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  • 1.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanocellulose-Based Hybrid Materials for UV Blocking and Mechanically Robust Barriers2020In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 2245-2254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocellulose (NC)-based hybrid coatings and films containing CeO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to impart UV screening and hardness properties, respectively, were prepared by solvent casting. The NC film-forming component (75 wt % of the overall solids) was composed entirely of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or of CNCs combined with cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). Zeta potential measurements indicated that the four NP types (CNC, CNF, CeO2, and SiO2) were stably dispersed in water and negatively charged at pH values between 6 and 9. The combination of NPs within this pH range ensured uniform formulations and homogeneous coatings and films, which blocked UV light, the extent of which depended on film thickness and CeO2 NP content, while maintaining good transparency in the visible spectrum (∼80%). The addition of a low amount of CNFs (1%) reduced the film hardness, but this effect was compensated by the addition of SiO2 NPs. Chiral nematic self-assembly was observed in the mixed NC film; however, this ordering was disrupted by the addition of the oxide NPs. The roughness of the hybrid coatings was reduced by the inclusion of oxide NPs into the NC matrix perhaps because the spherical oxide NPs were able to pack into the spaces between cellulose fibrils. We envision these hybrid coatings and films in barrier applications, photovoltaics, cosmetic formulations, such as sunscreens, and for the care and maintenance of wood and glass surfaces, or other surfaces that require a smooth, hard, and transparent finish and protection from UV damage.

  • 2.
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials.
    Corkery, Robert W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials.
    Solventless synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles and their application in UV protective clear coatings2020In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, no 25, p. 14818-14825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colloidal dispersions of cerium oxide nanoparticles are of importance for numerous applications including as catalysts, chemical mechanical polishing agents and additives for UV protective and anticorrosion coatings. Here, concentrated oleate-coated cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) with a uniform size have been produced by solventless thermolysis of cerium-oleate powder under low pressure at 320 °C and subsequently dispersed in hexane. Unlike any previously reported colloidal synthesis process for ceria nanoparticles, this process does not involve any toxic high boiling point organic solvent that requires subsequent removal at high cost. Although the process is very simple, highly concentrated cerium oxide nanoparticles with more than 17 wt% solid content and 70% of the theoretical yield can be easily obtained. Moreover, the size, shape and crystallinity of cerium oxide nanoparticles can be tailored by changing the thermal decomposition temperature and reaction time. Moreover, the new synthesis route developed in this study allows the synthesis of clean and dispersible ceria nanoparticles at a relatively low cost in a single step. The prepared ceria nanoparticles have an excellent UV absorption property and remain transparent to visible light, thus having the potential to replace potentially hazardous organic compounds in UV absorbing clear coatings. As a proof of concept, the prepared dispersions of cerium oxide nanoparticles in hexane were formulated into a solvent borne binder base to develop clear UV protecting coatings for light sensitive substrates. The general synthesis strategy presented in this study is generally applicable for the low-cost production of a concentrated dispersion of metal oxide nanoparticles with minimal environmental impact.

  • 3.
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sababi, Majid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ejnermark, Sebastian
    Uddeholms AB, Sweden.
    Ekman, Lars
    Uddeholms AB, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Role of microstructure on corrosion initiation of an experimental tool alloy: A Quantitative Nanomechanical Property Mapping study2014In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 89, p. 236-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adhesion properties of a FeCrVN experimental tool alloy immersed in pure water and sodium chloride solution have been studied by Quantitative Nanomechanical Property Mapping to understand the influence of microstructure on corrosion initiation of this alloy. The approach used here allows early observation and identification of pre-pitting events that may lead to passivity breakdown of the alloy. Adhesion provides a good distinction between the different regions and we ascribe this to their vanadium and nitrogen contents. Finally, the prepitting is characterized by generation of small particles in specific regions of the surface with low chromium content.

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  • 4.
    Ghalgaoui, Ahmed
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shimizu, Ryosuke
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hosseinpour, Saman
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    McKee, Clayton T.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, C. Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Monolayer study by VSFS: In situ response to compression and shear in a contact2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 3075-3085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled octadecyltrichlorosilane ((OTS), CH3(CH 2)17SiCl3) layers on hydroxyl-terminated silicon oxide (SiO2) were prepared. The monolayers were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements; their conformation was studied before, during, and after contact with a polymer (either PDMS or PTFE) surface using the vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) technique. During contact, the effect of pressure was studied for both polymer surfaces, but in the case of PTFE, the effect of shear rate on the contact was simultaneously studied. The VSFS response of the monolayers with pressure was almost entirely due to changes in the real area of contact with the polymer and therefore the Fresnel factors, whereas sliding caused disorder in the previously all-trans monolayer, as evidenced by a significant increase in the population of gauche defects.

