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  • 1.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Shotton, Elizabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Walsh, St John
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Cramer, Marlene
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Ridley-Ellis, Daniel
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Harte, Annete
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Ui Chulana, Catriona
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Risse, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Ivanica, Raphaela
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    De Arana-Fernández, Marina
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    García Barbero, Manuel
    Klimark + Novadomus Hábitat, Spain.
    Llana, Daniel
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Íñiguez-González, Guillermo
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Nasiri, Bahareh
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Krofl, Žiga
    University of Ljubljana, Slovania.
    Design for deconstruction and reuse of timber structures – state of the art review2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a state-of-the-art on timber construction in selected european countries and and discusses technical premises for a potential circular use of timber in building construction, focusing on Design for Deconstruction and Reuse (DfDR) in low-rise timber buildings, up to 3 storeys. It describes the historic and contemporary building techniques of timber buildings in all project countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, UK, Spain, Germany, Slovenia) and finds, that all of these countries have a long history of building with timber, but in most regions other materials dominated the housing output from the beginning of the 20th century. Only in the second half of the 20th century timber started gaining importance as a building material in Europe again, with light timber frame construction becoming an important construction system. From the beginning of the 21st century, innovations in the sector started transforming the construction industry. Mass timber products like CLT opened the market for high-rise timber buildings and in some countries office blocks, schools and hotels are built using timber, although the majority of timber construction remains residential. An even more important development might be the uptake of offsite construction, that makes timber construction more accurate, material efficient, fast and it reduces waste. These modern methods of construction are gaining importance in the construction sector of all partner countries and are likely to dominate the European housing output in the future. There will be some regional differences in the level of prefabrication, material choices and designs, so that any design guidelines for DfDR need to be adapted to the regional context. However, modern timber construction is not currently aligned with circular economy principles and is seldomly taking buildings endof-life-into account.

    Therefore, the report continues to summarise novel design concepts for deconstruction and reuse, that could be used in modern timber buildings. It outlines that the feasibility as well as the reuse potential depends on the scale of reclaimed components, where larger components and assemblies are often considered beneficial in terms of time, greenhouse gas emissions and waste production. If volumetric or planar units could be salvaged in the future, they also need to be adaptable for altered regulations or standards or alternative functions. It is further necessary that assemblies can be altered within buildings, since different building components have different life expectancies. Various examples for DfDR in buildings with the accompanying design strategies are presented. The buildings in the examples are often designed to be in one place for a limited timeframe and can be deconstructed and re-erected elsewhere without replacement of components. Key-features often include modularity of components, reversible connections, adaptability of the floor-plan and circular procurement. Even though it is evidently possible, the structural reuse of timber is not a wide-spread approach to date. Barriers to the use of reclaimed structural components are mainly a lack in demand for salvaged materials, but also prohibitive building regulations and the lack of design standards. Demolition practices play a crucial role as well and need to be considered in the design of buildings, to avoid damage to the components.

