truffle Tuber magnatum2021Inngår i: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 151, artikkel-id 112125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    White truffles are highly valuable, but the aroma is susceptible to change with storage. How volatile composition and microbiome of Tuber magnatum evolve by storage time is poorly understood. Changes in bacterial community and volatile compounds of T. magnatum fruiting bodies with storage time at 23 °C were investigated. Truffles (21 fruiting bodies) were collected from different sites in Italy, Hungary, and Croatia. Single fruiting bodies were subsampled at four time points (day (D)0, 3, 6, and 9). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and microbiome composition using PCR-high throughput sequencing were used to analyse the volatiles and bacterial communities, respectively. Spoilage compounds atypical of truffles increased with storage time. Likewise, bacterial communities changed with storage time; families belonging to Xanthobacteraceae dominated at D0 and gradually evolved to more Rhizobiaceae and Pseudomonadaceae by D3 and D6, and finally with more prominent Xanthomonadaceae and Burkholderiaceae at D9. Overall, storage time had increased the diversity of bacterial communities. The microbiome and volatile data were correlated using regularised canonical correlation analysis and determined correlations between 2-methylisoborneol and five bacterial OTUs. Potential candidate bacteria and their volatile metabolites can serve as markers for truffle spoilage. The results highlighted the mechanisms by which the degradation of expensive truffles occur.

  • 27.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany; .
    Deveau, A.
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Splivallo, R.
    Nectariss Sàrl, Switzerland; Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany; .
    Geographical-based variations in white truffle Tuber magnatum aroma is explained by quantitative differences in key volatile compounds2021Inngår i: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 230, nr 4, s. 1623-1638Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The factors that vary the aroma of Tuber magnatum fruiting bodies are poorly understood. The study determined the headspace aroma composition, sensory aroma profiles, maturity and bacterial communities from T. magnatum originating from Italy, Croatia, Hungary, and Serbia, and tested if truffle aroma is dependent on provenance and if fruiting body volatiles are explained by maturity and/or bacterial communities. Headspace volatile profiles were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry (GC-MS-O) and aroma of fruiting body extracts were sensorially assessed. Fruiting body maturity was estimated through spore melanisation. Bacterial community was determined using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Main odour active compounds were present in all truffles but varied in concentration. Aroma of truffle extracts were sensorially discriminated by sites. However, volatile profiles of individual fruiting bodies varied more within sites than across geographic area, while maturity level did not play a role. Bacterial communities varied highly and were partially explained by provenance. A few rare bacterial operational taxonomical units associated with a select few nonodour active volatile compounds. Specificities of the aroma of T. magnatum truffles are more likely to be linked to individual properties than provenance. Some constituents of bacteria may provide biomarkers of provenance and be linked to nonodour active volatiles. © 2021 The Authors 

  • 28.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand; CSIRO, Australia.
    Eddy, A. I.
    Overington, A. R.
    Heenan, S. P.
    Silcock, P.
    Bremer, P. J.
    Delahunty, C. M.
    Aroma-taste interactions between a model cheese aroma and five basic tastes in solution2014Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 31, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The flavour perception of cheese results from complex sensory interactions between tastes and aromas. Using a model cheese solution, this study investigated perceived interactions between each of five basic tastes and a cheese aroma mixture containing ten volatile compounds commonly found in cheese. The five tastes - sucrose (sweetness), sodium chloride (NaCl) (saltiness), monosodium glutamate (MSG) (umami), lactic acid (sourness), and caffeine (bitterness) - were individually mixed with cheese aroma in water using a 5 taste level (0.2 log series) by 3 aroma level (0.5 log series) design. Aroma controls with no added taste were also included. This resulted in 18 samples for each single taste-aroma combination. An additional 18 samples were produced using a mixture of all 5 tastes with the 3 aroma levels. A panel of trained assessors (n=10) evaluated cheese flavour intensity and taste intensity using 100 point line scales. Evaluation was carried out in duplicate, with samples grouped by taste type; 1 evaluation session per taste per replicate. Within type, order of presentation was balanced, and taste type order was randomised between replicates. Cheese flavour intensity was enhanced by sucrose and NaCl, while being suppressed by lactic acid. NaCl enhanced cheese flavour intensity the most at high aroma level, while lactic acid suppressed the most at low aroma level. When MSG level was increased, cheese flavour intensity was enhanced at both low and medium aroma levels, but was suppressed at the high aroma level. The greatest enhancement of cheese flavour intensity was found with the mixture of 5 tastes. Aroma significantly enhanced umami and bitterness, but did not enhance sweetness, saltiness, or sourness. This study showed that the perceived interaction between taste and cheese aroma depended on taste type and on the concentration levels of both taste type and aroma. The mixture of tastes was more effective at enhancing cheese flavour intensity than single tastes. This study provides knowledge that will underpin further study of taste-aroma interactions in a model cheese that aims to optimise cheese flavour intensity and character. 