  • 5.
    Hjalmarsson, Nicklas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sweeney, James
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Shah, Faiz Ullah
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schaufelberger, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Ramström, Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Antzutkin, Oleg N.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; University of Warwick, United Kingdom; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Atkin, Rob
    University of Newcastle, Australia; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Glavatskikh, Sergei B.
    University of Warwick, United Kingdom; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Biodegradable ionic liquids as lubricants2013In: 5th World Tribology Congress, WTC 2013, 2013, Vol. 2, p. 1608-1611p. 1608-1611Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Bordes, Romain
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Taylor, Phil
    AkzoNobel Decorative Paints, UK.
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Characterization of paint formulated using secondary TiO2 pigments recovered from waste paint2019In: JCT Research, ISSN 1547-0091, E-ISSN 2168-8028, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 607-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paint industry is continuously striving to reduce its environmental impact, especially when it comes to the major virgin white pigment, titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this work, recycled TiO2 pigment was used in a paint formulation as a replacement for pigment made from virgin raw materials. The paint was evaluated based on pH, Stormer and ICI viscosities, gloss, hiding power, and color characteristics. The paint films were also characterized by LVSEM–EDS, AFM, and profilometry. The most significant difference between a paint based on recycled pigments and a paint based on virgin pigments was the agglomeration of pigment particles which gave a reduction in gloss and a rougher surface of the dried paint film based on recycled pigment, and it could be concluded that the recycled pigment could not be used without accepting a small decrease in paint quality. This points toward two main directions: (1) the use of recycled pigment in applications with less demand on surface finish and gloss, such as ceiling paints, and (2) that further work on formulation should be carried out with the recycled pigment as for any other new pigment introduced in a paint formulation to optimize its performance. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 7.
    Naranjo, Teresa
    et al.
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Pedraz, Patricia
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Nieto-Ortega, Belen
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Silva, Sara
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Burzurí, Enrique
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pérez, Emilio
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Hydrogen-bonded host–guest systems are stable in ionic liquids2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, article id 15414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that H-bonded host–guest systems associate in ionic liquids (ILs), pure salts with melting point below room temperature, in which dipole–dipole electrostatic interactions should be negligible in comparison with dipole-charge interactions. Binding constants (Ka) obtained from titrations of four H-bonded host–guest systems in two organic solvents and two ionic liquids yield smaller yet comparable Ka values in ionic liquids than in organic solvents. We also detect the association event using force spectroscopy, which confirms that the binding is not solely due to (de)solvation processes. Our results indicate that classic H-bonded host–guest supramolecular chemistry takes place in ILs. This implies that strong H-bonds are only moderately affected by surroundings composed entirely of charges, which can be interpreted as an indication that the balance of Coulombic to covalent forces in strong H-bonds is not tipped towards the former. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 8.
    Nyström, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nordström, Randi
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bramhill, Jane
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Saunders, Brian R.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; IMDEA Nanoscience, Spain.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Factors affecting peptide interactions with surface-bound microgels2016In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 669-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of electrostatics and peptide size on peptide interactions with surface-bound microgels were investigated with ellipsometry, confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results show that binding of cationic poly-l-lysine (pLys) to anionic, covalently immobilized, poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) microgels increased with increasing peptide net charge and microgel charge density. Furthermore, peptide release was facilitated by decreasing either microgel or peptide charge density. Analogously, increasing ionic strength facilitated peptide release for short peptides. As a result of peptide binding, the surface-bound microgels displayed pronounced deswelling and increased mechanical rigidity, the latter quantified by quantitative nanomechanical mapping. While short pLys was found to penetrate the entire microgel network and to result in almost complete charge neutralization, larger peptides were partially excluded from the microgel network, forming an outer peptide layer on the microgels. As a result of this difference, microgel flattening was more influenced by the lower Mw peptide than the higher. Peptide-induced deswelling was found to be lower for higher Mw pLys, the latter effect not observed for the corresponding microgels in the dispersed state. While the effects of electrostatics on peptide loading and release were similar to those observed for dispersed microgels, there were thus considerable effects of the underlying surface on peptide-induced microgel deswelling, which need to be considered in the design of surface-bound microgels as carriers of peptide loads, for example, in drug delivery or in functionalized biomaterials.

