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  • 1.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Full scale fire-test of an electric hybrid bus2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In November 2014 a full scale fire test was conducted on an electric-diesel hybrid bus at the rescue-service training facility Guttasjön outside of Borås. The fire was started in the engine compartment and allowed to spread and grow until the entire bus was consumed in the fire. Temperature measurements were conducted in the engine compartment, passenger compartment, air-channels within the passenger compartment and on the battery. In addition were gas analysis, useful for evaluation of evacuation, performed within the passenger compartment and extra detectors installed in the engine compartment. The test was video-recorded from several angles. The purpose of the test and measurements were several; study the fire behaviour of an electric-hybrid bus, i.e. would the battery fall down into the passenger compartment and thus pose a new risk, or would the battery explode and pose a new risk, investigate the benefits of early detection of fires in the engine compartment and to provide a set of measuring data that can be used by researchers and others that are evaluating and modelling different fire safety means and rescue for buses.Key words: Fire, bus, hybrid, electric vehicle, battery, full-scale fire test

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wikman, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    FIVE 20162016In: Brandposten, no 55, p. 30-30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Willstrand, OlaRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Proceeding from 5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles - FIVE 2018: October 3-4, 2018, Borås Sweden2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings include papers and extended abstracts from the 5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2018, held in Borås, Sweden October 3-4, 2018. The proceedings include an overview of research and regulatory actions coupled to state-of-the-art knowledge on fire related issues in vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, coaches, trucks and trains.

    Fires in transport systems are a challenge for fire experts. New fuels that are efficient and environmentally friendly are rapidly being introduced together with sophisticated new technology such as e.g. fuel cells and high energy density batteries. This rapid development, however, introduces new fire risks not considered previously and we risk getting a situation where we do not have enough knowledge to tackle them. In this context FIVE represents an important forum for discussion of the fire problem and for exchange of ideas.

    Fire protection in road, rail, air, and sea transport is based on international regulations since vehicles cross borders and the safety requirements must be the same between countries. Therefore, understanding of safety and regulations must be developed internationally and the FIVE-conference has a significant role to play as a place to exchange knowledge.

    FIVE attracts researchers, operators, manufacturers, regulators and other key stakeholders. Of particular value is the mix of expertise and the international participation in the conference. The conference is unique as it includes fires in different vehicles. It is not confined to bus fires or train fires but includes them both, naturally since fire problems are often similar regardless of type of vehicle. This means that for example solutions for trains are useful for fire problems in buses and vice versa.

    In the proceedings you will find papers on the fire problem, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, fire investigations and case studies and finally fire mitigation. We are grateful to the renowned researchers and engineers presenting their work and to the keynote speakers setting the scene. We sincerely thank the scientific committee for their expert work in selecting papers for the conference.

     

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  • 5.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Rosenggren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for lithium-ion battery powered road vehicles continues to increase around the world. As more of these become operational across the globe, their involvement in traffic accidents and fire incidents is likely to rise. This can damage the lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and responders as well as those involved in post-crash operations. There are many different types of lithium-ion batteries, with different packaging and chemistries but also variations in how they are integrated into modern vehicles. To use lithium-ion batteries safely means to keep the cells within a defined voltage and temperature window. These limits can be exceeded as a result of crash or fault conditions. This report provides background information regarding lithium-ion batteries and battery pack integration in vehicles. Fire hazards are identified and means for preventing and controlling them are presented. The possibility of fixed fire suppression and detection systems in electric vehicles is discussed.

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  • 6.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Rosengren, Max
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Handling Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles: Preventing and Recovering from Hazardous Events2020In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 56, p. 2671-2694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for lithium-ion battery powered road vehicles continues toincrease around the world. As more of these become operational across the globe,their involvement in traffic accidents and incidents is likely to rise. This can damagethe lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and respondersas well as those involved in vehicle recovery and salvage operations. The project thispaper is based on aimed to alleviate such concerns. To provide a basis for fire safetysystems to be applied to damaged EVs, hazards have been identified and means forpreventing and controlling lithium-ion battery fires, including preventive measuresduring workshop and salvage activities were studied. Tests were also performed withfixed fire suppression systems applying suppressant inside traction batteries whichshowed to improve their safety.

