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  • 1.
    Fjäll, Stephanie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Olsson, J
    Edström, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Westlin, Hugo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    CASE STUDY ON SUSTAINABLE AND SELF-SUFFINCENT AGRICULTURE: INTEGRATING GRASS BIOREFINERY, ANEROBIC DIGESTION AND HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION2023In: Proc of EUBCE 2023, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2023, p. 533-539Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural industry plays a crucial role in transitioning towards a sustainable and fossil-free future. This article explores the potential of biorefineries using biomass from agriculture to reduce emissions and promote self sufficiency. Regarding a concept that integrated anaerobic digestion, grass and legume protein production, and hydrothermal liquefaction. A case study was conducted in the southwestern part of Sweden, involving interviews with a biogas plant and local farmers. The study analyzed the utilization of input goods in agriculture and evaluated the potential of biomass in the area. To assess the potential for farms to become self-sufficient in fuel, protein feed, and plant nutrients. The results show an overall positive outlook of the biorefinery concept. By utilizing 20% of the available biomass in the area can the biorefinery concept annually produce 100 GWh of biogas, 3800 tonnes of grass and legume protein concentrate and 1200 GWh bio-oil. This could theoretically cover 100 % of the need of soy meal, 44% for nitrogen, 50% for phosphorus and 100% for potassium.

  • 2.
    Fogelberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Östlund, Johanna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Effect of cultivar and inoculant on yields of faba beans (Vicia faba minor) and subsequent spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) under Scandinavian cropping conditions2023In: Frontiers in Agronomy, ISSN 2673-3218, Vol. 5, article id 1179996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inoculation of legumes is generally considered to increase yield and to lower the need of nitrogen (N) fertilization, especially in semiarid regions and on sandy soils. It has not been clear whether inoculation with Rhizobium sp. in cropping of faba beans (Vicia faba minor) under Swedish conditions would improve yield and protein content. In 2015–2016, three faba bean cultivars and two strains of Rhizobium were studied in field trials in Central Sweden, including analyses of N fixation capacities using 15N abundance. The study did not show any effects of inoculation of Rhizobium on yield or protein content of faba beans or subsequent spring wheat yields. Yields of faba beans varied between cultivars but were not connected to inoculation. 15N abundance was influenced by rhizobium. The study cannot support the opinion that, generally, inoculation is beneficial for improved outcome of faba bean cropping under Scandinavian field conditions. No residual effect of inoculation on subsequent spring wheat yield was found. Copyright © 2023 Fogelberg, Östlund and Myrbeck.

  • 3.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lund, J
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Casimir, Justin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sustainable straw potential in Sweden – a case study to supply straw for ethanol production2020In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings2020, Pages 86-8828th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, e-EUBCE 2020; Virtual, Online; ; 6 July 2020 through 9 July 2020, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2020, p. 86-88Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When agriculture is to supply a growing bioeconomy with biomass, straw has been identified as one of residues with the largest potential. As removal of straw from fields will have a negative impact on soil humus development compared with straw incorporation it is important to make sure that a system including straw removal does not negatively effect the long-term soil fertility. As part of the EU-financed project AGROinLOG a Swedish demonstration case was made to supply 80,000 tonnes of winter wheat straw annually to 2nd generation bioethanol production. The straw removal from the case study area of Norrköping and surrounding counties, in the south-eastern part of Sweden, was evaluated from a soil fertility aspect using a model that estimates the sustainability of a cropping system regarding soil fertility and yield levels based on humus content, climate and soil type. The assessment revealed the possibility to remove 230,000 tonnes of winter wheat straw from the surrounding counties of Norrköping without reaching the humus limit. The margin to 80,000 tonnes is large and collecting this amount of winter wheat straw annually may well be possible. 