  • 29.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand; CSIRO, Australia.
    Eddy, A. I.
    Overington, A. R.
    Heenan, S. P.
    Silcock, P.
    Bremer, P. J.
    Delahunty, C. M.
    Cheddar cheese taste can be reconstructed in solution using basic tastes2014Inngår i: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 116-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The taste of cheese contributes to flavour character directly and by cross-modal interactions with aroma. However, the relative contribution of specific tastes, i.e., sweet, salt, umami, sour, and bitter, is not well understood. Twelve cheeses were profiled by a trained sensory panel and the five tastes shown to significantly differ in intensity. Sucrose, NaCl, monosodium glutamate, lactic acid, and caffeine were mixed in water and adjusted using a 25-1 fractional factorial design (FFD) to reconstruct cheese taste; the optimised construct was compared with a Cheddar cheese to measure similarity for each taste type. The FFD provided knowledge of taste-taste interactions and aided the reconstruction of the taste profile of Cheddar cheese in solution. The reconstructed cheese solution did not significantly differ in overall intensity, saltiness, sourness, umami, and bitterness from the Cheddar cheese based on chi-squared tests. Sweetness was a difficult attribute to adjust due to its relatively low intensity.

  • 30.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand; CSIRO, Australia.
    Eddy, A. I.
    Overington, A. R.
    Silcock, P.
    Bremer, P. J.
    Delahunty, C. M.
    Cross-modal interaction between cheese taste and aroma2014Inngår i: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 222-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative contributions of taste and aroma to the perception of cheese flavour intensity were investigated using a simultaneous gustometer olfactometer. Within a mixture of five tastes and a multicomponent aroma that had a mature Cheddar cheese character, the levels of NaCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG), lactic acid, and aroma were varied according to a 24 full factorial design, all with appropriate controls. NaCl, lactic acid, and aroma significantly contributed to cheese flavour intensity while MSG did not. The contribution of NaCl, lactic acid, and aroma revealed their potential to enhance cheese flavour intensity. These variables were able to compensate each other towards cheese flavour intensity. Changing the levels of taste and aroma together influenced the cheese flavour intensity greater than changing the levels of a single taste or aroma only. Variation in tastant concentration had a larger effect on cheese flavour intensity than did aroma.