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  • 7.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    preFLASH - Preliminary study of protection against fire in low flashpoint fuel2015Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Brandt, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Rakovic, Alen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Improved fire safety of buses in Europe2016In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, 2016, p. 9-9Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Brandt, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Rakovic, Alen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Detection of fires in Heavy Duty (HD) vehiclesIn: Enhanced Safety of Vehicles ESV2015, , p. 15-0074-WConference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Grönlund, Oskar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Rasmussen, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Guidelines for the fire protection of battery energy storage systems2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy storage is essential for enhancing the stability, efficiency and sustainability of the modern energy supply chain. It can help reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and increase the use and market penetration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power, which are intermittent and variable. The most common technology for short storage times (minutes to days) is electrochemical energy storage, and more specifically lithium-ion battery energy storage systems (BESS). In line with the EU ambition for more sustainable electric vehicle batteries, it is likely that second life applications and repurposing of electric vehicle batteries will increase. One of the main challenges for the deployment of BESS is the fire safety of lithium-ion batteries. Today, there is a lack of national guidelines in Sweden for how to design a BESS in terms of fire safety, which causes uncertainty. Without national guidelines, each municipality and local fire and rescue service must develop their own advice, which may result in inconsistent and costly solutions with a varying degree of fire protection. The aim of this study was to produce national guidelines for the fire protection of BESS. The guidelines were produced by literature searches, review of relevant laws, regulations and standards, review of international guidelines, workshops, information retrieval from project partners and through studying lessons learnt from previous incidents. The produced guidelines (found in Appendix C, in Swedish) are formed around three application categories, based on the type of application and user, which reflect the size of the BESS. For the first category, BESS for single-family home use, guidance is given for separated placement of BESS, remote fire alarm, and separated ventilation. For the second category, BESS for multi-dwelling blocks or businesses, recommendations regarding placement, detection and ventilation are increased. It is also advised to have an installation that allows the fire and rescue services to ventilate fire gases without opening doors and that emergency response plans are produced. For the third category, BESS for large-scale commercial applications and mobile BESS, some further requirements are introduced. They include risk analysis, separate building and fire cell demands, as well as recommendations for CCTV and gas monitoring as well as fire hose connection. The guidelines assume that current national laws and building regulations are complied with. Additionally, insurance companies may have their own guidance which should be checked before installation. The guidelines produced in this project should thus be used as a supporting tool or when an increased level of protection is sought. The guidelines only address BESS with lithium-ion batteries. It was not included in the work to evaluate whether special requirements should apply for reused or remanufactured batteries (second-life).

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    Rapport
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    Appendix C
  • 11.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Kumlin, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Electric Trucks – Fire Safety Aspects2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden on behalf of Volvo Trucks. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden was requested to conduct a study regarding the differences between fires in conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) trucks and electric trucks. A set of guiding questions (see section Aim) were given by Volvo Trucks and in this report these questions have been answered. The questions have been answered by performing literature searches and through previous knowledge of RISE. However, for some questions, due to scarcity of data on electric truck fires, knowledge regarding electric passenger cars has been used. In addition, contact has been made with fire and rescue services around the world (Australia, UK, USA, Sweden and Finland) to collect their views on management of fires in electric vehicles (EVs). The main conclusions are: • Data on electric truck fires are scarce due to the low number of vehicles as well as the low number of fire incidents. Available data show that battery electric passenger vehicle fires are less common than ICE vehicle fires, but that the risks are different. The main differences are that battery fires tends to be harder to extinguish than fires in ICE vehicles and that there is a risk of accumulation of flammable gases, especially in enclosed spaces, upon thermal runaway. • Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) type cells, in comparison with nickel-based type cells (such as lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA)), have a higher thermal runaway onset temperature, a slower temperature increase rate, a lower maximum temperature as well as a lower gas production in total amount. However, the specific total gas production (L Ah-1) can sometimes be higher for LFP-type cells and depends on the state of charge and on the amount of electrolyte in the cell. However, the safety of a battery pack in a vehicle is determined by several factors such as preventive measures aimed at reducing the occurrence of fires (safe design). For example, by early detection and pro-active mitigation using the battery management system and thermal management system and by limiting the thermal propagation in the battery pack, reducing the extent of damage. • Fires in enclosed spaces, such as in underground parking garages and tunnels, generally imply a higher risk for firefighters due to the trapped smoke, decreased visibility and longer access routes than in open structures. Risk reduction measures for battery fires should focus on early detection of harmful events, reducing thermal propagation in the battery pack and on limiting the extent of fire spread. The severity of the consequences of vehicle fires (no matter if is an EV or an ICEV) in enclosed spaces could be reduced using suppression systems, such as a water sprinkler system, to hinder fire spread between vehicles.