  • 4.
    Hagberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Malyugina, Svetlana
    Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic; Agrovyzkum Rapotin Ltd, Czech Republic.
    Oscarsson, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Ringmar, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Wall, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Wigfeldt, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Biokol i ströbädd för frigående värphöns för förbättrad arbets- och djurmiljö2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochar in bedding for loose housed laying hens - for the improvement of work and animal environment The aim of this project was to study how the ambient air environment in barns for loose housed laying hens is affected by mixing biochar into the bedding. The objectives were to investigate the bedding’s effect on the ammonia and the dust/particulate matter (PM) concentrations. Studies were performed by laboratory studies and by field trials in aviaries with loose housed laying hens. In the lab study, dust formation was tested by tumbling (stirring) three different types of biochar and one product of wood shavings. Wood shavings were used as a control/comparative bedding material, as it is the most common source of litter in Swedish laying hen flocks. The dust formation was higher for biochar compared to the wood shavings. Additionally, a higher dry matter content in the biochar resulted in higher dust concentrations. Presumably, this is because biochar is a porous material, which easily falls apart during mechanical processing. In practice, the mechanical processing will supposedly not be so forcefully because of e.g., the hens pecking in the bedding. However, it might be an aspect to consider during some work tasks, e.g., removal of the bedding. During the field trials, data of ammonia concentrations and PM were collected in four aviaries with 100 loose housed laying hens per aviary. Each aviary was provided with different mixtures of bedding material. The mixtures were 1) wood shavings and a bacteria/fungi additive, 2) only wood shavings, 3) wood shavings and biochar, and 4) peat or peat mixture (80% peat and 20% wood shavings). The measurements of ammonia were collected with a hand-held aspirator pump, one sample above the slatted flooring and two samples above the bedded flooring. No differences of the ammonia concentrations were obtained in the different aviaries, bedding materials and flooring. Differences in ammonia concentrations were not assumed above the slatted flooring, but above the bedded flooring. In future studies, continuous measurements and more data sampling would be relevant to analyze, to compare differences in the ammonia concentrations, depending on the bedding material, and correlate it to the time of day, the behavior/activity level of the laying hens, etc. The fractions of PM measured during the field trials were PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10 and total-PM. In each of the four aviaries, approximately 500 samples were taken with a laser photometer. The results were slightly different compared to the laboratory study. For all the PM fractions, the PM concentrations were highest in the bedding with only wood shavings. An influencing factor may be the dry matter content of the bedding materials, 90% for wood shavings and 70% for biochar. Another aspect is the laying hens’ activation and encouragement to process the bed by pecking, dust bathing etc. Both the laying hens and the eggs, in the aviary with biochar, appeared to have a greyish color at times. This study shows that the dry matter content of bedding materials is important for the dust/PM concentrations in the ambient air in animal production facilities. How different biochar with different properties, e.g. dry matter content and size fractions, affect the behavior of the laying hens (encouragement to process the bedding) is a topic for future research. One conclusion is that different biochar may have very different properties and that these varying properties can have quite different effects on the behavior of the laying hens, animal environment and work environment.

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  • 5.
    MacLaren, Chloe
    et al.
    Rothamsted Research, UK; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Mead, Andrew
    Rothamsted Research, UK.
    van Balen, Derk
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Claessens, Lieven
    Wageningen University, Netherlands; International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Tanzania.
    Etana, Ararso
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    de Haan, Janjo
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Haagsma, Wiepie
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Jäck, Ortrud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Keller, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Agroscope, Switzerland.
    Labuschagne, Johan
    Western Cape Department of Agriculture, South Africa.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Necpalova, Magdalena
    University College Dublin, Ireland; ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Nziguheba, Generose
    International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kenya.
    Six, Johan
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Strauss, Johann
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa; Elsenburg, South Africa.
    Swanepoel, Pieter Andreas
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Thierfelder, Christian
    International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre, Zimbabwe.
    Topp, Cairistiona
    SRUC Edinburgh, UK.
    Tshuma, Flackson
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Verstegen, Harry
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Walker, Robin
    SRUC Aberdeen, UK.
    Watson, Christine
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; SRUC Aberdeen, UK.
    Wesselink, Marie
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Storkey, Jonathan
    Rothamsted Research, UK.
    Long-term evidence for ecological intensification as a pathway to sustainable agriculture2022In: Nature Sustainability, E-ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 5, p. 770-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological intensification (EI) could help return agriculture into a ‘safe operating space’ for humanity. Using a novel application of meta-analysis to data from 30 long-term experiments from Europe and Africa (comprising 25,565 yield records), we investigated how field-scale EI practices interact with each other, and with N fertilizer and tillage, in their effects on long-term crop yields. Here we confirmed that EI practices (specifically, increasing crop diversity and adding fertility crops and organic matter) have generally positive effects on the yield of staple crops. However, we show that EI practices have a largely substitutive interaction with N fertilizer, so that EI practices substantially increase yield at low N fertilizer doses but have minimal or no effect on yield at high N fertilizer doses. EI practices had comparable effects across different tillage intensities, and reducing tillage did not strongly affect yields. © 2022, The Author(s)

