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  • 1.
    Blinkhorn, Victoria
    et al.
    Liverpool John Moores University, UK.
    Lyons, Minna
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Hörlin, Elizabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Almond, Louise
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    The relationship between narcissism and acceptance of violence revealed through a game designed to induce social ostracism2021Ingår i: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 161, nr 3, s. 261-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that social exclusion may provoke aggression, especially in those who exhibit high levels of sensitivity to rejection, which has been related to aspects of narcissism. Few studies have investigated how individuals with high levels of narcissism react to social exclusion. In two experiments, we created and tested the effectiveness of a new game, Cyberpass, and investigated whether exclusion in this game increased positive attitudes toward violence in participants with high levels of narcissism. Cyberpass was effective in influencing feelings of lack of acceptance, and feelings of exclusion. Narcissism was correlated with less boredom and stronger feelings of rejection in the exclusion condition in Cyberpass. The Entitlement/Exploitativeness facet of narcissism was correlated with higher acceptance of violence in the exclusion condition. Results indicate that narcissistic individuals may be more supportive of violence after social exclusion but in order to experience this, they may require more explicit cues of ostracism.

  • 2.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Jenny
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Satisfaction with a digital support tool targeting alcohol consumption: perspectives from participants in a randomized control trial2024Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 59, nr 1, artikel-id agad070Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Intervention design may be improved through evaluating the feedback from those who have been exposed to such interventions. As such, here the perspectives of the intervention group from a recent randomized control trial investigating the effectiveness of a digital alcohol intervention, in terms of perceived suitability and usefulness of the support tool they engaged with, were investigated. Methods: Respondents (N=475; 45% of the intervention group) answered five quantitative questions addressing user experience, completed the 10-item System Useability Scale, and were offered the opportunity to write free-text feedback. Quantitative measures were analysed using ordinal and linear regression with baseline characteristics as predictors, and free-text responses were evaluated using content analysis. Results: Overall, respondents were positive towards the intervention in terms of it fitting their needs, the usefulness of the tools included, and the usefulness of text message content. The intervention was perceived as more helpful by respondents with lower total weekly alcohol consumption, higher self-reported confidence in their ability to reduce their drinking, and the perceived importance there of, at baseline. The free-text comments revealed the value of reminders as prompts to reflect on one’s own drinking behaviour. Nonetheless, criticisms of the intervention were voiced, primarily highlighting the repetitive nature of the reminders and the lack of individuation in advice. Some also feltlike the intervention was impersonal and targeted only a specific drinking pattern. Conclusions: Experiences of the intervention group in this trial were generally positive, though there may be demand for more individualised, targeted intervention design.

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  • 3.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Jenny
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crawford, Joel
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    McCambridge, Jim
    University of York, UK.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Exploratory mixed methods analysis of self-authored content from participants in a digital alcohol intervention trial2023Ingår i: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, E-ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikel-id 60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Digital interventions readily permit data capture of participant engagement with them. If future interventions are intended to be more interactive, tailored, or a useful resource offered to users, it may be valuable to examine such data. One module available in a digital alcohol intervention recently tested in a randomised control trial offered participants the opportunity to self-author prompts that were sent to them by a text message at a time of their choosing. This study thus aimed to evaluate these self-authored prompts to increase knowledge on how individuals negotiate behaviour change and assess whether intervention content can be improved in the future. Methods: The self-authored prompts were evaluated qualitatively using a combination of content and thematic analysis. The identified themes and subcategories are exemplified using anonymized quotes, and the frequency that each identified theme was coded for among the prompts was calculated. Associations between baseline characteristics and the odds of authoring a prompt at all, as well as a prompt within each theme, were investigated using logistic regression. Results: Five themes were identified (Encouragement Style, Level of Awareness, Reminders of reasons to reduce/quit, Strategies to reduce/quit, and Timescale), all with several subcategories. The prompts module was more likely to be used by women and older individuals, as well as those for whom reducing alcohol consumption was perceived as important, or who felt they had the know-how to do so. Participants who had immediate access to the support tool (intervention group) were more than twice as likely to author a prompt (OR = 2.36; probability of association > 99%) compared to those with 4-month delayed access (control group). Conclusions: Individuals who engaged with the prompts module showed evidence of using the information provided in the support tool in an active way, with several showing goal setting and making plans to change their drinking behaviour. Individuals also used this opportunity to remind themselves of personal and specific reasons they wanted to change their drinking, as well as to encourage themselves to do so. 