  • 31.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand; CSIRO, Australia.
    Eddy, A. I.
    Overington, A. R.
    Silcock, P.
    Bremer, P. J.
    Delahunty, C. M.
    Sensory Interactions between Cheese Aroma and Taste2015Inngår i: Journal of sensory studies, ISSN 0887-8250, E-ISSN 1745-459X, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 247-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-modal interactions between cheese aroma and cheese taste, and between aroma were investigated. Aroma was varied by four mixture types and three concentrations, all with a background cheese taste, with four aroma only controls. All cheese aroma samples were produced using 10 aroma compounds commonly found in cheese but at varying individual concentrations of compound. A panel of assessors (n=8) evaluated in triplicate the intensities of four flavor attributes; overall intensity of cheese, fruity cheese, blue cheese, and buttery cheese. The flavor attributes that corresponded to the aroma compound mixtures were perceived highest in intensity; blue cheese flavor (from additional methyl ketones: 2-butanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-nonanone), fruity cheese flavor (from additional esters: ethyl butanoate and ethyl hexanoate) or buttery cheese flavor (from additional diacetyl). An increase in select aroma compound concentrations from the base aroma mixture revealed the effect of aroma mixture interactions on flavor perception. Overall intensity of cheese was significantly suppressed by esters (P<0.01) and diacetyl (P<0.01), while it was unchanged by methyl ketones. Removing taste from the mixture significantly reduced all flavor attribute intensities regardless of cheese aroma character. Changing the aroma character gave different variants of cheese flavor but did not enhance overall intensity of cheese.

  • 32.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.
    Guixer, B.
    Splivallo, R.
    Odour active compounds determined in the headspace of yellow and black plum wines (Prunus domestica L.)2020Inngår i: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 130, artikkel-id 109702Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Odour active compounds (OACs) from the headspace of yellow and black plum wines (Prunus domestica L.) were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Olfactometry was conducted using aroma extract dilution assay, through varying split ratios during injection. A total of 18 OACs were determined in the wine headspace including esters, ketones, sulfur containing compounds, alcohols, a terpene, and phenolic compounds. Thirteen of volatile compounds differed significantly (p < 0.05) in concentration between plum wines. Unique OACs were also detected within the headspace that distinguished the wines, where 4-ethyl guaiacol was only detected in the yellow plum wine and diacetyl was only detected within the black plum wines. The remaining nine OACs were not significantly different from each other, suggesting their ubiquity in the plum wines. High flavour dilution (FD) values were determined for ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl 2-methyl butyrate, β-damascenone, and ethyl cinnamate. All compounds detected in the plum wines have been previously reported in grape wine and demonstrated the commonality of volatile constituents between plum and grape wine. However, the very high concentration of β-damascenone may strongly contribute to the overall aroma of the plum wines.

  • 33.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Hörlin, Elizabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Oberrauter, Lisa-Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Sörensen, Victoria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Norman, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Sample discrimination through profiling with rate all that apply (RATA) using consumers is similar between home use test (HUT) and central location test (CLT)2022Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 95, artikkel-id 104377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of testing locations, home use test (HUT) and central location test (CLT) on consumer evaluations of food products using rate all that apply (RATA) was investigated. As a case study, eight cold cuts were evaluated: four vegetarian/vegan and four meat-based products. A between-subjects design was used, whereby consumers were randomly allocated to either HUT or CLT test location (58 and 71 consumers, respectively). To retain as much similarity as possible across locations, consumers in both groups received identical bags of products with palate cleansers and instructions. Consumers evaluated the products using a lexicon consisting of 32 sensory attributes based on similar studies and benchtop tasting, using RATA with 7pt scales. A total of 30 and 31 attributes differed significantly (p < 0.05) across the products for HUT and CLT, respectively. Sample discrimination was similar between the two locations. Location significantly (p < 0.05) affected discrimination of 14 attributes, but a particular location having consistently higher attribute means was not observed. Bootstrapping of the attribute means per product showed no significant differences between the two testing locations, and multilevel regression models using Bayesian inference did not reveal marked differences in expected ratings between locations. Further comparisons of sample discrimination patterns through principal component analysis showed that the two locations were very similar, including the overlap of confidence ellipses. The between-subjects design strengthens the results: that comparable sensory profiles were obtained from different consumers in different testing locations supports the notion that RATA data from consumers can be reliably collected for relatively sensorially distinct products with minimal data compromise.