  • 6.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Jäck, Ortrud
    SLU, Sweden.
    Keller, Thomas
    SLU, Sweden.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Precisionssådd av höstoljeväxter2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Precision seeding of winter oilseed rape The project aimed at increasing knowledge of precision establishment of oil seed rape. The hypothesis was that precision sowing in rows with low seed rates and close placing of N will optimize crop autumn development, overwintering, and seed pay-off. In total 12 field trials were conducted in southern and middle Sweden during the harvest years 2019–2022. Treatments included seeding with Väderstad Tempo, 45 cm row spacing, and seeding rates of 20, 35, 50 and 65 plants per m2. As a reference seeding was also done traditionally with a Väderstad Rapid, 12,5 cm row spacing and 50 plants per m2. In average there were no effect of neither seed rate nor row spacing on yield. In individual field experiments where low seed rates yielded better than high seed rates, this followed on a well-developed oil seed rape plant with a high shoot- and root biomass and a large root neck diameter in late autumn. Physiological plant development was affected by seed rate. Number of leaves, root neck diameter and above and below ground biomass was negatively correlated to the seed rate while there was a tendency for the growing point being positively correlated to the seed rate. The number of leaves per plant, shoot and rot biomass and to some extent also root neck diameter and the height of growing point was positively correlated to accumulated day degrees during autumn.

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  • 7.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Urban Water Management.
    Användning av recirkulerade fosforprodukter från avlopp – gödslingseffekt och upplägg av odlingstester2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the strategic work at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden to generate andspread knowledge on recovery and reuse of nutrients in Sweden. The aim of the report is to help ensure that high-quality products which are attractive for agricultural use emerge from Swedish wastewater treatment plants. The findings can be useful in further work on quality assurance of attractive recovered phosphorus products as fertilisers. Over 200 000 tons of dry matter sludge are produced annually at Swedish wastewater treatment plants, containing in total around 5400 tons of phosphorus that could potentially be reused inagriculture. Apart from direct spreading of bio-sludge on farmland, many different extraction technologies have been developed to recover and thus recycle phosphorus and other nutrients from wastewater and sludge. These different technologies extract phosphorus in different compounds with varying properties as a fertiliser in agriculture. The report reflects on and describes the properties of compounds produced by existing extraction technologies and estimates their value as fertilisers based on fertiliser experiments described in the literature.Two phosphorus compounds that appear particularly interesting are 1) phosphoric acid, a rawmaterial in the production of N-P-K and N-P products and certain forms of superphosphate, and 2) struvite, which has a fertiliser effect comparable to that of super-phosphate. However, it is difficult to assess and compare the fertiliser effect, or plant availability, of recovered phosphorus compounds in a fair manner. As soon as the compound touches the soil,all kinds of processes commence releasing phosphorus in plant-available forms or perhaps binding it in even stronger ways to soil minerals. The pH of the soil, but also its texture,composition of minerals, redox potential and current phosphorus concentration, are factors influencing the actual processes that take place. Other contextual factors such as climate also affect the complicated turnover of phosphorus in soil. However, once applied to farmland, all phosphorus compounds contribute to the pool of plant-available phosphorus in either the shortor long term. Phosphorus compounds that become available in the long term are valuable froma nutrient storage point of view. However, for a highly phosphorus-demanding crop on a phosphorus-deficient soil, rapid delivery of plant-available phosphorus is required. The variation between different types of soil is often great, but an attempt is made in this report to present amore general ranking of different recovered compounds from wastewater or sludge extraction(based on their function as a phosphorus fertiliser according to the literature). The table below summarises the compounds and provides a rough estimate of their general function as phosphorus fertiliser, where 1 indicates good fertilising effect and 4 indicates weak fertilising effect.