  • 4.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Costa, Elena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Still just a matter of taste?: Sensorial appreciation of seafood is associated with more frequent and diverse consumption2024Ingår i: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 198, artikel-id 107369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving health and sustainability outcomes in WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrial, Rich, Democratic) nations necessitates a reduction in red meat consumption. Seafood is often overlooked in achieving this goal. However, simply consuming more of familiar fish species places high stress on production of these species. For this reason, diversification of seafood consumption is also critical. Here the motives for seafood consumption (frequency and diversity) are investigated across two studies by adapting the 4Ns survey to the seafood category. This 16-item survey measures four factors underpinning meat consumption: namely that it is ‘Natural’, ‘Necessary’, ‘Normal’ and ‘Nice’. Swedish consumers’ hedonic and sensory expectations of two herring concepts (traditional pickled contra novel minced and presented as a burger) are also evaluated in relation to the 4Ns. Study 1 (N = 304) revealed that the seafood 4Ns scale had a similar underlying structure to that of meat and had good test-retest reliability. Study 2 (N = 514) showed that consumers expected to like the pickled herring (associated with being ‘seasoned’, ‘salty’, ‘sweet’, ‘firm’, ‘juicy’, ‘chewy’, and ‘slimy’) more than the minced herring (associated with being ‘mushy’, ‘fishy’, ‘grainy’, ‘dry’ and having ‘small bones’), and that ‘Nice’ scores affected expectations of both herring concepts. Food neophobia correlated inversely with seafood consumption frequency, expected liking, the ‘Nice’ subscale, and food agency. Critically, in both studies, enjoyment of seafood (higher ‘Nice’ scores) predicted more frequent and diverse seafood consumption, whilst agreeing that seafood is ‘Necessary’ for health predicted only consumption frequency, not diversity. Communicating the positive sensory attributes of seafood and developing novel product concepts in ways that disconfirm sceptical consumers’ negative sensory expectations may increase acceptance of both familiar and unfamiliar seafood concepts. © 2024 The Authors

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  • 5.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Norman, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Just a matter of taste?: Understanding rationalizations for dairy consumption and their associations with sensory expectations of plant-based milk alternatives2023Ingår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 104, artikel-id 104745Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although knowledge surrounding the obstacles omnivorous consumers face when substituting meat products with plant-based alternatives has increased dramatically, less is known about their perspectives on plant-based alternatives to dairy products. Here, these perspectives are assessed in two survey-based studies. Study 1 (N = 175) adapts an existing scale (the 4Ns of meat consumption) to dairy products in an effort to identify similarities and differences between rationalizations for meat and dairy consumption. This 16-item scale quantifies four factors (Natural, Necessary, Normal, and Nice) describing common rationalizations for meat consumption. The results revealed that the 4Ns transfer well to the dairy category, and that endorsement of dairy products as Nice was the strongest predictor of dairy consumption, relative to the other 3Ns. This is further supported by evaluation of consumers’ own qualitative descriptions of why they do or do not consume meat/dairy products, where “taste” was the most frequently used word in both categories. Study 2 replicates the relationships between dairy 4Ns scores and reported dairy consumption found in Study 1 and builds upon these results by showing that 4N score could accurately categorize consumers as frequent (N = 192) or infrequent (N = 210) consumers of plant-based milk alternatives (PBMAs). Differences in consumers’ expectations for the sensory characteristics of cow’s milk and PBMAs are identified, and the impact of rationalization (total 4N score) on the likelihood of expected sensory attribute associations is described. The role of rationalization in shaping sensory expectations and impacting dietary choices, in particular resistance to adopting PBMAs, is discussed.

  • 6.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Jecks, Michael
    Independent Scholar, UK.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Don’t throw the individual perspective out while waiting for systemic change2023Ingår i: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 46, artikel-id e154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is clear that i-frame approaches cannot stand alone, the impact of s-frame changes can plateau. Combinations of these approaches may best reflect what we know about behavior and how to support behavioral change. Interactions between i-frame and s-frame thinking are explored here using two examples: alcohol consumption and meat consumption.