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  • 12.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Mallin, Tove
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Analysis of combustion gases and fire water run-offs from passenger vehicle fires2023In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of the transport sector has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. Fires in electric vehicles are reported almost daily in the media and social media channels. However, fires starting in an electric vehicle traction battery (i.e., lithium-ion battery) are rare. If the traction battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery pack in an electric vehicle is generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This results in the use of large amounts of water, that potentially could carry pollutants into the environment. In this work, the analysis of extinguishing water from passenger vehicle fires are reported. Three large-scale vehicle fire tests were performed, the vehicles used were both conventional petrol fuelled and battery electric. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås and the test setup allowed analysis of both combustion gases and extinguishing water. Results show that all analysed extinguishing water was highly contaminated. Additionally, the ecotoxicity analysis of the extinguishing water showed that the extinguishing water was highly toxic towards the tested aquatic species, independent of the traction energy of the vehicle.

  • 13.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 139, article id 103829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable attention in the media. In particular, the toxic gases released upon combustion of electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries has been a major concern. In this study, the results of six large-scale vehicle fire tests are presented including three electric vehicles, two internal combustion engine vehicles, and one electric vehicle with the battery pack removed. Additionally, separate battery component tests were performed. In two of the vehicle fire tests a sprinkler system was used to assess the effect of water application on the combustion gases. Furthermore, calculations of the heat release rate, peak heat release rate and total heat release were performed, as well as chemical analysis of gas and soot. Peak heat release rate and total heat release were affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly by the type of powertrain. Regarding the combustion gases, hydrogen fluoride represented the largest difference between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, battery specific metals such as manganese, nickel, cobalt and lithium were found in higher concentrations in the electric vehicle tests than in the internal combustion vehicle tests, in which larger quantities of lead were found.

  • 14.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sales of electric vehicles doubled in 2021 compared to the previous year and nearly 10% of the global new-car sales were electric in 2021. In the recent IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. For example, the use of rare metals and their sourcing are concerns from an environmental perspective, the capacity of the electricity network and the limited number of charging stations has been raised as an implementation barrier, and the new fire and explosion risks of batteries have caused concerns amongst users, property owners and rescue services alike society.Fires starting in the traction batteries (lithium-ion battery) are rare but if the battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery packs are generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This generally results in use of large amounts of water/fire extinguishing agent, which could carry pollutants into the environment.In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicle fires as well as from one battery pack fire has been investigated. Large-scale fire tests were performed with both conventional and electric vehicles. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås, which also allowed analysis of combustion gases for both inorganic and organic pollutants in the gas and liquid phase.It was found that nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese and hydrogen fluoride appeared in higher concentrations in the effluents from the battery electric vehicle and lithium-ion battery compared to from the internal combustion engine vehicle. However, lead was found in higher concentrations in the effluents from the internal combustion engine vehicle, both in the combustion gases as well as in the extinguishing water. Ecotoxicity analysis showed that extinguishing water from all vehicle and battery fires analysed in this work were toxic against the tested aquatic species.