  • 34.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Leus, M.
    Silcock, P.
    Hamid, N.
    Bremer, P.
    Characterisation of odour active volatile compounds of New Zealand sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus) roe using gas chromatography-olfactometry-finger span cross modality (GC-O-FSCM) method2010Inngår i: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 121, nr 2, s. 601-607Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea urchin roe is a high value product; however, previous attempts to market the roe from the New Zealand sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus) have been unsuccessful due to its inconsistent sensory quality. The current study investigated the odour active volatile profiles of roe from male and female sea urchins, harvested from two locations in New Zealand, using solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) extracts and a gas chromatography-olfactometry-finger span cross modality (GC-O-FSCM) method. Panellists detected 81 odour active compounds, 18 of which were identified using GC-mass spectrometry (MS). Generalised procrustes analysis (GPA) of the data revealed that there were differences in the volatile profile that were location and gender specific. These differences may have contributed to the inconsistent sensory properties of sea urchin roe. The differences in volatile profiles between sea urchin populations and genders must be appreciated before developing effective strategies to produce consistent sea urchin roe quality. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 35.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Adelaide, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Liland, K. H.
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Tomic, O.
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Jeffery, D. W.
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Boss, P. K.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Prediction of wine sensory properties using mid-infrared spectra of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay grape berries and wines2021Inngår i: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 344, artikkel-id 128634Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study determined optimal parameters to four preprocessing techniques for mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of wines and grape berry homogenates and tested MIR's ability to model sensory properties of research Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines. Savitsky-Golay (SG) derivative, smoothing points, and polynomial order, and extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) polynomial were investigated as preprocessing techniques at 2, 2, 5, and 3 levels, respectively, all in combination. Preprocessed data were analysed with partial least squares regression (PLS) to model the wine sensory data and the regression coefficients of PLS calibration models (R2) were further analysed with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). SG transformations were significant factors from the MANOVA that influenced R2, while EMSC did not. Overall, PLSR models that predicted wine sensory characteristics gave a poor to moderate R2. Consistently predicting wine sensory attributes within a variety and across vintages is challenging, regardless of using grape or wine spectra as predictors. 

  • 36.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Liu, M.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Flavour-tactile cross-modal sensory interactions: The case for astringency2017Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 62, s. 106-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study determined cross-modal sensory interactions between volatile stimuli elicited by 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and orange extract, and the astringent stimulus aluminium ammonium sulphate dodecahydrate (alum). Three concentration levels of each volatile stimulus was individually combined with three levels of alum in aqueous solutions, giving a 32 full factorial design per alum-volatile combination. A panel of 12 assessors participated in the study; they were familiarised with the perceptual characters of the stimuli individually, as well as practise on scale usage for rating attribute intensities. Three sensory attributes (flavour, astringency and sourness intensity) were evaluated for each alum-volatile mixture in aqueous solutions, in duplicate. Orange flavour intensities were significantly (p = 0.016) enhanced by the addition of alum, specifically at 700 mg/L alum when compared from the control of no added alum. Astringency of alum was significantly (p = 0.014) enhanced by IBMP, in particular at 4 ng/L but not at 14 ng/L. The mechanisms behind orange flavour enhancement may stem from the sourness of alum as opposed to its astringency, but this requires further confirmatory tests. Astringency enhancement by IBMP on the other hand may have occurred either from previous learning, from an innate biological mechanism, or a combination of both. All cross-modal interaction effects were repeatable and quantified enhancement of astringency by aroma has been demonstrated in the current study for the first time