  • 7.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Lawson, R.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Defining filled and empty space: reassessing the filled space illusion for active touch and vision2016Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 234, nr 9, s. 2697-2708Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the filled space illusion, an extent filled with gratings is estimated as longer than an equivalent extent that is apparently empty. However, researchers do not seem to have carefully considered the terms filled and empty when describing this illusion. Specifically, for active touch, smooth, solid surfaces have typically been used to represent empty space. Thus, it is not known whether comparing gratings to truly empty space (air) during active exploration by touch elicits the same illusionary effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, gratings were estimated as longer if they were compared to smooth, solid surfaces rather than being compared to truly empty space. Consistent with this, Experiment 3 showed that empty space was perceived as longer than solid surfaces when the two were compared directly. Together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that, for touch, the standard filled space illusion only occurs if gratings are compared to smooth, solid surfaces and that it may reverse if gratings are compared to empty space. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that gratings were estimated as longer than both solid and empty extents in vision, so the direction of the filled space illusion in vision was not affected by the nature of the comparator. These results are discussed in relation to the dual nature of active touch. © 2016, The Author(s).

  • 8.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Lawson, R.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Does grasping capacity influence object size estimates?: It depends on the context2017Ingår i: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 79, nr 7, s. 2117-2131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Linkenauger, Witt, and Proffitt (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37(5), 1432–1441, 2011, Experiment 2) reported that right-handers estimated objects as smaller if they intended to grasp them in their right rather than their left hand. Based on the action-specific account, they argued that this scaling effect occurred because participants believed their right hand could grasp larger objects. However, Collier and Lawson (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43(4), 749–769, 2017) failed to replicate this effect. Here, we investigated whether this discrepancy in results arose from demand characteristics. We investigated two forms of demand characteristics: altering responses following conscious hypothesis guessing (Experiments 1 and 2), and subtle influences of the experimental context (Experiment 3). We found no scaling effects when participants were given instructions which implied the expected outcome of the experiment (Experiment 1), but they were obtained when we used unrealistically explicit instructions which gave the exact prediction made by the action-specific account (Experiment 2). Scaling effects were also found using a context in which grasping capacity could seem relevant for size estimation (by asking participants about the perceived graspability of an object immediately before asking about its size on every trial, as was done in Linkenauger et al., 2011; Experiment 2). These results suggest that demand characteristics due to context effects could explain the scaling effects reported in Experiment 2 of Linkenauger et al. (2011), rather than either hypothesis guessing, or, as proposed by the action-specific account, a change in the perceived size of objects. © 2017, The Author(s).

  • 9.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Lawson, R.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Getting a grasp on action-specific scaling: A response to Witt (2017)2019Ingår i: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 374-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Can higher level cognition directly influence visual spatial perception? Many recent studies have claimed so, on the basis that manipulating cognitive factors (e.g., morality, emotion, action capacity) seems to directly affect perception. However, Firestone and Scholl (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 1–77, 2016) argued that such studies often fall prey to at least one of six pitfalls. They further argued that if an effect could be accounted for by any of these pitfalls, it is not a true demonstration of a top-down influence of cognition on perception. In response to Firestone and Scholl (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 1–77, 2016), Witt (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(4), 999–1021, 2017) discussed four action-specific scaling effects which, she argued, withstand all six pitfalls and thus demonstrate true perceptual changes caused by differences in action capacity. Her third case study was the influence of apparent grasping capacity on perceived object size. In this article, we provide new interpretations of previous findings and assess recent data which suggest that this effect is not, in fact, perceptual. Instead, we believe that many earlier studies showing this effect are subject to one or more of the pitfalls outlined by Firestone and Scholl (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 1–77, 2016). We substantiate our claims with recent empirical evidence from our laboratory which suggests that neither actual nor perceived grasping capacity directly influence perceived object size. We conclude that studies manipulating grasping capacity do not provide evidence for the action-specific account because variation in this factor does not directly influence size perception. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 10.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Lawson, R.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    It's out of my hands! grasping capacity may not influence perceived object size2017Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 749-769Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Linkenauger, Witt, and Proffitt (2011) found that the perceived size of graspable objects was scaled by perceived grasping capacity. However, it is possible that this effect occurred because object size was estimated on the same trial as grasping capacity. This may have led to a conflation of estimates of perceived action capacity and spatial properties. In 5 experiments, we tested Linkenauger et al.'s claim that right-handed observers overestimate the grasping capacity of their right hand relative to their left hand, and that this, in turn, leads them to underestimate the size of objects to-be-grasped in their right hand relative to their left hand. We replicated the finding that right handers overestimate the size and grasping capacity of their right hand relative to their left hand. However, when estimates of object size and grasping capacity were made in separate tasks, objects grasped in the right hand were not underestimated relative to those grasped in the left hand. Further, when grasping capacity was physically restricted, observers appropriately recalibrated their perception of their maximum grasp but estimates of object size were unaffected. Our results suggest that changes in action capacity may not influence perceived object size if sources of conflation are controlled for. 