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    Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires
  • 15.
    Karlsson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Branddetektion och brandlarm i tunga fordon2014In: Brandposten, no 51, p. 16-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Leroux, Jerome
    et al.
    Bureau Veritas.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Gustin, Lisa
    Stena Rederi.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Aubert, Adrien
    Bureau Veritas Marine & Offshore.
    Cassez, Antoine
    Bureau Veritas Marine & Osshore.
    Degerman, Helene
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Frösing, Mattias
    Stena Rederi.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Lottskär, Joacim
    Stena Rederi.
    Ukaj, Kujtim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Vicard, Blandine
    Bureau Veritas Marine & Osshore.
    FIRESAFE II Detection and Decision2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Early detection of fire and quick activation of the fire extinguishing system are often considered as the main keys to successful fire management, allowing to prevent loss of life and damage to the ship and cargo.

    This report presents a Formal Safety Assessment on detection and on decision of extinguishing system activation following a ro-ro space fire incident on any ro-ro passenger ship.

    The safety level was estimated for three generic ships representing the world fleet of RoPax ships (Cargo, Standard, and Ferry RoPax) and a cost-effectiveness assessment was performed on six Risk Control Options (RCO), taking into account potential differences between newbuildings and existing ships.

    From a detection perspective, only the RCO Combined smoke and heat detection was found cost-effective for Standard and Ferry newbuildings (but not for existing ships).

    From a decision perspective, the RCO Improved markings/signage for way-finding and localisation and Alarm System Design & Integration met the cost-effectiveness criteria on all three generic ships, except for the Existing Cargo RoPax ships for the latter RCO. The RCO Preconditions for Early Activation of Drencher System was found cost-effective for Standard and Ferry RoPax ships.

  • 17.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Leroux, Jerome
    Bureau Veritas, France.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vicard, Blandine
    Bureau Veritas, France.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Frösing, Mattias
    Stena Rederi, Sweden.
    Gustin, Lisa
    Stena Rederi, Sweden.
    FIRESAFE II   Detection systems in open ro-ro and weather decks2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main issues with regard to fire safety of open ro-ro spaces and weather decks is that detection systems may not be as efficient as in closed ro-ro spaces. Several recent total losses of ro-ro ships have stressed the need for investigating more efficient fire detection solutions.

    This study evaluated available and emerging fire detection technologies for use in open ro-ro spaces and on weather decks. A review of relevant regulations was performed as well as an evaluation of the expected efficiency of the identified alternative detection technologies, considering detection time and sensitivity to weather conditions, loading conditions and deck configuration, as well as cost.

    Fibre optic linear heat detection and thermal imaging camera detection were selected for fire tests in open ro-ro space and on weather deck, respectively, onboard a commercial RoPax vessel. Both systems were found functional and suitable for the relevant ro-ro space environments. The risk reduction potentials of the systems were quantified and a cost-effectiveness assessment was performed. Thermal imaging camera detection was found cost-effective for all types of RoPax (Existing ships and Newbuildings), and fibre optic linear heat detection system was found cost-effective for Standard and Ferry RoPax (Existing ships and Newbuildings).

  • 18.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Detection of fires in Heavy Duty (HD) vehicles2014In: Proceedings from 3rd International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2014, 2014, , p. 201-207Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Electrosprays for fire suppression2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A continuous current with a potential ranging between 10 and 30 kV was applied to a single-hole nozzle for modifying the properties of the generated water spray. The nozzle produced a full-cone spray by injecting water into quiescent air at atmospheric conditions varying the injection pressure between 0.2 and 0.6 MPa. Back-illuminated photography and laser-based holography were used for recording the effect of the electrical current on spray properties such as cone angle and droplet sizes. Results from this study indicate that applying a potential above 20 kV yields wider cone angles, more homogenously distributed spray patterns, and reduced droplet sizes than non-assisted sprays.Key words: electrosprays, water mist