  • 37.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Overington, A. R.
    Silcock, P.
    Bremer, P. J.
    Delahunty, C. M.
    Cross-modal taste and aroma interactions: Cheese flavour perception and changes in flavour character in multicomponent mixtures2016Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 48, s. 70-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of cross-modal sensory interactions between cheese aroma and cheese taste on both cheese flavour intensity and cheese flavour character were investigated. Cheese aroma consisted of a mixture of ten aroma compounds, whilst cheese taste was constructed with the five basic tastes in water solution. Interactions were investigated using a combination of a high resolution design (HRD) and central composite design (CCD). The HRD was 2 aroma×5 NaCl×5 lactic acid levels. The CCD was constructed based on a 23 factorial design that covered the HRD space. Both HRD and CCD gave a total of 57 samples. A panel of experienced assessors (n=8-10) evaluated cheese flavour intensity relative to reference. In addition, samples were sorted based on similarity of flavour character. Fourteen samples were selected for free choice profiling and analysed using generalised procrustes analysis (GPA). Cheese flavour intensity was non-linear and dependent on both taste level and aroma level. The status of flavour character being cheese-like was dependent on taste levels, where either NaCl or lactic acid at a high or low level altered the flavour character to being atypical of cheese. A cheese-like flavour character was maintained across a wide range of NaCl concentrations, but only across a narrow range of lactic acid concentrations. Aroma level changed the character of cheese flavour. Overall, the balance in concentration of both tastes and aroma levels was important in maintaining cheese flavour character as cheese flavour intensity was modified.

  • 38.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand; CSIRO, Australia.
    Overington, A. R.
    Silcock, P.
    Bremer, P. J.
    Delahunty, C. M.
    Influence of cross-modal sensory interactions on cheese flavour intensity and character2015Inngår i: ACS Symp. Ser., American Chemical Society , 2015, Vol. 1191, s. 15-25Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-modal sensory interactions between cheese aroma and taste, and their effect on cheese flavour intensity and difference in flavour character, were determined. NaCl, lactic acid, and aroma were varied at three different levels in combination, according to a 33 full factorial design. The change in cheese flavour intensity and difference in flavour character were measured relative to a reference using a panel (n=9). Model solutions were delivered by the simultaneous gustometer olfactometer. Increasing levels of NaCl, lactic acid, or aroma significantly (p<0.001) enhanced cheese flavour intensity. A significant interaction between NaCl and lactic acid levels with respect to cheese flavour intensity was detected, indicating that cross-modal sensory interactions were not linear. Flavour character also significantly (p<0.001) changed in that raising levels of NaCl decreased the difference in flavour character from the reference, while that of lactic acid or aroma increased the difference

  • 39.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Sörensen, Victoria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Valentin, Dominique
    Université Bourgogne Franche Comté, France.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Collier, Elizabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Does cooking ability affect consumer perception and appreciation of plant-based protein in Bolognese sauces?2023Inngår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 99, artikkel-id 104563Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Encouraging consumers to reduce their meat consumption is imperative in mitigating climate change effects related to the food industry. For some, transitioning away from meat may be facilitated by meat substitutes. However, these are not always accepted as suitable alternatives to meat due to a combination of psychological, situational, and sensorial aspects. The influence of factors such as cooking ability on hedonics and sensory discrimination of meat and meat substitutes is currently under-researched. The present study investigated such effects. Consumers (N = 101) of varying cooking ability and food neophobia (measured using questionnaires) tasted and evaluated six mince products (one beef and five meat substitutes - three soybean-based, one mycoprotein-based, and one oat-based) prepared in a Bolognese sauce. They rated liking for overall, appearance, aroma, taste/flavour, and texture, and profiled the products sensorially using check-all-that-apply (CATA). It was found that meat substitutes can be liked just as much as, if not more than, beef in the application of Bolognese sauce. No main effects of cooking ability were found for any modality of liking, though an interaction between cooking ability and sample was found for liking of flavour/taste. Consumers’ ability to sensorially discriminate between the Bolognese sauces was not dependent on their cooking ability. Several attributes that contributed to (dis)liking were identified. An additional online sample (N = 288) completed only the cooking ability and food neophobia questionnaires. A negative relationship was detected between cooking ability and food neophobia for the combined consumer and online datasets (total N = 389).