    Finally, the report summarises principles and guidelines for DfDR by different authors. As a generic approach an indicator system for deconstructability and reusability could be introduced. Time, Separability, Risk and Safety, Simplicity and Interchangeability are identified5as the main indicators for DfDR, that remain somewhat abstract. As opposed to using a generic indicator system, a more practical approach of assessing DfDR on an individual basis could be taken. This way specific shortcomings of the design can be addressed. But if DfDR found a wider application in the future, this approach may be too time consuming and there is a need for a more directed decision-making tool that can be used during the design phase of buildings to enhance DfDR. As the InFutUReWood project proceeds, it will examine a more granular approach to DfDR, relating it to the actual construction stages used in practice, developing a general template to be appropriated and adjusted to account for regional variations in construction. A strategic matrix is in development which will provide designers with a methodology based on relating principles, strategies and specific tactics to the typical design stages, to aid design decisions that promote DfDR.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Harte, Annette
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Shotton, Elisabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Ridley-Ellis, Daniel
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Turk, Goran
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Iniguez-Gonalez, Guillermo
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Risse, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Summary report InFutUReWood – Innovative Design for the Future – Use and Reuse of Wood (Building) Components2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Att mäta demonterbarhet och återbrukbarhet hos träbyggnader baserat på fallstudier och ISO 20887:20202022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring deconstructability and reusability of timber buildings. Timber construction must - like all construction - develop towards better resource management. One way to reduce raw material consumption and waste production may be to reuse buildings and building components to a greater extent, and to facilitate this, buildings would need to be designed with that aspect in mind. A European project, InFutUReWood, has investigated how design adapted for reuse can be facilitated and has identified a need for a tool for assessing the deconstructability and reusability of timber buildings. A basic first sketch for an assessment tool was produced, and this study takes the work with the tool further. The overall purpose is to support a development where reuse is considered already in the design phase. More specifically, the project develops a tool to assess how well deconstruction and reuse have been considered in the design of a timber building. The tool is based on the international standard ISO 20887: 2020 and on case studies. The project seeks to answer the questions: What makes deconstruction and reuse easy and what makes it difficult - according to case studies? How can these experiences be considered in the design of the assessment tool? What development needs are there for the sketch of at tool? The work has three thematic parts: 1) Analysis of dismantling and reuse processes in case studies. 2) Analysis of an existing draft of a tool. 3) Assessment of how the tool could be further developed. The general methods of the work are result analysis, interviews, photo documentation and studies of drawings and construction documents. The case studies show several practical ways to achieve dismantling and reusability and illustrate how ISO 20887:2020 can be practically applied. To make the tool suitable for use by an independent party, it needs to be simplified and the assessment criteria processed to be more objective. Clues to how the indicators can be developed are obtained. Continued work includes the involvement of industry to develop criteria that will make them have confidence in the tool. A reformulation and new formulation of indicators in the tool and validation of these is also needed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Historiska takkonstruktioner – så fungerar de2013Inngår i: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 105, nr 4, s. 52-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Kulturvärden i påbyggnadsprocesser: en studie i projektet Timber on top2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical extensions and heritage values The construction sector entails a significant environmental and climate impact, with large raw material consumption and waste production and huge emissions of greenhouse gases. More sustainable ways of meeting our need for buildings can include prolonging the life span of buildings. This requires buildings to be flexible and adaptable to changing needs. The Timber on top project investigates how vertical extensions to existing buildings can achieved in a way that is sustainable socially, ecologically, and economically. The broader aim of this study is to support sustainability in the building and construction sector. The goal is to map and compile practical knowledge on how heritage values are best considered in vertical extension processes. Methods used are literature studies, a workshop, and interviews. The results show that obvious parts of a good practice are to involve competence on building conservation in the process, to follow up and control heritage values in the construction process, to ensure that there are control points in the control plan and that these are followed up. Specifically, different advice can be given for different stages in the construction process. Best practice in the idea stage Examine the conditions of the object already in the idea stage. Contact an antiquarian early for informal advice. Examine whether the object is sensitive or not and whether it is a house that is suitable to extend vertically or not. In connection with pre-study work, carry out an investigation on the object’s heritage values. Let the antiquarian take part in various investigations that are made. For extension projects, it is especially important to also have a structural engineer involved early in the process. Superstructures can lead to several types of measures that affect heritage values: reinforcement of load-bearing parts, measures for fire protection and measures for noise protection. At an early stage, different design alternatives can be explored, and technical requirements and cultural values can be weighed against each other. Hire an antiquarian who gets an integrated role of sounding board in early investigations and who can support an architect. Best practice in the planning stage and implementation stage Initially, when the consulting group is put together, make a presentation of the building and its heritage values. Take a tour of the site with everyone involved. Strive for continuity in the consulting group to avoid recurrence in the dialogue. Bring all important skills with you early. Include an antiquarian in the implementation phase. Checkpoints must be followed up. Contribute to the expert antiquarian coming out on the construction site to follow up the control plan. Strive for a good dialogue, where all interests come together.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Kunskapsöversikt om trästommars tekniska prestanda: Litteraturstudie2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggnader och deras drift och framställning svarar för en betydande andel av samhällets resursanvändning och miljöpåverkan. En ökad användning av biobaserade material i byggnaders stommar har föreslagits som en viktig åtgärd för att minska resursanvändningen och miljöpåverkan från byggnader. För att möjliggöra en ökad och sund användning av biobaserade byggnadsmaterial behöver beslutsfattare information om deras tekniska och miljömässiga prestanda. Ett projekt har genomförts för att sammanställa sådan kunskap och dess resultat, en syntes av kunskapsläget, ges i: Sandin Y., Sandin, G., Cristescu, C., Olsson, J. (2020). Kunskapsläge kring byggnader med stomme av trä: teknik, hållbarhet och cirkulär materialanvändning. RISE Rapport 2020:47.Studiens övergripande vägledande frågeställningar var:

    • Vad vet vi om den tekniska prestandan och hållbarheten hos biobaserade stomsystem?• Vilka forsknings- och utvecklingsbehov finns med avseende på teknik och hållbarhet?

    En första del av studien, teknikdelen, fokuserade på att undersöka teknisk prestanda hos stomsystem av trä. Som en del i arbetet genomfördes en litteraturstudie och delar av dess resultat redovisas här.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Stadsutveckling och påbyggnader: Utvecklingsbehov inför etapp 2 av Timber on top2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The "Timber on top" project will produce a Best Practice Guide on how to work with vertical extensions (of buildings) in a socially, economically and ecologically sustainable way.

    "Timber on Top - Stage 1", funded by Vinnova under contract 2018-02753, was led by Arbio – Sveriges träbyggnadskansli and was carried out during the period 2018-12-01 - 2019-08-31. The aim of stage 1 was to create a framework for stage 2 by mapping opportunities and obstacles for vertical extensions, linked to the three sustainability perspectives; social, economic and ecological sustainability. In the project, Arbio, LIU, LTU, RISE, Trästad Sweden, five municipalities and about 30 companies participated. In stage 2, the work will focus on developing, testing and analyzing process support, business models and technical solutions. The results will be disseminated through workshops and seminars and will be documented in a Best Practice Guide. Stage 2 of "Timber on Top" was granted by Vinnova in July 2019 and will run from autumn 2019 to autumn 2021.

    This report presents parts of the work done in stage 1. The aim was to identify development needs to be addressed in stage 2 concerning social sustainability and urban development. The subject is broad, and a delimitation needs to be done in order for a best practice to be identified. In this pre-study, project participants' views and wishes were gathered by interviews, to be taken as a starting point for a relevant delimitation of the scope. Some examples of findings in this study are:

    There is a need for better understanding of municipal planning processes. For example, how cultural values can be taken care of in extension projects and whether and how planning processes can be more effective.

    • It would be interesting to explore extension projects as a means of social innovation. Can vertical extensions be used to increase the social sustainability of residential areas with social challenges?

    • The project participants wish to be informed of existing vertical extensions that represent good and bad examples. They also want to meet physically in the project and to get in touch with builders and architects who have experiencein vertical extensions.

