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  • 1.
    Jönsson, Christina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Wei, Ren
    University of Greifswald, Germany.
    Biundo, Antonino
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; REWOW srl, Italy.
    Landberg, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Schwarz Bour, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Pezzotti, Fabio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Toca, Andreea
    Swedish Stockings, Sweden; Hyper Island, Sweden.
    Jacques, Les
    LYCRA Company, UK.
    Bornscheuer, Uwe
    University of Greifswald, Germany.
    Syrén, Per-Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Biocatalysis in the Recycling Landscape for Synthetic Polymers and Plastics towards Circular Textiles2021In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 14, no 19, p. 4028-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although recovery of fibers from used textiles with retained material quality is desired, separation of individual components from polymer blends used in today's complex textile materials is currently not available at viable scale. Biotechnology could provide a solution to this pressing problem by enabling selective depolymerization of recyclable fibers of natural and synthetic origin, to isolate constituents or even recover monomers. We compiled experimental data for biocatalytic polymer degradation with a focus on synthetic polymers with hydrolysable links and calculated conversion rates to explore this path The analysis emphasizes that we urgently need major research efforts: beyond cellulose-based fibers, biotechnological-assisted depolymerization of plastics so far only works for polyethylene terephthalate, with degradation of a few other relevant synthetic polymer chains being reported. In contrast, by analyzing market data and emerging trends for synthetic fibers in the textile industry, in combination with numbers from used garment collection and sorting plants, it was shown that the use of difficult-to-recycle blended materials is rapidly growing. If the lack of recycling technology and production trend for fiber blends remains, a volume of more than 3400 Mt of waste will have been accumulated by 2030. This work highlights the urgent need to transform the textile industry from a biocatalytic perspective.

  • 2.
    Rouhi, Mohammad
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Juntikka, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Landberg, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Assessing models for the prediction of mechanical properties for the recycled short fibre composites2019In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 454-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing of polymer fibre composites has a remarkable influence on their mechanical performance. These mechanical properties are even more influenced when using recycled reinforcement. Therefore, we place particular attention on the evaluation of micromechanical models to estimate the mechanical properties and compare them against the experimental results of the manufactured composites from recycled carbon fibre material. For the manufacturing process, an epoxy matrix and carbon fibre production cut-offs as reinforcing material are incorporated using a vacuum infusion process. In addition, continuous textile reinforcement in combination with the epoxy matrix is used as reference material to evaluate the degradation of mechanical performance of the recycled composite. The experimental results show higher degradation of the composite strength compared to the stiffness properties. Observations from the modelling also show the same trend as the deviation between the theoretical and experimental results is lower for stiffness comparisons than the strength calculations. Yet still, good mechanical performance for specific applications can be expected from these materials.

  • 3.
    Rouhi, Mohammad
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Landberg, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Wiest, Woodrow
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Teigland, Karoline
    Ekbacken Studios AB, Sweden.
    Teigland, Robin
    Chalmers university of Technology, Sweden.
    Large Scale Additive Manufacturing of Recycled Polymer Composites2023In: Proceedings of the American Society for Composites - 38th Technical Conference, ASC 2023 / [ed] Maiaru M., Odegard G., Bednarcyk B., Pineda E., DEStech Publications , 2023, p. 2405-2411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of large-scale products is currently undergoing a considerable shift in the manufacturing sector in favor of additive manufacturing (AM). Complex structures and elaborate designs that were previously impossible to produce using conventional manufacturing techniques are now possible thanks to the usage of additive printing technology. At the same time, using recycled materials in the production process has also risen to the top of the industry’s priority list as a result of a growing focus on sustainability. In this context, the use of recycled polymer composites in large-scale additive manufacturing (LSAM) is beginning to attract attention from both industry and research. Indeed, recycled polymer composites offer several benefits, including not only lower costs but also significantly reduced environmental impact and improved mechanical properties compared to virgin polymer materials. However, several challenges are still associated with using recycled materials in AM, including issues with material properties and compatibility with the AM process. Perhaps the most difficult polymer for AM is nylon where different grades pose different printing properties and challenges, thus printing large-scale objects in recycled nylon is a challenge that few have taken on. One objective of our project is to improve the properties of recycled polymers for LSAM by investigating how different additives, such as mineral wastes and/or recycled short fibers, influence the LSAM process and the properties of the resulting printed object. One way to achieve this objective is by simulating the AM process where we use ABAQUS AM capabilities that enable us to optimize the process and material parameters. Thermal and mechanical analyses using the element activation technique in ABAQUS AM allow us to implement multi-scale multi-physical models for material and process simulation and ensure that the final product meets the desired mechanical and structural properties. To truly reach a circular economy, a systems-level transformation of manufacturing must be achieved [1]. Our vision is to digitally transform manufacturing by turning recycled polymers and other industrial wastes into secondary raw materials and composites for LSAM of final products. However, further research on different industrial use cases and applications is needed to address the remaining challenges associated with this approach and to fully realize its potential in the manufacturing industry. 

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