  • 11.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Lawson, R.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Trapped in a tight spot: Scaling effects occur when, according to the action-specific account, they should not, and fail to occur when they should2018Ingår i: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 80, nr 4, s. 971-985Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The action-specific account of perception claims that what we see is perceptually scaled according to our action capacity. However, it has been argued that this account relies on an overly confirmatory research strategy—predicting the presence of, and then finding, an effect (Firestone & Scholl, 2014). A comprehensive approach should also test disconfirmatory predictions, in which no effect is expected. In two experiments, we tested one such prediction based on the action-specific account, namely that scaling effects should occur only when participants intend to act (Witt, Proffitt, & Epstein, 2005). All participants wore asymmetric gloves in which one glove was padded with extra material, so that one hand was wider than the other. Participants visually estimated the width of apertures. The action-specific account predicts that the apertures should be estimated as being narrower for the wider hand, but only when participants intend to act. We found this scaling effect when it should not have occurred (Exp. 1, for participants who did not intend to act), as well as no effect when it should have occurred (Exp. 2, for participants who intended to act but were given a cover story for the visibility and position of their hands). Thus, the cover story used in Experiment 2 eliminated the scaling effect found in Experiment 1. We suggest that the scaling effect observed in Experiment 1 likely resulted from demand characteristics associated with using a salient, unexplained manipulation (e.g., telling people which hand to use to do the task). Our results suggest that the action-specific account lacks predictive power. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 12.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Oberrauter, Lisa-Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Making More Sustainable Food Choices One Meal at a Time: Psychological and Practical Aspects of Meat Reduction and Substitution2022Ingår i: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikel-id 1182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Switching out meat in favour of plant-based alternatives such as meat substitutes is an important step towards eating more sustainably. Here, the aim was to identify and explore the specific barriers experienced by Swedish consumers when replacing meat with more sustainable alternatives. All meat-eating participants in this study reported some interest in reducing their meat consumption. Aspects of home-use and central-location test methods were combined by using a digital conferencing system to host cooking sessions and focus group discussions online, which was shown to be a viable setup even in this hands-on setting. The discussions targeted participants’ experience preparing meals using meat substitutes as well as their perceived motivators and barriers to reducing meat consumption. Four themes identified through thematic analysis indicated that meat-eating participants, despite their desire or intent to reduce their meat consumption, experienced barriers relating to the following: internal conflict due to holding multiple positive and negative beliefs about meat simultaneously (ambivalence), justification of eating meat (rationalisation), a desire for variety in and control over their food choices (agency), and sensitivity to the views and expectations of other people and the situational context regarding meat (social and structural factors). Possible strategies to support ambivalent individuals in aligning their behaviour with their beliefs instead of vice versa are discussed in the context of the meat paradox. Agency and practical skills, including increasing knowledge in preparing meals with plant-based proteins, likely play a role in bridging this intention–behaviour gap. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 13.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Oberrauter, Lisa-Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Norman, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensson, Marlene
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Identifying barriers to decreasing meat consumption and increasing acceptance of meat substitutes among Swedish consumers2021Ingår i: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 167, artikel-id 105643Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A key lifestyle change people could make to reduce their environmental impact is to reduce their meat consumption. However, meat is still a staple in many people's diet, and some consumers are reluctant to cut down. Meat substitutes, if accepted as adequate replacements for meat, may offer a suitable alternative without leaving consumers feeling dissatisfied. The aim of the present study was to identify psychological barriers to reducing meat consumption and increasing use of meat substitutes among Swedish consumers. Participants engaged in focus group discussions around purchasing, preparing, and consuming meat and meat substitutes. Four main themes were identified through thematic analysis: uncertainty, scepticism, health, and identity. These are discussed in relation to previous work on the barriers to reducing meat consumption. Strategies to communicate the environmental impact of meat to consumers and effect change through behavioural interventions are considered. © 2021 The Authors