    Vinnova and the participating companies are hereby warmly thanked for funding and for the opportunity to complete the project's first phase. A special thank you also to project participants in Umeå, Varberg, Växjö, Sunne and Malmö for your time and commitment in this study.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Tillståndsbedömning av historiska takkonstruktioner2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Derome, Sweden.
    Ui Chúláin, Caitríona
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Design for Deconstruction and Reuse: Case study Villa Anneberg2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector accounts for a large raw material consumption and waste production. One way of diminishing these would be to reuse buildings and building components to a higher degree. To facilitate that, buildings would need to be designed with that aspect in mind. Work Package 2 of the InFutUReWood project investigates new ways to design timber-based structures. This study investigates how new design concepts can be developed to make Villa Anneberg, a two-storey light timber house from the Swedish manufacturer Derome, adapted for deconstruction and reuse. The objectives are: • To identify the inherent strengths and weaknesses of the current design of Villa Anneberg regarding deconstruction, rebuilding and reuse. • To show how the design could be improved with respect to future deconstruction and reuse and to estimate the amount of wood that could be reused in the future with the current and the improved designs. • To suggest guidelines for deconstruction and reuse. • To test and develop a method for carrying out case studies, as the study is the first in a series of case studies treating different structural systems. The study is limited to the load bearing structure of the building. Focus is on reuse rather than recycling. Methods used involve interviews, structured meetings, analyses of drawings and documents, photo documentation and design work. A reuse scenario was assumed where the building will be deconstructed after a few decades into its separate parts. It will then be transported and reassembled to an identical building in the same geographical region. It was found that the current design of Villa Anneberg is relatively well prepared for this scenario already. The building is designed for efficient transport and assembly and the process is judged to be reversible to a high degree. Many connectors are screwed, and the building can be deconstructed with common and simple tools. Several weaknesses were also identified. Among these were joining techniques that are not reversible. Modified versions were developed for three joints. The new solutions were achieved with relatively small adjustments in design and within existing technology. One of the new connections was found so economically valuable to the manufacturer Derome, that it is likely to be taken into production soon. We estimated that the proportion of wood that is reusable would be higher for the modified Villa Anneberg than for the current. The proportion wood that is reusable in the load bearing structure with current design is estimated to 82,7 %. The proportion of wood that is reusable with the modified design is estimated to 86,4 %. These figures apply to the studied scenario. Guidelines for deconstruction and reuse were suggested. The case study method was found efficient and ready to be used in further case studies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 10.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Cramer, Marlene
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    HOW TIMBER BUILDINGS CAN BE DESIGNED FOR DECONSTRUCTION AND REUSE IN ACCORDANCE WITH ISO 208872023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for a shift towards circular economy in the building and construction sector. Design for deconstruction and reuse (DfDR) and design for adaptability (DfA) have been suggested as means to facilitate reuse of buildings and diminish waste and material consumption. A standard, ISO 20887:2020, has appeared to support the implementation of DfDR/A. One objective of this study is to demonstrate timber building design examples that can be considered consistent with the standard and designs that should be avoided. Another objective is to examine if there are important aspects of DfDR/A for timber buildings that are insufficiently covered by ISO 20887:2020. The broader, long-term aim of the work is to remove thresholds to DfDR/A by providing support for designers and industry in applying the standard. The principles and strategies in ISO 20887:2020 are illustrated with practical examples from case studies, organised in a searchable database.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Mundt-Petersen, Olof
    Polygon AK-konsult, Sweden.
    Linderoth, Oskar
    Polygon AK-konsult, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Experiences from the Deconstruction of a Timber Building2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on a deconstruction process followed on site, with the purpose of documenting experiences that can help us understand how to design timber buildings for future deconstruction and reuse. The deconstruction concerned three timber buildings built up by volumes (3D modules produced off-site). Modules were in good shape at the time of deconstruction except for some minor local moisture damages. They were all covered and transported to be reused elsewhere. Experiences made included that lack of information on the assumed deconstruction process delayed and complicated the work. A need for disassembly plans was highlighted, including things as order of dismantling, positions of lifting points, weight of modules and positions of screws and amount of screw used. Results indicate that simple, clearly visible joints and services, limit the potential problems and damages during deconstruction. The building should simply be designed to be taken down in the future, the amount of screw allowed should be clearly described and the number of attachments should be limited. Furthermore, the risk of burglary during deconstruction needs to be considered as this may cause damage and delay.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Design for deconstruction and reuse of timber buildings - testing an assessment tool in a workshop2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    InFutUReWood Innovative Design for the Future – Use and Reuse of Wood (Building) Components is a three-year project within ForestValue. The main aim of the project is to answer the question how we should build today to be able to reuse tomorrow. Work package 2 investigates how wooden frames can be designed to make them optimized for future deconstruction and reuse. One of the tasks is to develop a tool to assess the deconstruction and reuse potential of a building. This study is the basis for the development of an indicator system for circular improvement of timber buildings. The work was carried out closely together with the timber building industry and the tool was tested in a workshop with stakeholders. The work with an assessment tool that defines an optimal design and produces a rebuilding factor started in the end of 2019. We would like to thank Anders Carlsson, Janina Östling, Karin Löfgren and Tommy Vince for your positive engagement in the preparations and implementation of the workshop – you made the workshop possible. Thank you also all workshop participants who contributed generously and inspired us to go on and take the ideas further.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Kunskapsläge kring byggnader med stomme av trä: teknik, hållbarhet och cirkulär materialanvändning2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggandet står för en betydande resursanvändning och miljöbelastning. Att uppföra en större andel av byggnadsstommarna av trä har lyfts som ett möjligt sätt att bidra till ett mer hållbart byggande. Städer har engagerat sig i byggande med trä genom att anta särskilda träbyggnadsstrategier. För att fatta välinformerade beslut om val av byggnadsstommar behöver beslutsfattare vetenskapligt grundade kunskaper. Det saknas i litteraturen ett sammanställt vetenskapligt kunskapsunderlag vad gäller trästommars tekniska prestanda och hållbarhet. Den här rapportens syfte är att utgöra ett sådant underlag.