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  • 20.
    Otxoterena Af Drake, Paul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Biswanger, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Physical characteristics of splash and spray clouds produced by heavy vehicles (trucks and lorries) driven on wet asphalt2021In: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, ISSN 0167-6105, E-ISSN 1872-8197, Vol. 217, article id 104734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy vehicles rolling on wet roads produce splash and spray clouds. These aerosols reduce the visibility of other drivers, contribute to a small, but quantifiable proportion of road traffic accidents and affect the operational capabilities of autonomous vehicles travelling near them. Even though knowing the physical properties of these aerosols is essential for testing and validating sensors for environment perception and recognition of autonomous vehicles, there is little information about them. In this work the physical characteristics of spray clouds produced by heavy vehicles rolling on wet asphalt were measured by optical methods. Time resolved droplet size, mass concentration, number density, light extinction and contrast attenuation parallel and perpendicular to the travelling direction of the vehicle were measured. Vehicle velocity, vehicle configuration and water depth were varied during the tests. Results show that the average droplet diameter ranges between 100 and 400 μm with maximum diameters of almost 4 mm. Mass concentration gamuts between 0,2 and 0,7 kg/m3 with peaks surpassing 1 kg/m3 while number density spans between 20 and 40 cm−3 and occasionally exceeds 100 cm−3. Light extinction can reach levels as high as 0,2 m−1 and contrast, evaluated from images, can reach values under 0,1. 

  • 21.
    Quant, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Mallin, Tove
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Fire-Extinguishing Water from Large-Scale Battery and Battery Electric Vehicle Fire Tests2023In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrified transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns, for example, the flammable formulations used in lithium-ion batteries. Fires in traction batteries can be difficult to extinguish because the battery cells are well protected and hard to reach. To control the fire, firefighters must prolong the application of extinguishing media. In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicles and one battery pack fire test were analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants, including particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot content. Additionally, the acute toxicity of the collected extinguishing water on three aquatic species was determined. The vehicles used in the fire tests were both conventional petrol-fueled and battery electric. For all of the tests, the analysis of the extinguishing water showed high toxicity toward the tested aquatic species. Several metals and ions were found in concentrations above the corresponding surface water guideline values. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances were detected in concentrations ranging between 200 and 1400 ng L–1. Flushing the battery increased the concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to 4700 ng L–1. Extinguishing water from the battery electric vehicle and the battery pack contained a higher concentration of nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese, and fluoride compared with the water samples analyzed from the conventional vehicle.

  • 22.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Att hantera brandrisker med Li-jonbatterier i fordon2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for electric vehicles continues to increase worldwide. As more electric vehicles become operational, their involvement in traffic accidents and fire incidents is likely to rise. This can damage the lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and responders as well as those involved in post-crash operations. In the project, guidelines and recommendations have been developed for handling damaged electric vehicles as well as concerns regarding charging. These recommendations are easy to read and relevant for all parties involved. The overall aim of the project was to study all possible fire risks associated with lithium-ion batteries in vehicles, and how the risks and consequences of a thermal incident can be reduced. As part of potential safety measures, fixed fire suppression systems have been evaluated. Since fire suppression systems are commonly used to protect engine compartments of heavy vehicles, especially buses, it is of importance to investigate whether these systems can act as a control measure for lithium-ion batteries. The test results show good potential to mitigate and prevent thermal runaway propagation if the extinguishing agent is applied inside the battery pack, even with very limited amount of liquid. Information from the project gives industry and other parties the opportunity to increase safety by addressing the existing risks, while the transition to fossil-free fuels can continue with continued public confidence.

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  • 23.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire risk management for vehicles2017In: Gulf Fire, ISSN 2059-691X, no 7, p. 66-68Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Toxic Gases from Fire in Electric Vehicles2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing shift to electromobility has identified new risk areas. Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable media attention and a strong concern related to burning electric vehicles containing lithium-ion batteries is the release of toxic gas. This report includes a literature review, vehicle fire tests, battery fire tests and simulations to gather and present data on gas and heat release during fire in electric vehicles. One electrical vehicle and one conventional vehicle in the full-scale fire tests were of the same model from the same manufacturer which enable a good comparison between the powertrains. Peak heat release rate and total heat release are affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly on the powertrain. Regarding toxic gases, hydrogen fluoride represents the largest difference between electric vehicles and conventional vehicles, but when smoke from vehicle fire is inhaled there are several acute toxic gases present regardless of the type of vehicle burning. Except hydrogen fluoride, there are also some specific metals present in the smoke that constitutes a large difference between the powertrains.