  • 14.
    Costa, Elena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Exploring seafood choices at the point of purchase among a sample of Swedish consumers2024Ingår i: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 126, nr 13, s. 269-285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Seafood consumption in Sweden is below the national recommendations and limited to very few species. This study aims to explore the factors shaping seafood choices at the point of purchase among a sample of current consumers in Sweden, and examines their attitudes regarding seafood consumption more broadly. Design/methodology/approach: Convenience sampling was used to recruit consumers planning to purchase seafood at a supermarket in Sweden. Participants’ shopping trip was recorded using wearable eye tracking glasses and, upon completion, semi-structured interviews were conducted using a cued retrospective think aloud method. This exploratory study integrates qualitative data (N = 39) with eye tracking data (N = 34), to explore how seafood choices unfold when consumers purchase at the point of purchase. Findings: Purchases were mostly restricted to familiar seafood species. Four interlinked main themes were identified from thematic analysis of the interview data: Ambivalence, Nice and Necessary, Proficiency with Seafood and External Influences. Sustainability information (e.g. certifications) faced strong competition from other visual elements at the point of purchase, receiving less attention than product imagery and pricing information. Originality/value: This study is the first to explore the factors shaping seafood choices of current consumers at the point of purchase. The unique approach, combining explicit and implicit measures, enriches understanding of the factors influencing seafood choices and how these may interrelate. The results are valuable for the industry and contribute to the literature by identifying possible routes to improve seafood sustainability communication.