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  • 14.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Shotton, Elizabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Cramer, Marlene
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Walsh, St John
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Östling, Janina
    IsoTimber Holding AB, Sweden.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    González-Alegre, Violeta
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Íñiguez-González, Guillermo
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Llana, Daniel F
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Derome AB, Sweden.
    Uí Chúláin, Caitríona
    National University of Ireland Galway, Sweden.
    Jackson, Nicola
    Robertson Timber Engineering and Offsite Solutions Scotland, UK.
    García Barbero, Manuel
    Klimark and Nova Domus Hábitat, Spain.
    Zabala Mejia, Andres
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Design of Timber Buildings for Deconstruction and Reuse — Three methods and five case studies2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for a shift towards circular economy in the construction sector and design philosophies as Design for Deconstruction and Reuse (DfDR) and Design for Adaptability (DfA) are being developed as means to design out waste and enhance resource efficiency. However, applying these philosophies is not yet common practice. The amount of DfDR/A timber buildings described in literature is limited. This study aims at increasing and spreading knowledge on DfDR/A for timber buildings. It has four goals: 1) To suggest methods to apply DfDR/A. 2) To suggest new design solutions. 3) To collect experiences on connections in relation to DfDR. 4) To suggest how guidelines for deconstruction and reuse can be formulated. The study presents three methods that all proved valuable in applying DfDR/A: one discussion-based method to improve an already existing timber building design, one indicator system to assess the DfDR/A potential of building designs, and one matrix to guide design decisions. We used the first method to conduct five case studies in four European countries. The studied designs were judged to be well or relatively well adapted for deconstruction and reuse already today. The fact that the studied buildings are all offsite manufactured and of modular composition benefits the deconstruction process, partly because construction and deconstruction are similar processes so that the knowledge and infrastructure that companies have can be directly transferred to enable deconstruction and reuse. Where large modules can be recovered, the time and energy needed for deconstruction as well as the risk for damage will be reduced. Disadvantages to deconstruction and reuse identified were typically linked to the complexity of building modules and that individual components are not independent. This was reflected as irreversible or hidden connections, inaccessible services, interconnected layers of the structural modules and many different component sizes. One of the case study buildings, designed with mass timber panels, excelled in the simplicity and reduction of number of steps required for maximum material recovery. New designs suggested included making fasteners more accessible to deconstruction, avoiding letting sensitive materials as plastic foils and particle boards pass continuously over joints between elements, and (for cases where standard units are not already used) standardizing elements. One case suggested using solid wood components instead of engineered wood products to achieve durability. The study showed that simple changes in design can lead to an augmented reuse potential. Some of the new design solutions generated will be taken into production by the participating manufacturers. Insights on connections included recognizing the fact that the use of reversible screwed connections is not sufficient to ensure deconstructability and that although nailed or glued connections severely complicate reuse of components, they might be accepted within elements in case reuse on element level is the target. Guidelines for deconstruction and reuse were developed in all case studies. Taken as a group of studies, there are advantageous additions proposed to earlier guidance documents. Despite being based on the same source, the different plans suggested varied substantially. There was a noteworthy difference between manufacturers’ in-house plans to those proposed by architects, engineers, or researchers, which speaks to the uncertainty regarding the appropriate structure and format.

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