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  • 1.
    Prestat, Michel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Corrosion of structural components of proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer anodes: A review2023In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 556, article id 232469Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis is one of the low temperature processes for producing green hydrogen when coupled with renewable energy sources. Although this technology has already reached a certain level of maturity and is being implemented at industrial scale, its high capital expenditures deriving from the utilization of expensive corrosion-resistant materials limit its economic competitiveness compared to the widespread fossil fuel-based hydrogen production, such as steam reforming. In particular, the structural elements, like bipolar plates (BPP) and porous transports layers (PTL), are essentially made of titanium protected by precious metal layers in order to withstand the harsh oxidizing conditions in the anode compartment. This review provides an analysis of literature on structural element degradation on the oxygen side of PEM water electrolyzers, from the early investigations to the recent developments involving novel anti-corrosion coatings that protect more cost-effective BPP and PTL materials like stainless steels. © 2022 The Author

  • 2.
    Prestat, Michel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Holzer, L.
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Rioual, Stéphane
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Zaubitzer, Christian
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Microstructure and spatial distribution of corrosion products anodically grown on zinc in chloride solutions2017In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 81, p. 56-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc substrates were electrochemically oxidized in NaCl solution to produce corrosion patinas. XRD, XPS and Raman analyses enabled the identification of simonkolleite and zinc oxide as the patina constituents. FIB-SEM imaging shows that the upper part of the patinas is a network of simonkolleite nanosheets with an open microstructure that is unlikely to act as a significant barrier for corrosion processes. STEM investigations and Raman mapping measurements reveal the presence of a ca. 20–400 nm thin nanoporous ZnO-rich film below the simonkolleite and covering the zinc substrate. Under potentiostatic conditions, the reduced cathodic activity of the patina-covered zinc electrodes is assigned to this nanoporous ZnO layer. 

  • 3.
    Prestat, Michel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Soares Costa, Josiane
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Rioual, Stephane
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Holzer, Lorenz
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Cathodic Corrosion of Zinc under Potentiostatic Conditions in NaCl Solutions2018In: ChemElectroChem, E-ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 1203-1211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc electrodes were polarized cathodically at moderate overpotentials in NaCl 0.6 M solutions under potentiostatic conditions for 7 to 17 hours at room temperature. Corrosion products were characterized by using optical microscopy, XRD, Raman microscopy, XPS, and FIB-SEM. Close to the open-circuit potential, the corrosion products were formed by simonkolleite and the electrochemical response exhibits anodic features. At more negative potentials, the current density remains cathodic throughout the polarization and the deposits on the electrode surface consist almost solely of ZnO. The soluble zinc species necessary for ZnO deposition originate from localized dissolution of the substrate in the form of pits. This effect is assigned to the strong alkalinization of the surface due to oxygen reduction. Despite developing greater surface area than bare zinc substrates, the nanostructured ZnO deposits reduced the cathodic activity.

  • 4.
    Prestat, Michel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Corrosion of titanium under simulated inflammation conditions: clinical context and in vitro investigations2021In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 136, p. 72-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium and alloys thereof are widely utilized for biomedical applications in the fields of orthopedics and dentistry. The corrosion resistance and perceived biocompatibility of such materials are essentially related to the presence of a thin passive oxide layer on the surface. However, during inflammation phases, the immune system and its leukocytic cells generate highly aggressive molecules, such as hydrogen peroxide and radicals, that can significantly alter the passive film resulting in the degradation of the titanium implants. In combination with mechanical factors, this can lead to the release of metal ions, nanoparticles or microscaled debris in the surrounding tissues (which may sustain chronic inflammation), bring about relevant health issues and contribute to implant loss or failure. After briefly presenting the context of inflammation, this review article analyses the state-of-the-art knowledge of the in vitro corrosion of titanium, titanium alloys and coated titanium by reactive oxygen species and by living cells with an emphasis on electrochemical and microstructural aspects. Statement of significance: Inflammation involves the production of reactive oxygen species that are known to alter the passive layer protecting titanium implants against the aggressive environment of the human body. Inflammatory processes therefore contribute to the deterioration of biomedical devices. Although review articles on biomaterials for implant applications are regularly published in the literature, none has ever focused specifically on the topic of inflammation. After briefly recalling the clinical context, this review analyses the in vitro studies on titanium corrosion under simulated inflammation conditions from the pioneer works of the 80s and the 90s till the most recent investigations. It reports about the status of this research area for a multidisciplinary readership covering the fields of materials science, corrosion and implantology.

  • 5.
    Prestat, Michel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Holzer, L.
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Microstructural aspects of Ti6Al4V degradation in H2O2-containing phosphate buffered saline2021In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 190, article id 109640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti6Al4V surfaces were exposed to simulated inflammation conditions in H2O2-containing phosphate buffered saline with and without FeCl3. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed significantly different degradation modes for the α and β phases. While the α grains are covered by a ca. 400 nm thick protective nanostructured oxide layer, the attack of the β phase generates a porous microstructure with microscaled cracks and a low polarization resistance. The β phase is postulated to be sensitive to H2O2 reduction products and less able to generate a passive oxide film. The presence of FeCl3 enhances the cathodic activity and the β phase degradation.

  • 6.
    Soares Costa, Jisane
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion. University of Brest, France.
    Prestat, Michel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Tribollet, Bernard
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    University of Brest, France.
    Rioual, Stephane
    University of Brest, France.
    Holzer, Lorenz
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Impedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Structural Defects in Sputtered ZnO Films2020In: ChemElectroChem, E-ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 2055-2064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation of sputtered columnar ZnO layers under DC polarization was studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electron microscopy. It was found that the structure of the as-deposited ZnO film was dense at the nanoscale. An equivalent circuit model including de Levie impedance accounted for the localized propagation of microscale cracks towards the copper substrate. This generates a capacitance (CZnO) that represents the crack surface area in contact with the electrolyte. CZnO is small enough not to be obscured by the double layer capacitance at the top of the layers and increases with increasingly negative potential and time. These results were compared to nanoporous ZnO layers that behave differently and exhibit a large CZnO. The combination of in situ EIS analysis with the ex situ structural information provided by electron microscopy proved to be an efficient methodology to characterize very different microstructures of conductive coatings. 

  • 7.
    Vucko, Flavien
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Prestat, Michel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Holzer, L.
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Tribollet, B.
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Pélissier, Krystel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Anodic degradation of Zn-Ni coatings in moderately alkaline NaCl solution2021In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 293, article id 129701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon steel samples covered with initially crack-free zinc-nickel coatings were polarized with a small anodic overpotential in moderately alkaline NaCl solution. Along with zinc dissolution, the coatings developed a mud-crack pattern due to tensile stress release, allowing the electrolyte to access the underlying steel surface. Simonkolleite grew on both the zinc-nickel coating and the steel substrate. The resulting current density, that was first strongly anodic, switched to small cathodic values when the coating surface was almost fully covered by a compact simonkolleite layer. 

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