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  • 15.
    Costa, Elena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    The relationship between food neophobia and hedonic ratings of novel foods may be mediated by emotional arousal2023Ingår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 109, artikel-id 104931Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood could support the transition away from terrestrial animal-source foods towards more sustainable protein sources. Food neophobia (FN), the reluctance to eat novel foods (which also extends to many familiar foods including seafood), is a known barrier to dietary change. This study investigates the relationship between FN and consumers’ acceptance of novel surimi-based products shaped to resemble pasta; and explores the role of emotional arousal experienced during tasting. Consumers (N = 211) completed the Food Neophobia Scale prior to the tasting session and were quasi-randomized to either the blind (N = 107; given no information about the content of the samples) or informed condition (N = 104; informed that the samples derived from fish), to ensure a similar FN distribution across groups. Respondents tasted three variants (pollock, cod, or salmon) of a surimi-based product at a central location in Sweden. Each sample was rated in terms of hedonics, experienced emotional arousal (from 1-relaxed to 7-anxious), overall perceived aroma and flavor intensity, and freely described for flavor character. Attitudes (positive/negative) towards the concept were also described by respondents with free text. In line with previous studies, results showed negative associations between FN and both hedonic ratings and purchase intention. Moreover, mediation analysis suggested that the relationship between FN and hedonic liking was indirectly explained by emotional arousal, implying that higher arousal may be mechanistic in describing how FN negatively impacts liking. The effect of FN was, however, not observed for the salmon sample which evoked higher levels of arousal overall and may have also been perceived as more familiar due to high salmon consumption in Sweden. These results support the arousal hypothesis of FN and contribute to further understanding the mechanisms underpinning FN, highlighting the relevance of incorporating emotional measurements in sensory evaluations. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 16.
    Costa, Elena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Beyond raw: Investigating alternative preparation methods as a tool to increase acceptance of oysters in Sweden2023Ingår i: Future Foods, ISSN 2666-8335, Vol. 7, artikel-id 100217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of seafood in supporting transitions towards more sustainable and healthier diets is often overlooked. Oysters, for example, are a nutrient dense aquatic food whose production requires no feed, freshwater, or land use. However, oyster consumption in Sweden is limited, possibly in part due to being traditionally served raw. This study investigated consumer acceptance of oysters when cooked and prepared to resemble familiar foods and examined whether food neophobia (FN) was related to liking. Four oyster-based samples (raw oyster, oyster crepe, oyster burger, and oyster soup) were evaluated in an ecologically valid setting. Participants (N=102; convenience sampling) rated the samples in terms of hedonics (expected liking and liking after tasting), described which aspects of the samples were liked/disliked, and reported the contexts in which oyster consumption is perceived as appropriate. The findings suggest that FN was negatively associated with expected liking of raw oysters, but not with expected liking for cooked oyster-based products that were cooked to resemble familiar foods. On the other hand, familiarity with oysters was positively associated with expected liking of raw oysters. This suggests that expanding oyster preparations beyond its traditional raw format could be a valuable strategy to promote oyster consumption in Sweden. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 17.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Skedung, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A Sticky Situation or Rough Going?: Influencing Haptic Perception of Wood Coatings Through Frictional and Topographical Design2021Ingår i: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 69, nr 3, artikel-id 113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the tactile aesthetics of products that can be described as touch intensive is an increasing priority within many sectors, including the furniture industry. Understanding which physical characteristics contribute to the haptic experience of a surface, and how, is therefore highly topical. It has earlier been shown that both friction and topography affect tactile perception. Thus, two series of stimuli have been produced using standard coating techniques, with systematic variation in (physical) friction and roughness properties. This was achieved through appropriate selection of matting agents and resins. The stimuli sets were then evaluated perceptually to determine the extent to which discrimination between pairs of surfaces followed the systematic materials variation. In addition to investigating the role of the physical properties in discrimination of the surfaces, their influence on perceived pleasantness and naturalness was also studied. The results indicate that changes in tactile perception can be understood in terms of friction and roughness, and that varying the matting agents (topography) and resins (material properties) in the coatings provide the controlling factors for furniture applications. Perceived pleasantness is associated with low friction and smoother topography, whilst perceived naturalness is found to be described by an interaction between tactile friction and the average maximum peak height of the surface features. Graphic Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 18.
    Karlsson, Simon
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Melin, Jeanette
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Lahne, Jacob
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA.
    Wolfson, Julia
    John Hopkins University, USA.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    An evaluation and shortening of the Cooking and Food Provisioning Action Scale (CAFPAS) using item response theory2023Ingår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 108, artikel-id 104880Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cooking and Food Provisioning Action Scale (CAFPAS) is a 28-item validated tool for measuring food agency, a latent construct representing an individual's ability to make and achieve food-preparation and -provisioning goals. Here, key measurement parameters (targeting, threshold ordering, item fit, unidimensionality, differential item functioning, local dependency, and person reliability) of the CAFPAS are evaluated using a specific case of item response theory, Rasch analysis, on data from a development sample (N = 1853; 910 from Sweden; 943 from the US). Winsteps (v.5.1.7) is used for this analysis. The similarity of the Swedish version of the CAFPAS to the original is also assessed. Based on an iterative assessment of the measurement properties with different combinations of items in the development sample, ways to shorten the CAFPAS without jeopardizing construct validity or person reliability are examined. After removing items that do not fit the Rasch model, or that appear redundant in relation to other items, an 11-item version (CAFPAS-short) is suggested and tested using further Rasch analysis on both the development sample and an additional US-based validation sample (N = 1457). Scores of cooking confidence and attitudes are then modelled with measures from the CAFPAS and CAFPAS-short using frequentist and Bayesian analysis. Results suggest that the CAFPAS-short performs similarly to the full-length version, and potential future improvements to the CAFPAS are discussed. This study represents a successful application of item response theory to investigate and shorten a psychometric scale, reducing cognitive load on participants in studies using the CAFPAS whilst minimizing loss of data reliability. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 19.
    Lyons, M.
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Blinkhorn, V.
    University of Sunderland, UK.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Bertamini, M.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Mine is bigger than yours! narcissism predicts biases in perceived head size2019Ingår i: Studia psychologica (Bratislava), ISSN 0039-3320, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 245-257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The expression big headed is often used to describe narcissists, however is it possible that this term signals a bias in how narcissists perceive themselves? We tested whether narcissistic traits predicted biases in the estimated size and weight of specific body parts, including head circumference and brain weight. In two questionnaire-based studies, participants estimated the size or weight of parts of their body. In Study 1 (n = 316), we found that the Leadership/Authority facet of narcissism significantly predicted greater estimates of head circumference in men, but lower estimates of head circumference in women. In Study 2 (n = 275), we found that when a sexspecific average head circumference was not provided, Leadership/Authority predicted greater estimates of head circumference overall. We present evidence that narcissism predicts biases in estimated head size and brain weight, but that the precise nature of these biases is dependent on the provided frame of reference for body size. These results are discussed with reference to within-sex competitive strategies, perceived intelligence and stereotypes for male and female attractiveness. 