    [table, see fulltext]

    It is not only the fertiliser effect that determines the attractiveness of a product to farmers. Other decisive factors are competitive price, physical properties of the product that are compatible with modern cultivation techniques and machinery, and a well-defined nutrient content that is homogeneous and stable over time.Tests to assess and evaluate the fertiliser properties of recovered phosphorus products are currently based on varying and often simplified methodologies, meaning that data from different producers are difficult to compare. This report highlights the need for developing comparable and applicable tests for recovered phosphorus products. It also considers relevant parameters to analyse and suggests an appropriate test set-up. The plant availability and effect of nutrients in (recovered) fertiliser products can be assessed in three steps:

    1. Chemical determination and content quantification of phosphorus forms and environmental toxins.
    2. Greenhouse cultivation experiments.
    3. Field cultivation tests.
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  • 8.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Vattenflöden i djurstallar2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manure quality and quantity have been shown to change a lot through dilution from identified and diffuse water sources. Knowledge of the dry matter contents (DM) of the manure is needed for effective use of the manure as fertilizer and to avoid too high doses causing losses of nutrients to the surrounding water bodies. Based on this, water flow measurements were carried out at the five Swedish pilot farms. All water ending up in the manure storage was included. The measurement took note of drinking (indoor and outdoor), milk room (dishing etc), washing (stable, milk room, field equipment), feeding, staff areas and total consumption. The results were used for discussion on improving the handling of water in VERA, the Swedish calculation tool for manure quantity and quality on farms. The water amount from the different water categories differed between the animal categories, where dairy cows used in total 30-35 m3 per animal and year and the fatteners and sows around 8-10 m3 per animal and year. Out of the total water to the dairy cows, around 75-80% of the water was drinking water and the rest other technological water (e.g. cleaning of milk room, milking pit and dishes). For pigs the ratio was higher for drinking water, 95-almost 100 %. Here the largest amount of water was from wet foddering making up 80 % of the drinking water. Water through water cups per dairy cow amounted to around 25 m3 per year depending on if drinking water on pasture was included or not. This gives a daily consumption of 65-75 litres per animal and day which is a bit low compared to the literature. A concluding remark is that neither technical water (except for washing water at dairy farms) nor a variability in precipitation did have any major effect on the DM contents in slurry ex-storage. Instead, the water supply from faeces and urine was what determined the DM content. Additional water flow measurements on farms would provide data that should be used for generating improved default values for the calculation tools.

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  • 9.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hellstedth, Maarit
    LUKE Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Kulmala, Airi
    MTK Central Union of Agricultural Producers and Forest Owners, Finland.
    Laakso, Johanna
    LUKE Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Lehn, Friederike
    JKI Julius Kühn Institute, Tyskland.
    Nørregaard, Martin
    SEGES, Denmark.
    Luositarinen, Sari
    LUKE Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Instruktion till provtagning och analys av stallgödsel2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents instructions for manure sampling and analysis produced within the project MANURE STANDARDS financed by Interreg Baltic Sea Region Programme (2014-2020). The project developed joint guidelines for taking representative manure samples, recommendations for manure analysis in the laboratories and a farm-level calculation tool for farm-specific manure mass balance calculation. All materials areavailable in English at: https://www.luke.fi/manurestandards/en/frontpage/ 