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  • 25.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    New Test Method for Fire Detectors in the Engine Compartment of Heavy Vehicles2016In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016, 2016, p. 209-218Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engine compartments of heavy vehicles are, in general, spaces where detecting fires with inexpensive and simple fire detection systems is arduous. High temperatures, high airflows, complicated geometries, large amounts of soil, dust and pollutants, and the wide range of surface temperatures, complicate the operation of all types of detectors. More advanced fire detection systems will, on the other hand, have durability issues caused by vibration, shocks, temperature variations and corrosion. SP Fire Research has developed a new test method to evaluate the detection performance as well as the durability of detection systems installed in engine compartments of heavy vehicles. A standardised test method would mean that only efficient detection systems are placed in service. SP Fire Research has worked over two years analysing engine compartments and fire scenarios from a fire detection point of view, including pre-tests of different fire detection systems. This article gives an overview of the challenges of heavy vehicle engine compartments with respect to fire detection and an outline of the new test method.

  • 26.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Ny testmetod för branddetektion i tunga fordon2016In: Brandposten, no 54, p. 24-24Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Kovacevic, Vedran
    Fire detection & fire alarm systems in heavy duty vehicles: WP2 – Factors influencing detector performance in vehicles2015Report (Refereed)
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  • 28.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Detection of fires in Heavy Duty (HD) vehicles2014In: Proceedings from 15th International Conference on Automatic Fire Detection - AUBE´14, 2014, , p. 171-178Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Branddetektion i toalett och förarsovhytt i bussar2014In: Brandposten, no 50, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Detection of fires in the toilet compartment and driver sleeping compartment of buses and coaches: Installation considerations based on full scale tests2016In: Case Studies in Fire Safety, ISSN 2214-398X, Vol. 5, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective fire detection systems properly installed in bus and coach toilet compartments and driver sleeping compartments may save human lives and property loss. Rapid detection allows for early evacuation and extinguishment of a small fire, while late or no detection may allow the fire to spread. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to provide recommendations on how to install fire detection systems in toilet compartments and driver sleeping compartments. The recommendations also cover what type of detection system is most suited. As a basis for the recommendations, full scale fire tests were performed with different detection systems. The fire tests were conducted in realistic mockups of a toilet compartment and a sleeping compartment. Different heat and smoke detection systems were analyzed at different positions for different fire scenarios to provide information on how to best install detection systems in these compartments. Five different scenarios were run and the most interesting finding was that two realistic fire scenarios in the toilet compartment did not activate fire detectors in the ceiling at realistic air flow rates. It is very rare that fire detectors are placed anywhere else than on the ceiling in toilet compartments on buses and the fire would then be very large upon detection.

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  • 31.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Fire detection & fire alarm systems in heavy duty vehicles WP5 – Fire detection in bus and coach toilet compartments and driver sleeping compartments2014Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 32.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gehandler, JonatanRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.Andersson, PetraRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 20232023Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings include papers and extended abstracts from the 7th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2023, held in Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023. The proceedings include an overview of research and regulatory actions coupled to state-of-the-art knowledge on fire related issues in vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, trucks and trains, or related infrastructure, such as car parks or vehicle transport at sea. Fires in transport systems are a challenge for fire experts. New fuels that are efficient and environmentally friendly are rapidly being introduced, with emphasis on high energy density batteries. This rapid development, however, introduces new fire risks not considered previously and we risk getting a situation where we do not have enough knowledge to tackle them. In this context FIVE represents an important forum for discussion of the fire problem and for exchange of ideas. Fire protection in road, rail, air, and sea transport is based on international regulations since vehicles cross borders and the safety requirements must be the same between countries. Therefore, understanding of safety and regulations must be developed internationally and the FIVE-conference has a significant role to play as a place to exchange knowledge. FIVE attracts researchers, operators, manufacturers, regulators, rescue services and other key stakeholders. Of particular value is the mix of expertise and the international participation in the conference. The conference is unique as it includes fires in different types of vehicles. In recognition of the fact that many of the fire problems faced by these vehicles are the same, the solutions to them can also be similar. In the proceedings you will find papers on vehicle fire development, bus fires, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, and car park fires. We are grateful to the renowned researchers and engineers presenting their work and to the keynote speakers setting the scene. We sincerely thank the scientific committee for their expert work in selecting papers for the conference.

