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  • 1.
    Alam, Naveed
    et al.
    Ulster University, UK.
    Nadjai, Ali
    Ulster University, UK.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Oliver
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Dai, Xi
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Large scale travelling fire tests with open ventilation conditions and their effect on the surrounding steel structure– The second fire test2022In: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 188, article id 107032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the frame of the European RFCS (Research Fund for Coal and Steel) TRAFIR (Characterization of TRAvelling FIRes in large compartments) project, three natural fire tests in a large compartment were conducted at Ulster University. The aim of this investigation was to understand the conditions in which the travelling fires develop and to study the impact of such fires on the surrounding steel structure. This paper provides details of the second fire test where the size of the openings was reduced to induce different ventilation conditions in comparison to the first fire test. During the test, behaviour of the travelling fire was observed and the gas temperatures at different levels and locations were recorded. The influence of travelling fires on the surrounding structure is studied in terms of the temperatures recorded in the selected steel columns and beams. The influence of change in the ventilation conditions is presented and highlighted through the comparison of results of the second fire test with those recorded earlier during the first fire test. It was found that the travelling fires produce non-uniform temperatures in the compartment irrespective of the ventilation conditions although the magnitude of this non-uniformity is related with the opening sizes. This non-uniformity exists along the length as well as along the height of the test compartment. It was found that for reduced opening sizes, more heat is retained within the compartment which induces higher temperatures in the surrounding steel structure. The transient heating of the surrounding structure caused by travelling fires should be considered while performing the structural fire design of large compartments. The results obtained during the test are state-of-the-art and will help in understating the behaviour of travelling fires and their influence on the surrounding structure which will help to devise fire design methods for future use.

  • 2.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Impact of climate change on forest fire risk in Sweden2014In: Brandposten, no 49, p. 41-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Fasth, Sabiha
    Climate impact on forest fire risk in Sweden2015In: 14th International Conference Fire and Materials 2015, 2015, , p. 804-817Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Amon, Francine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Experimental and Numerical Characterization of an Electrically Propelled Vehicles Battery Casing Including Battery Module2014In: Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 041015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the possibility to predict a battery system's performance in a fire resistance test according to the new amendment of United Nations Regulation No. 100 "Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles with Regard to Specific Requirements for the Electric Power Train" (R100) based on careful measurements of the physical properties of the casing material, as well as modeling of the battery modules and computer simulations. The methodology of the work consists of estimating the heat transfer coefficients by using a gasoline pool fire model in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FIRE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR (FDS), followed by finite-element (FE) calculations of the temperatures in the battery.

  • 5.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of Self-Heating in Wood Pellets by FE Modelling2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The self-heating process in a laboratory scale experiment has been modelled using the Comsol Multiphysics software. In the simulations the gas flow and air movement in the volume and heat diffusion in the bulk were taken into account however only one reaction in the pellets bulk is considered. The input data is found from measurements of the reaction chemistry and the heat transfer properties. It is found that all relevant physics is needed in order to obtain reasonable predictions in particular the heat transfer between the bulk and the gas is important but also condensation and evaporation of moisture.   

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  • 6.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal Global R&D, Canada.
    Dai, Xu
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    FDS simulations and modelling efforts of travelling fires in a large elongated compartment2021In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 699-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates a travelling fire scenario in an elongated structure (Length 18 m × width 6 m × height 3 m) with a controlled fire source of six trays filled with diesel (width 4 m × length 0.5 m). The fire spread is controlled manually by initiating fires consecutively in the pools. Fire dynamics simulator (FDS) is used to a-priori investigate variations in geometry, material data and fire load, whereas simulations using the final design and measured heat release rates (HRR) were performed after the test. The input to the model beside fire source and geometry are thermal material data. The FDS simulations were used to determine the appropriate size of the downstands (2 m from the ceiling in the final design) on the side to create a sufficiently one-dimensional fire spread. The post-test simulations indicate that although there are a lot of variations not included in the model similar results were obtained as in the test.