  • 40.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Adelaide, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Tomic, O.
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Næs, T.
    Nofima, Norway.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Jeffery, D. W.
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Nicholson, E. L.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Maffei, S. M.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Boss, P. K.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Objective measures of grape quality: From Cabernet Sauvignon grape composition to wine sensory characteristics2020Inngår i: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 123, artikkel-id 109105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an investigation of objective measures that link grape composition to wine quality, this study sought to identify Cabernet Sauvignon grape parameters that predict the sensory properties of the corresponding wines. Eleven chemical measures comprising volatile and non-volatile compounds, enzyme activity plus standard industry harvest measurements were applied to grape samples obtained from different regions throughout South Eastern Australia over three vintages. Grapes underwent controlled vinification and the resulting wines evaluated with sensory descriptive analysis. The entire multi-vintage data sets were combined and modelled using a combination of partial least squares (PLS) and sequential and orthogonalised (SO) -PLS regression techniques. Optimal models were obtained with single sensory attributes rather than global modelling with the entire sensory profile. Five grape chemical measures, which in the main were harvest parameters, were used along with colour, total phenolics and tannin, targeted volatiles, and flavonols, and orthogonalised to model 14 sensory attributes of the Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The seven remaining measures were not used due to their poor ability to model wine sensory attributes, with enzyme activity and tannin by HPLC explaining the least. The study revealed new insights into the relationship between grape chemistry and wine sensory characters, which has implications for developing an objective measurement system for determining grape quality. 

  • 41.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Adelaide, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Tomic, O.
    Næs, T.
    Jeffery, D. W.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Boss, P. K.
    Application of sequential and orthogonalised-partial least squares (SO-PLS) regression to predict sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from grape chemical composition2018Inngår i: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 256, s. 195-202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study determined the applicability of sequential and orthogonalised-partial least squares (SO-PLS) regression to relate Cabernet Sauvignon grape chemical composition to the sensory perception of the corresponding wines. Grape samples (n = 25) were harvested at a similar maturity and vinified identically in 2013. Twelve measures using various (bio)chemical methods were made on grapes. Wines were evaluated using descriptive analysis with a trained panel (n = 10) for sensory profiling. Data was analysed globally using SO-PLS for the entire sensory profiles (SO-PLS2), as well as for single sensory attributes (SO-PLS1). SO-PLS1 models were superior in validated explained variances than SO-PLS2. SO-PLS provided a structured approach in the selection of predictor chemical data sets that best contributed to the correlation of important sensory attributes. This new approach presents great potential for application in other explorative metabolomics studies of food and beverages to address factors such as quality and regional influences

  • 42. Overington, A. R.
    et al.
    Eyres, G. T.
    Delahunty, C. M.
    Silcock, P.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Otago, New Zealand; CSIRO, Australia.
    Holland, R.
    Coolbear, T.
    Flavour release and perception in cheese bases2010Inngår i: Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, ISSN 0004-9433, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 162-164Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to deliver customised flavours from cheese matrices that have different textures and compositions, it is important to understand how the cheese matrix affects the perception of flavour. It is known that perceived flavours depend not only on the combination of tastants and aroma compounds in a food, but also on the way in which those flavour compounds are released from the food matrix. In addition, flavour perception can be influenced by cross-modal sensory interactions between taste, aroma and texture. In a collaborative research project between Fonterra Research Centre, The University of Otago in New Zealand and CSIRO in Australia, we are evaluating flavour release and cross-modal sensory interactions in a cheese base. Our aim is to understand how perceived flavour is affected by the texture and composition of the cheese and by the combination of tastants and aroma compounds making up the flavour. Sets of cheese bases were created with similar textures but different compositions, and similar compositions but different textures. Flavour compounds were added, and the equilibrium flavour release was studied using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, and related to flavour perception using descriptive sensory analysis.