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  • 10.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bark, Linnea
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Deliverable 4.3 Assessment of effects of manure/pasture management on nitrogen and phosphorus losses2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The POWER project aimed to examine the effectiveness of innovations and best practise in achieving improved pig welfare in Europe. Free-range pasture systems for pigs support the organic principles of natural living, but intensive free-range production is characterized by high risks of nutrient losses, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching to surrounding water bodies and also ammonia (NH3) emissions. The scope of this grazing study, with housing pigs on pasture, was eight pig farms located in four countries: Austria, Denmark, Germany and Sweden. Collected farm data showed a large range in values, reflecting the diversity of pasture systems. Average animal density in paddocks per farm varied between 10 and 480 pigs per hectare, with a density in falling order as weaners>fatteners>sows. Vegetation in paddocks varied greatly between farms and also in paddocks within the same farm. Climate, animal density and soil type are important parameters influencing the risk of nutrient losses. Nutrient loads from faeces and urine in paddocks varied with animal density. The calculated loads were rather high in relation to fertilizing needs in crop production at some of the studied farms. This highlights the importance of having enough area for the pigs and/or to limit the period they are hold in the same paddock in order to apply nutrient loads balanced to subsequent crop or vegetation needs. With the highest N load registered in the study, pigs could be held in the paddock approximately one and a half month per year before exceeding the EU regulation of maximum application of 170 kg N per ha with animal manure.

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  • 11.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Thylén, Lars
    Utvärdering av klorofyllmätningar i precisionsodlingsförsök2002Report (Refereed)
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  • 12.
    Råberg, Tora
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nedbrytningsförsök av torrefierad GROT och biokol2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both torrefied and pyrolysed forest residues can create long-term carbon sinks in garden soils based on peat. Pyrolysis requires a significantly higher temperature than torrefaction, and there would thus be an advantage if the required properties can be achieved with torrefied material. RISE was contracted by Sveaskog to conduct an experiment in which forest residues with two different degrees of torrefaction (difference in residence time) was compared with biochar. The substrates were mixed to 50% with garden soil provided by Econova. The soil incubation was performed at 20 °C for 6 months with constant soil humidity at 70% water holding capacity. The substrate mixtures were analysed for total carbon, total nitrogen, ash content and pH. Both carbon and nitrogen were emitted to a greater extent from the biochar mixture when compared to the ash content. The water holding capacity and the pH was higher in the biochar mix compared to the torrefied forest residual substate mix. The evaporation was elevated from the torrefied material, compared to the biochar. The result points to an increased microbial activity in the mixture with biochar and it is believed to have initiated a mineralisation of the peat-rich culture medium. The results indicate that torrefied forest residue can be used as a carbon sink in substrate mixtures, but that biochar activates the microbial life in the substrate in a different way. One reason why biochar can give rise to such an effect is that it had a higher pH than the torrefied forest residues, as the alkaline mineral content is higher, due to a higher combustion temperature in the pyrolysis.

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  • 13.
    Råberg, Tora
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Växtodlingsförsök med torrefierad GROT från Sveaskog2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Torrefied forest residues can contribute to a carbon sink in garden soils by reducing the proportion of peat in the substrate mixture sold to the customer. Since there are energy gains with shorter torrefaction, there was interest in investigating whether vegetables have different growth pattern in substrate mixtures with residues that have been torrefied for a longer or shorter time. RISE was commissioned by Sveaskog to make an experiment where cultivation in forest residues with two different degrees of torrefaction (difference in residence time) was compared with ordinary vegetable soil sold by Econova. The three growing media included in the experiment were prepared by mixing 10% by weight of GROT1, GROT2 and light peat, respectively, into Econova's vegetable soil. The model plant was Roman lettuce (Lactuca Sativa 'var. Romana') and the experiment was carried out for three months in cultivation chambers with controlled temperature (D: 20 °C / N: 15 °C), humidity (Rh 70%), light exposure (15 h) and soil moisture (70% WHC) during the period 14/7 - 15/9 2020. Fertilisation was added in the form of nutrient solution on four occasions. Before harvest, a taste test was performed where two test persons assessed the salad in each pot. The biomass of the salad was measured as fresh weight and dry weight after harvest. Drying was done at 105 ° C for three days. No significant differences were measured with respect to taste test, fresh weight and dry weight. The conclusion from the experiment is that no significant deterioration of the growth was measured when 10% by weight was changed from peat to torrefied forest residue. There was no significant difference between the degrees of torrefaction, which indicates that there are possible energy savings by using a shorter residence time in the pyrolysis reactor. 

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    Växtodlingsförsök
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