  • 20.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Hörlin, Elizabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Oberrauter, Lisa-Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Sörensen, Victoria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Norman, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Sample discrimination through profiling with rate all that apply (RATA) using consumers is similar between home use test (HUT) and central location test (CLT)2022Ingår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 95, artikel-id 104377Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of testing locations, home use test (HUT) and central location test (CLT) on consumer evaluations of food products using rate all that apply (RATA) was investigated. As a case study, eight cold cuts were evaluated: four vegetarian/vegan and four meat-based products. A between-subjects design was used, whereby consumers were randomly allocated to either HUT or CLT test location (58 and 71 consumers, respectively). To retain as much similarity as possible across locations, consumers in both groups received identical bags of products with palate cleansers and instructions. Consumers evaluated the products using a lexicon consisting of 32 sensory attributes based on similar studies and benchtop tasting, using RATA with 7pt scales. A total of 30 and 31 attributes differed significantly (p < 0.05) across the products for HUT and CLT, respectively. Sample discrimination was similar between the two locations. Location significantly (p < 0.05) affected discrimination of 14 attributes, but a particular location having consistently higher attribute means was not observed. Bootstrapping of the attribute means per product showed no significant differences between the two testing locations, and multilevel regression models using Bayesian inference did not reveal marked differences in expected ratings between locations. Further comparisons of sample discrimination patterns through principal component analysis showed that the two locations were very similar, including the overlap of confidence ellipses. The between-subjects design strengthens the results: that comparable sensory profiles were obtained from different consumers in different testing locations supports the notion that RATA data from consumers can be reliably collected for relatively sensorially distinct products with minimal data compromise.

  • 21.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Sörensen, Victoria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Valentin, Dominique
    Université Bourgogne Franche Comté, France.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Collier, Elizabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Does cooking ability affect consumer perception and appreciation of plant-based protein in Bolognese sauces?2023Ingår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 99, artikel-id 104563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Encouraging consumers to reduce their meat consumption is imperative in mitigating climate change effects related to the food industry. For some, transitioning away from meat may be facilitated by meat substitutes. However, these are not always accepted as suitable alternatives to meat due to a combination of psychological, situational, and sensorial aspects. The influence of factors such as cooking ability on hedonics and sensory discrimination of meat and meat substitutes is currently under-researched. The present study investigated such effects. Consumers (N = 101) of varying cooking ability and food neophobia (measured using questionnaires) tasted and evaluated six mince products (one beef and five meat substitutes - three soybean-based, one mycoprotein-based, and one oat-based) prepared in a Bolognese sauce. They rated liking for overall, appearance, aroma, taste/flavour, and texture, and profiled the products sensorially using check-all-that-apply (CATA). It was found that meat substitutes can be liked just as much as, if not more than, beef in the application of Bolognese sauce. No main effects of cooking ability were found for any modality of liking, though an interaction between cooking ability and sample was found for liking of flavour/taste. Consumers’ ability to sensorially discriminate between the Bolognese sauces was not dependent on their cooking ability. Several attributes that contributed to (dis)liking were identified. An additional online sample (N = 288) completed only the cooking ability and food neophobia questionnaires. A negative relationship was detected between cooking ability and food neophobia for the combined consumer and online datasets (total N = 389).

  • 22.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Nyhus, Anne Kari
    Microbeads, Norway.
    Björndal, Lene
    Microbeads, Norway.
    FINE-TUNING THE TACTILE PERCEPTION OF COATINGS2021Ingår i: European Coatings Journal, ISSN 0930-3847, Vol. 6, s. 32-37Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Human tactile evaluations were combined with tactile friction measurements to quantify the perceptual experience of touching coated panels. Monosized beads of nine different polymer compositions were added to a soft-touch waterborne two-component PUR coating. Introducing beads of different composition affected tactile perception.

  • 23.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Wäckerlin, Aneliia
    Glas Trösch AG, Switzerland.
    Haag, Walter
    Glas Trösch AG, Switzerland.
    Bieri, Marco
    Glas Trösch AG, Switzerland.
    Romanyuk, Andriy
    Glas Trösch AG, Switzerland.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Feeling smooth: Psychotribological probing of molecular composition2018Ingår i: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 66, nr 4, s. 1-10, artikel-id 138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether smooth surfaces varying in surface chemistry could be perceptually distinguished with the sense of touch. A set of ten glass surfaces was prepared which varied systematically in terms of the molecular composition of a thin coating of low topography. The contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and surface energy were evaluated as objective physical parameters characterizing each coating. Additionally, the interaction forces between a human finger and the different coatings were quantified and compared in terms of tactile friction coefficients. The surfaces were evaluated psychophysically in terms of perceived similarities and were then ranked according to pleasantness. The participants could perceptually distinguish between surfaces varying in surface chemistry and a primary and secondary perceptual dimension were identified as sufficient to distinguish them. The primary dimension correlates with surface free energy, but both tactile friction and surface energy contribute to this dimension depending on whether the coatings are organic or inorganic. The secondary dimension could not be identified explicitly in terms of a physical quantity but is discussed in terms of recent developments in the literature. Coated glass is characterized by high friction coefficient upon interaction with a human finger as well as significant hysteresis in the stroking directions (lower applied load and higher friction in the backward stroke). Despite the complexity of the tribology, pleasantness can be clearly linked to it, where low friction (high contact angle) materials receive a higher ranking. © The Author(s) 2018.