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  • 33.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Fire detection & fire alarm systems in heavy duty vehicles: WP1 – Survey of fire detection in vehicles2015Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Fire detection & fire alarm systems inheavy vehicles2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the work that has been conducted in a large project about fire detection and fire alarm systems in heavy vehicles. The main goal of the project has been to develop an international test standard for fire detection systems installed in engine compartments of heavy vehicles. For the purpose of defining a test method background information has been compiled regarding fire detection technologies, relevant standards and guidelines, research in the field, durability factors associated with the environment, typical fire scenarios and fire causes. In addition, numerous experiments have been performed in order to provide data to develop the test standard. A separate goal in the project has also been to provide recommendations on fire detection in bus and coach toilet compartments and driver sleeping compartments. Some of the conducted work has been published in three previous SP reports and the work not covered in these is presented in more detail in this report. However, this report summarises all work done in the project. 

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  • 35.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    New certification rules for fire detection in vehicles2017In: 16th International Conference on Automatic Fire Detection & Suppression, Detection and Signaling Research and Applications Conference: Proceedings, 2017, Vol. 2, p. 105-112Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of fires in vehicle engine compartments is challenging. High airflows, large temperature variations, dirty environment and complicated geometries make it difficult to determine the optimal type of detection technology and adequate location of sensors. A new test method has been developed for evaluation of fire detection systems meant for engine compartments of heavy vehicles. The test method considers all typical challenges normally encountered in an engine compartment, evaluating both detection system performance and durability. Certification rules connected to the new test method will ensure high quality and high performance of certified fire detection systems, increasing fire safety of vehicles.

    This paper gives an outline of the new certification rules, test method and corresponding research.

  • 36.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Rosengren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    New certification system for enhanced fire safety of vehicles2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE has initiated and developed a certification scheme for the vehicle industry that will enable manufacturers, operators and service centres (workshops) to certify their fire risk mitigation process. The fire risk management required in the certification is a key safety element, used to identify and evaluate fire hazards. For best results, it is important that manufacturers, operators and service centres are equally dedicated to solve the fire problem. Vehicle fire investigations reveal that design, production, operation and maintenance can all be responsible, however, most important is to ensure that information and experiences from fire incidents and identified fire hazards are linked to relevant personnel, practices, manuals, and quality procedures. The certification cannot guarantee the elimination of vehicle fires, but can ensure that manufacturers, operators and service centres will operate at the front line of vehicle fire safety engineering.

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  • 37.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Impact of different Li-ion cell test conditions on thermal runaway characteristics and gas release measurements2023In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 68, article id 107785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of lithium-ion batteries requires further efforts in safety testing and evaluation. It is of utmost importance that the effects of different test conditions are understood, particularly for validation of computer models. While plenty of data from thermal runaway tests are available in literature, few are from large test series. The missing systematic approach to evaluate the impact of different test conditions implies uncertainty when comparing test results. In addition, the fast pace in cell development, including an increasing utilization of larger cells, necessitate the validation of previously published results. This work presents thermal runaway data from 37 tests on one type of large format prismatic lithium-ion cell (157 Ah). The tests are conducted in a closed pressure vessel with inert atmosphere as well as in an open setup below an exhaust collector hood. Further, six different thermal runaway trigger methods are employed as well as four different states of charge. Emphasis is put on the gases produced, a key aspect for safety evaluation. The results are compared with literature data and a new modified method is proposed for calculating the characteristic venting rate in a closed pressure vessel. It is concluded that the trigger method affects the gas production rate, mass loss, and maximum temperature of the cell as much as its state of charge. The large cell format potentially impacts the specific total gas production and enhances the effects of different trigger methods, but has a small impact on other evaluation parameters. No significant differences were observed in the test results due to the different test setups, apart from differences due to potential combustion of the released gases in ambient atmosphere. 