  • 7.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Sweden.
    Xu, Dai
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    FDS SIMULATIONS AND MODELLING EFFORTS OF TRAVELLING FIRES IN A LARGE ELONGATED COMPARTMENT2019In: Interflam 2019, proceedings / [ed] Stephen Grayson, Interscience Communications, 2019, Vol. 15, p. 2085-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates a travelling fire scenario in an elongated structure (Length 18 m x width 6 m x height 3 m) with a controlled fire source of six pans filled with diesel (width 4 m x length 0.5 m). The fire spread is controlled manually by initiating fires subsequently in the pools. Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is used to a-priori investigate variations in geometry, material data and fire load whereas simulations using the final design were performed after the test. The input to the model beside fire source and geometry are thermal material data. The FDS simulation were used to determine the appropriate size of the downstands (2 m from the ceiling in the final design) on the side to create a sufficiently one-dimensional fire spread. The post test simulations indicate that although there are a lot of variations not included in the model similar results were obtained as in the test.

  • 8.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Lorentsson, Hitomi
    Karaktärisering av självuppvärmning i löslagrat avfall2013Report (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hofmann-Böllinghaus, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, UK.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis, France.
    Toth, Peter
    EMI, Hungary.
    Moder, Istvan
    EMI, Hungary.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Development of a European approach to assess the fire performance of facades2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC.

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  • 10.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hallberg, Emil
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire Safety of CLT Buildings with Ex-posed Wooden Surfaces: Summary Report2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Five real scale compartment fire tests, constructed of CLT slabs and glulam beam and column in accordance with current US product standards, were performed. The compartments had surface areas of exposed mass timber equal to up to two times the area of the floor plan. The 4 hours long tests showed that compartments with such quantities of exposed wood can exhibit continuous decay to hot-spots and embers after flashover. The tests indicate that the presence of two exposed wall surfaces in one corner should be avoided to ensure this.

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  • 11.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    van Mierlo, Rudolf
    DGMR, Netherlands.
    Shettihalli Anandreddy, Vikas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Robijn-Meijers, Patries
    DGMR, Netherlands.
    Limiting flame spread rates in large compartments with visible timber ceilings2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of tall buildings combining both a visible mass timber structure and large open floor plans is growing rapidly introducing new fire safety challenges. One risk is that of very rapid flame spread in the ceiling, originating from a severe but localized fire, resulting in fires where the majority of large compartments burn simultaneously. Such phenomena have been observed in both tests and accidents, but knowledge of effective mitigation without the use of sprinklers is scarce. In Europe, this problem is commonly addressed in construction by complying to prescriptive rules of reaction-to-fire classification of linings. The reaction-to-fire classification, primarily based on the single burning item (SBI) test of EN13832, characterizes the material’s contribution to a fire in the very initial phase of the fire. Treatments can be used to improve the reaction-to-fire class of mass timber, which will reduce the risk of substantial fire development. Fires can, however, develop and grow large even without the contribution of lining materials. For this reason, and in light of the recent findings of research of large open floor plan compartments, it is of interest to assess the effectiveness of treatments to reduce the risk of rapid flame spread. Therefore, eight tests in 18.0 × 2.3 × 2.2 m3 compartments were performed. Six had exposed timber surface with a clear coating or impregnation in the ceiling, complying with a reaction-to-fire class B and two served as untreated timber and non-combustible reference tests. The fire source, representing a fire in moveable fuel, was severe enough (3 - 3.7 MW) for flame impingement on the ceiling. The rate of at which wood ignited from the heat in the ceiling, the temperature development at different heights, as well as external flaming were assessed and were used as indicators of performance. Additional indicators were the estimated tenability and ceiling char depths throughout the compartment. The untreated timber and the non-combustible ceiling represented the two extremes for most indicators with the class-B treated timber surfaces falling in between. Close to the fire source, the test indicators for treated timber surfaces performed similar to those of the untreated timber surface while the non-combustible ceiling performed significantly better. With increasing distance from the fire source, indicators from treated timber tests more resembled the non-combustible ceiling. This behavior was noticed for all types of indicators. With increasing distance from the fire source, the fire exposure is naturally less severe and thus, more similar to the small burner exposure used in SBI-testing which the treatments were developed against. Both final charring depth and temperature developments for ignition and tenability were clearly improved by the treatment, but the SBI test results (FIGRA and THR600s) did not correlate well to the compartment test indicators (Figure 92 andFigure 93). Nevertheless, using treatments assessed by SBI is a common strategy to mitigate fire spread in newly constructed mass timber buildings and practitioners should be aware that while the treatments have significant effects on the flame spread they are not to be treated as incombustible. We propose that addressing the ceiling spread problem requires an additional indicative test with more severe exposure than the SBI test setup. The impregnated timber experienced loss of integrity due to substantial shrinkage of the timber during the severe exposure. Such phenomena were not captured in the SBI testing. Comparisons of performance of the impregnated specimens indicates that it can be beneficial for the performance to implement more impregnation than needed for reaction-to-fire class B. Whether this holds for all treatments cannot be concluded.