  • 9.
    Nyström, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; IMDEA Nanoscience, Spain.
    Frenning, Göran
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Saunders, Brian R.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Electrostatic swelling transitions in surface-bound microgels2016In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 40, p. 27129-27139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, electrostatic swelling transitions of poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) microgels covalently bound to silica surfaces are investigated. Confined at a solid surface, microgel swelling is anisotropically hindered and the structure is flattened to an extent dictated by pH and microgel composition. Microgel deformation under applied load is also shown to depend on microgel charge density, with the highest deformation observed at intermediate charge densities. Two modes of microgel deformation under load were observed, one elastic and one viscoelastic, related to polymer strand deformation and displacement of trapped water, respectively. Results on polymer strand dynamics reveal that the microgels are highly dynamic, as the number of strand-tip interaction points increases 4-fold during a 10 s contact time. Furthermore, finite element modeling captures these effects qualitatively and shows that stress propagation in the microgel network decays locally at the rim of contact with a solid interface or close to the tip probe. Taken together, the results demonstrate a delicate interplay between the surface and microgel which determines the structure and nanomechanical properties of the latter and needs to be controlled in applications of systems such as pH-responsive surface coatings in biomaterials.

  • 10.
    Shimizu, Michiko
    et al.
    Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Niklas, Nordgren
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Uedono, Akira
    University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Preparation and characterization of cellulose acetate membranes with TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils containing alkyl ammonium carboxylates2020In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 1357-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose acetate (CA) membranes have been widely used for water purification owing to several advantages, e.g., biocompatibility and low fouling rate. However, they suffer from a lower water flux compared to the other polymeric membranes. Therefore, in this study, CA membranes were blended with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (T-CNFs) containing quaternary alkyl ammonium (QA) carboxylates to improve their water flux. When increasing the alkyl chain length of the QAs, the positron lifetime and intensity of the CA membranes increased and decreased respectively, as revealed via positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. This indicated that the CA membranes had larger and fewer pores when using the T-CNFs containing QAs with longer alkyl chains. The pure water flux of these membranes also increased with the alkyl chain lengths of QAs although their rejection rate (Rj) decreased accordingly. However, they revealed a potentiality to be used as ultrafiltration membranes, allowing a 99% Rj for albumin. The tensile strength, strain to failure, and work of fracture of the CA membranes increased when blended with T-CNFs. Force measurements using the AFM colloidal probe technique showed that the adhesion between the membrane constituents depends on their surface chemistry. This indicated that the structural differences observed among the blended membranes may be due to the affinity between CA and T-CNF containing QAs with different alkyl chain lengths. This study demonstrates that the properties of CA membranes can be tailored by the addition of T-CNFs with different surface chemistries.

  • 11.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cranston, Emily Dawn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wakeham, Deborah L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Niga, Petru
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Werzer, Oliver
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Sweeny, James
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Hausen, Florian
    Leibniz-Institute for New Materials, Germany.
    Hayes, Robert
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Webber, Grant Bruce
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Endres, Frank
    Clausthal University of Technology, Germany.
    Bennewitz, Roland
    Leibniz-Institute for New Materials, Germany.
    Hjalmarsson, Nicklas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Glavatskikh, Sergei B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Atkin, Rob
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Rutland, Mark
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanotribology: Tribotronics, ionic liquids and control of surface interactions2013In: 5th World Tribology Congress, WTC 2013, 2013, , p. 3106-3108p. 3106-3108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interfacial ordering of Ionic liquids leads to interesting nanotribological properties as revealed by colloid probe studies. The first of these is the clear correlation between the number of ion pairs trapped in the tribological contact and the friction coefficient displayed. The second is the fact that the surface electrical potential can be used to control the composition of the boundary layer and thus tune the friction. Thirdly, the interfacial ordering appears to significantly affect the fluid dynamics over large distances.