  • 43. Phillips, K.
    et al.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Hamid, N.
    Silcock, P.
    Delahunty, C.
    Barker, M.
    Sewell, M.
    Bremer, P.
    Sensory and volatile analysis of sea urchin roe from different geographical regions in New Zealand2010Inngår i: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 202-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Roe from the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus collected from locations in the North (Mathesons Bay) and South (Doubtful Sound) of New Zealand was characterised according to physical characteristics, sensory properties, and volatile composition. Objective assessment of roe sensory properties (appearance, odour, taste, flavour, texture, and aftertaste) was carried out by a trained sensory panel using descriptive sensory analysis. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used for headspace analysis of roe, and data were collected over the mass range m/z 22-180. Sea urchins from the Northern population were significantly smaller, and had a lower roe index than those from the Southern population. Roe from Northern sea urchins were rated higher for the attributes of marine, seafood and sharp odour, bitter taste, herbaceous and metallic flavour, astringent texture, and metallic, bitter, and duration of aftertaste than roe from Southern sea urchins, which were rated higher for dairy odour, sweet taste, dairy flavour, moisture content and mouth coating. E. chloroticus roe was also differentiated based on gender by 26 sensory attributes. Volatile analysis significantly discriminated between roe from Northern and Southern sea urchins by 35 mass ions, and between genders of Southern sea urchins by five mass ions.

  • 44. Schenkel, D.
    et al.
    Deveau, A.
    Niimi, Jun
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.
    Mariotte, P.
    Vitra, A.
    Meisser, M.
    Buttler, A.
    Splivallo, R.
    Linking soil's volatilome to microbes and plant roots highlights the importance of microbes as emitters of belowground volatile signals2019Inngår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 21, nr 9, s. 3313-3327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants and microbes release a plethora of volatiles that act as signals in plant–microbe interactions. Characterizing soil's volatilome and microbiome might shed light on the nature of relevant volatile signals and on their emitters. This hypothesis was tested by characterizing plant cover, soil's volatilome, nutrient content and microbiomes in three grasslands of the Swiss Jura Mountains. The fingerprints of soil's volatiles were generated by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, whereas high-throughput sequencing was used to create a snapshot of soil's microbial communities. A high similarity was observed in plant communities of two out of three sites, which was mirrored by the soil's volatilome. Multiple factor analysis evidenced a strong association among soil's volatilome, plant and microbial communities. The proportion of volatiles correlated to single bacterial and fungal taxa was higher than for plants. This suggests that those organisms might be major contributors to the volatilome of grassland soils. These findings illustrate that key volatiles in grassland soils might be emitted by a handful of organisms that include specific plants and microbes. Further work will be needed to unravel the structure of belowground volatiles and understand their implications for plant health and development.

  • 45. Sumby, K. M.
    et al.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Betteridge, A. L.
    Jiranek, V.
    Ethanol-tolerant lactic acid bacteria strains as a basis for efficient malolactic fermentation in wine: evaluation of experimentally evolved lactic acid bacteria and winery isolates2019Inngår i: Australian journal of grape and wine research, ISSN 1322-7130, E-ISSN 1755-0238, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 404-413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Reliable malolactic fermentation (MLF) is essential for process efficiency and spoilage prevention in wine. This study extends previous research in our laboratory, aimed at the development and selection of new bacterial strains for reliable MLF in wine, focusing on ethanol-tolerant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Sensory differences of seven LAB strains were assessed, including two commercial strains, two ethanol-tolerant strains derived from directed evolution and three isolates from a high ethanol Grenache. Methods and Results: In this study, the performance of 30 LAB strains was first assessed in fermented chemically defined grape juice media. Seven of the best performing strains were then tested in small-scale (5 L) fermentations in Shiraz and Shiraz-Grenache blend wines. All wines were evaluated with a sensory panel using free choice profiling. Conclusions: Despite significantly different MLF kinetics between the strains there were no strain-specific differences on the final wines. The choice of LAB strain did not adversely change the sensory properties of either wine. Significance of the Study: These findings provide reassurance that the efficient LAB strains (G71 and G55) and the modified directed evolution strains do not compromise the sensory properties of wines despite their marked MLF benefits.

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