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  • 12.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Post-Fire Rehabilitation of CLT2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered mass timber materials such as CLT have been increasingly implemented as a structural material for tall or larger buildings in recent years. Most studies have been conducted on the structural performance of timber exposed to fire, but the number of studies focusing on post-fire rehabilitation of mass timber have been limited. As increasingly large timber buildings are being realized, for insurance purposes it becomes increasingly important to ensure that a building can be repaired after a fire. This report presents a case study of the repair of a section of a CLT ceiling after a significant fire. The specimen is obtained from a recent compartment fire test and is positioned and oriented in a way that is representative for on site rehabilitation. The repair was done in six steps: 1. Mapping the thickness of the charred or damaged layer 2. Design and planning 3. Removal of the char layer 4. Planing of the surface including corners 5. Gluing procedure of replacing lamella 6. Finish the surface to meet architectural requirement A new method for determining the grade of damage, the method for planing the specimen, the adhesive type, the glue pressing methods were designed for the rehabilitation exercise. In addition, the layup of the CLT is changed to prioritise flexural stiffness and bending capacity over shear capacity, as they generally govern the structural capacity of CLT floors. After the six-step repair was done, the specimen was cut in half to perform two similar structural bending tests. The results indicate that the flexural stiffness which is generally governing the load bearing capacity of floors, is fully restored by the rehabilitation work. The results also indicate that bending capacity, which can be governing for relatively short floor spans, is restored and possibly increased by the rehabilitation work. The shear capacity which is only critical for short floor spans in combination with very high loads is, however, reduced, as the experimental shear capacity is 18% lower than the characteristic shear capacity.

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  • 13.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hallberg, Emil
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Safe implementation of visible mass timber in tall buildings – compartment fire testing2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Five real scale fire tests of compartments constructed of cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glued laminated timber, compliant with product standards specified in current US model building code, were performed. Four of the tested compartments were designed to result in a representative and severe fire scenario in a residential fire compartment, using a probabilistic approach. The other tested compartment had additional openings and a greater opening factor, which was aimed to be representative of buildings designed for business occupancy. The interior of the compartments had surface areas of exposed mass timber that varied from approximately the area of the floor plan to approximately two times the area of the floor plan. The tests included measurements to study the internal compartment exposure, the temperature development at gypsum protected surfaces, the temperature development in the structural timber, oxygen concentrations at locations of interest and exposure to exterior surfaces of the wall and façade above the openings. The fire in the compartment with a greater opening factor had two layers of fire-rated gypsum board protection on the back wall and all other surfaces of CLT and glued laminated timber exposed. Despite having the highest peak combustion rate, this compartment fire had the least severe internal and external fire exposure. The fire decayed relatively quickly after flashover and continued to decay until the test was stopped at 4 hours after ignition. This fire resulted in less structural damage than the fires in compartments with fewer and smaller openings. The compartments with fewer and smaller openings had similar temperatures for approximately the first 10 minutes after flashover. The compartment with only the ceiling (including the glued laminated timber beam) exposed started to decay after 22 minutes of post-flashover fire and continued to decay until the end of the test at 4 hours after ignition. The other three tests had, in addition to the ceiling, significant areas of exposed wall and column surfaces. To accommodate for the extended fire duration that was expected in these configurations an extra layer of gypsum board protection was applied to the protected surfaces. The additional exposed surface areas of walls led to an increase of the fully developed fire duration by 6 - 9 minutes. One of the compartments included corners where two exposed walls intersect. Significantly increased damage was observed in the lower part of these wall corners, and an overall higher radiative exposure in the test with such corners. After more than three hours of decay, surface flaming developed on the walls in that test. The fires in the tests without such corners exhibited continual decay for the full 4-hour test duration. Post-test analysis showed that the structural damage was lower in exposed ceilings than at the bottom of the exposed walls for all tests. After the tests, remaining smoldering and hot spots were reduced using relatively small amounts of water mist. Overnight measurements to study the thermal wave going through the loadbearing structure indicated no post-test reduction of structural capacity.