  • 12.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
    Moreno-Ramírez, Jorge S.
    Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
    Pimentel, Carlos
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain; CSIC Instituto de Geociencias IGEO, Spain.
    Casado, Santiago
    Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
    Matta, Micaela
    Université de Bordeaux, France.
    Gierschner, Johannes
    Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
    Muccioli, Luca
    Université de Bordeaux, France.
    Yoon, Seong-Jun
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Varghese, Shinto
    Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
    Park, Soo Young
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Gnecco, Enrico
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Pina, Carlos M.
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; CSIC Instituto de Geociencias IGEO, Spain.
    Molecular-scale shear response of the organic semiconductor β -DBDCS (100) surface2017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 11, article id 115422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present friction-force microscopy (FFM) lattice-resolved images acquired on the (100) facet of the semiconductor organic oligomer (2Z,2′Z)-3,3′-(1,4-phenylene)bis(2-(4-butoxyphenyl)acrylonitrile) (β-DBDCS) crystal in water at room temperature. Stick-slip contrast, lateral contact stiffness, and friction forces are found to depend strongly on the sliding direction due to the anisotropic packing of the molecular chains forming the crystal surface along the [010] and [001] directions. The anisotropy also causes the maximum value of the normal force applicable before wearing to increase by a factor of 3 when the scan is performed along the [001] direction on the (100) face. Altogether, our results contribute to achieving a better understanding of the molecular origin of friction anisotropy on soft crystalline surfaces, which has been often hypothesized but rarely investigated in the literature.

  • 13.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thormann, Esben
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Note: Determination of torsional spring constant of atomic force microscopy cantilevers: Combining normal spring constant and classical beam theory2013In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 84, no 9, article id 096102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A technique has been developed for the calculation of torsional spring constants for AFM cantilevers based on the combination of the normal spring constant and plate/beam theory. It is easy to apply and allow the determination of torsional constants for stiff cantilevers where the thermal power spectrum is difficult to obtain due to the high resonance frequency and low signal/noise ratio. The applicability is shown to be general and this simple approach can thus be used to obtain torsional constants for any beam shaped cantilever.

  • 14.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bettini, Eleonora
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thormann, Esben
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Friction Coefficient Mapping (FCM) and Contact Adhesion Mapping (CAM): Surface Microstructure and Function2013In: 5th World Tribology Congress, WTC 2013, 2013, , p. 3120-3121p. 3120-3121Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thormann, Esben
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Tribological Properties Mapping: Local Variation in Friction Coefficient and Adhesion2013In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 387-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tribological properties mapping is a new technique that extracts friction coefficient and adhesion maps obtained from lateral atomic force microscope (LAFM) images. By imaging the surface systematically as a function of load, a series of images can be tiled, and pixelwise fitted to a modified Amontons' Law to obtain friction coefficient and adhesion maps. This removes the ambiguity of friction contrast in LAFM imaging which can be a function of the load used for imaging. In ambient laboratory, air and tetradecane, a sample of Vancron ®40, commercial powder metallurgical tool alloy containing nitrogen, have been scanned using a standard silicon cantilever in order to obtain tribological data. The tribological properties mapping provides unique information regarding the heterogeneous alloy microstructure as well as shedding light on the tribological behavior of the alloy.

  • 16.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; IMDEA Nanoscience, Spain.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Kjellin, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Camacho, Alejandra
    L’Oréal Research and Innovation, US.
    Niklas, Nordgren
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Luengo, Gustavo S.
    L’Oréal Research and Innovation, France.
    Nanomechanical properties of human skin and introduction of a novel hair indenter2016In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 54, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical resistance of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of skin, to deformation has been evaluated at different length scales using Atomic Force Microscopy. Nanomechanical surface mapping was first conducted using a sharp silicon tip and revealed that Young’s modulus of the stratum corneum varied over the surface with a mean value of about 0.4 GPa. Force indentation measurements showed permanent deformation of the skin surface only at high applied loads (above 4 μN). The latter effect was further demonstrated using nanomechanical imaging in which the obtained depth profiles clearly illustrate the effects of increased normal force on the elastic/plastic surface deformation. Force measurements utilizing the single hair fiber probe supported the nanoindentation results of the stratum corneum being highly elastic at the nanoscale, but revealed that the lateral scale of the deformation determines the effective elastic modulus.This result resolves the fact that the reported values in the literature vary greatly and will help to understand the biophysics of the interaction of razor cut hairs that curl back during growth and interact with the skin.

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