  • 24.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Hörlin, Elizabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The finishing touches: the role of friction and roughness in haptic perception of surface coatings.2020Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 238, s. 1511-1524Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are extraordinarily skilled in the tactile evaluation of, and differentiation between, surfaces. The chemical and mechanical properties of these surfaces are translated into tactile signals during haptic exploration by mechanoreceptors in our skin, which are specialized to respond to different types of temporal and mechanical stimulation. Describing the effects of measurable physical characteristics on the human response to tactile exploration of surfaces is of great interest to manufacturers of household materials so that the haptic experience can be considered during design, product development and quality control. In this study, methods from psychophysics and materials science are combined to advance current understanding of which physical properties affect tactile perception of a range of furniture surfaces, i.e., foils and coatings, thus creating a tactile map of the furniture product landscape. Participants' responses in a similarity scaling task were analyzed using INDSCAL from which three haptic dimensions were identified. Results show that specific roughness parameters, tactile friction and vibrational information, as characterized by a stylus profilometer, a Forceboard, and a biomimetic synthetic finger, are important for tactile differentiation and preferences of these surface treatments. The obtained dimensions are described as distinct combinations of the surface properties characterized, rather than as 'roughness' or 'friction' independently. Preferences by touch were related to the roughness, friction and thermal properties of the surfaces. The results both complement and advance current understanding of how roughness and friction relate to tactile perception of surfaces.

  • 25.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Hörlin, Elizabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Applebaum, Mara
    L’Oréal Research and Innovation, USA.
    Greaves, Andrew
    L’Oréal Research and Innovation, France.
    Luengo, Gustavo
    L’Oréal Research and Innovation, France.
    A Curly Q: Is Frizz a Matter of Friction?2021Ingår i: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 50, nr 8, s. 728-732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The oft discussed and fretted over environmental influences on hair have led to a popular consensus which suggests that elevated temperature and humidity lead to frizzier, wilder hair. However, few attempts at actually quantifying these effects have been made. Although frizziness is usually perceived visually, here the influence of variations in temperature and humidity on the tactile perception and friction of curly and straight hair were investigated. It is shown that changes in humidity may disproportionately affect perceived frizziness of curly hair by touch due to concurrent changes in the tactile friction. © The Author(s) 2021.

  • 26.
    Ulfsdotter Gunnarsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Linköping University, Sweden.
    McCambridge, Jim
    University of York, UK.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Randomized study of two different consent procedures on recall: a study within a digital alcohol intervention trial2024Ingår i: Trials, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 25, nr 1, artikel-id 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Individuals’ comprehension of the information provided in consent forms should fundamentally influence whether to participate initially in a study and later whether to remain a participant. Existing evidence, however, suggests that participants do not thoroughly read, comprehend, or recall the information in consent forms. This study aimed to better understand how well participants recalled trial procedure information in the consent materials they received prior to taking part in a trial of a digital alcohol intervention. Method: This study was nested within an online effectiveness trial. The study included a contrast between two layout approaches to present the trial procedure information: one where all materials were shown on the same page (One page) and one where participants had to click on links to get materials for certain parts of the study information (Active request). Recall of trial procedures was measured 2 months post-randomization with four questions. Participants were also asked to leave a comment after each question. Result: Of the 2437 individuals who registered interest in the parent trial, 1197 were randomized to One page and 1240 were randomized to Active request. Approximately 90% consented to participate and 53% of the participants responded to the recall questionnaire. Contrasting the consent layout showed no marked differences between groups in three out of the four questions on recall of trial procedures. There was, however, evidence that recall of aspects of how personal data would be handled during the trial did differ between the two groups, with the Active request group reporting less recall than the One page group. Free-text comments were used to give nuance to the quantitative analysis. Conclusion: Participants exposed to different layouts of trial procedure information exhibited varying levels of information recall 2 months after consenting. The findings highlight the influence of the presentation of consent forms, which should be given attention when designing trials. Trial registration: ISRCTN ISRCTN48317451. Registered 6 December 2018, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN48317451. 

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