  • 38.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Uncertainties in the use of oxygen consumption calorimetry for heat release measurements in lithium-ion battery fires2024In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 143, article id 104078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate measurement of the heat release from a battery fire is vital for risk management, product development and construction of accurate models. Oxygen consumption calorimetry is the most common method for heat release measurements in experimental fire tests. The strength of the method is that it can be applied to unknown compositions of fuel with sufficient accuracy. Despite that this method is used to estimate heat release from battery fires, the method is subject to discussion. In this work, the method is studied in-depth, and potential errors are structured and quantified. Uncertainties associated with self-generated oxygen and internal heat generation, total gas release from the battery and impact on the heat release calculations, as well as the assumed E-factor (i.e., heat release per unit mass of oxygen consumed), are thoroughly discussed. For a Li-ion battery fire, it is concluded that oxygen consumption calorimetry will exclude internal heat generation and underestimate the total heat released from the external flaming fire by up to 10 %. In addition, high rate of combustion reactions can result in that the measured peak heat release rate is underestimated much more, up to 100 %. 

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  • 39.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ramachandra, Vasudev
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hägg, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Ramne, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Z
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thies, Fabian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lluis, Enric Julià
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lätta elfartyg – Electric Light: Lightweight and electrically propelled Ro-Pax ships2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to establish an innovative ship concept for a fully electric Ro-Pax ship, which makes use of new technology, especially in the area of electrical propulsion and energy storage. The project also included a risk assessment of the concept and identification of possible follow-up studies of critical design items. There is a growing demand for all types of shipping to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases and particles, and also NOx and SOx. Meeting IMO’s emissions objective by 2050 will require large efforts both for energy efficiency measures on existing ships and for new concepts for fossil-free ships. Electrical propulsion for small ships has been discussed for long and many installations are today operational. This project is an innovation project with participation from industrial partners contributing to the overall goal of sustainable shipping by proposing a ship concept for an electrically powered large Ro-Pax ship for shorter international voyage. The amount of electric energy estimated to be stored in batteries onboard is approximately 60 MWh. This is ten times more than the current largest marine battery installation. When it comes to fire safety, it is very important with a holistic approach, including integrity, ventilation, failure detection and fire suppression methods, etc., based on hazard identification. The battery fire safety concept developed in this project constitutes safety requirements guidelines for large ship battery installations and is one of the main results from the conducted risk analysis work. The idea of the presented concept is that it should be applicable for any electrically powered ship and that it could be used as starting point for discussions on IMO harmonized regulations for battery energy storage systems onboard ships. It can be concluded that a fully electric Ro-Pax ship operating on the route Gothenburg to Frederikshavn is a technically and commercially realistic alternative.

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  • 40.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    Spray diagnostics using holography and wavelet analysis2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In-line holography, where the reference beam coincides with the beam that is scattered against the droplets, has been found to be a versatile and simple experimental method for spray diagnostics using holography. Such an experiment was setup and a water spray was studied and holograms of high quality was obtained using a CCD-camera.

    The holograms were analysed with Wavelet analysis, implemented as a Matlab program. It was found that the droplets’s size and position could be reconstructed with reasonable accuracy. Future work will focus on a dynamic analysis program that dynamically adapts the wavelet analysis parameters to each detected droplet.

    Key words: spray diagnostics, laser diagnostics, holography, image processing, wavelet analysis

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