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  • 14.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Predictive method for fires in CLT and glulam structures – A priori modelling versus real scale compartment fire tests & an improved method2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive modelling of the fire duration, fire temperatures, heat release rates and the structural capacity during building fires can be used to show compliance with performance-based building code requirements. The predictive models presented in this report focusses on the post flashover fire including the decay phase and extinction of flaming combustion for mass timber structures. A priori predictions of five recent compartment fire tests have been set against experimental results and compared. After the tests, the model has been updated, mostly for increased ease of use and increased accuracy for the decay phase. The model consists of a single-zone model which uses an energy equilibrium approach to obtain gas temperatures and surface temperatures of compartment boundaries. The energy contribution of charring mass timber is included using through-depth temperature calculations of the structure and experimental relationships to determine the combustion rate. The through-depth temperatures of mass timber members also serve to provide information for structural calculations using temperature dependent reduced material properties. However, the structural calculations are out of the scope of the current report. The radiation conditions (and total thermal exposure to walls ceilings and floors) predicted by the updated model were accurately described the of recent full-scale experiments within the variations between and within the tests. The comparisons with experiments showed that the total heat is, however, underestimated in some cases and surface temperatures were underestimated in the decay phase. Local effects caused by a radiative feedback loop between surfaces that show significant char oxidation, which occurred in a part of the test, is not included in the model.

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  • 15. Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    A steel column exposed to localized fire2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Validation of a one-zone room fire model with well-defined experiments2016Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Large scale test on a steel column exposed to localized fire2014In: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, ISSN 2040-2317, E-ISSN 2040-2325, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 147-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A localized fire is a fire which in a compartment is unlikely to reach flash-over and uniform temperature distribution. Designing for localized fires is generally more difficult than for flash-over compartment fires because of the complexity of the problem. There is also a lack of experimental data. We report here on a full scale test series on a steel column exposed to localizedfires. The setup is a 6 meters tall hollow circular column, I= 200 mm with a steel thickness of 10 mm. The unloaded column was hanging centrally above different pool fires. Temperatures of gas and steel were measured by thermocouples, and adiabatic surface temperatures at the steel surface were measured by plate thermometers of various designs. The results are compared with estimates based on Eurocode 1991-1-2 which in all cases studied overestimate the thermal impact for this setup. The input from plate thermometers was used to compute the steel temperatures using finite element methods. Excellent agreement was found if the radiation exchange within the column due to asymmetry of the exposure was taken into account.

  • 18. Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Large scale test to explore thermal exposure of column exposed to localized fire2012In: Proceedings from 7th International Conference on Structures in Fire, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Charlier, Marion
    et al.
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Glorieux, Antoine
    ArcelorMittal Belval & Differdange, Luxembourg.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Gamba, Antonio
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Dumont, Fabien
    Liège University, Belgium.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. RISE.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Xu, Dai
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Nadjai, Ali
    Ulster University, UK.
    Alam, Naveed
    Ulster University, UK.
    TRAFIR: Characterization of TRAvelling FIRes in large compartments2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspection of recent fire events in large compartments reveals them to have a great deal of non-uniformity, they generally burn locally and move across floor plates over a period of time. This phenomenon which generates transient heating of the structure is idealized as “travelling fire”.A first series of tests was launched to define a fire load representative of an office building according to Eurocodes. Additional tests where the fire dynamics were controlled were launched to develop an understanding of the fire exposure to steel structures.Then, a second series of large scale tests were performed in real building dimensions. These tests had no artificial control over the dynamics, which allowed a realistic characterization of the fire. The fire load was identical for all tests, only the openings were modified.CFD numerical models were developed to reproduce the experimental campaign and to launch parametrical analyses. This allowed to provide information concerning the conditions which may lead (or not) to a travelling fire scenario.An analytical model for the characterization of a travelling fire was developed and implemented in a simple calculation tool. It allows to evaluate the fire location, the gas temperatures in the flames, the heat fluxes in the different parts of the compartment and the temperature in a steel member. In addition, the methodology is introduced in the FEM software SAFIR and OpenSees.Ultimately, a design guide was prepared including worked examples which are detailed step-by-step and for which the influence of the inputs on the results is analysed.

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  • 20.
    Debuyser, Michael
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sonck, Dolphine
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Belis, Jan
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Behaviour of monolithic and laminated glass exposed to radiant heating2017In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 130, p. 212-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is seeing a growing interest as a structural material as a result of its relatively good strength to weight ratio and the obvious aesthetic benefits of its use in buildings. However due to the sensitivity of glass to thermal shock and the considerably temperature-dependent behaviour of interlayer materials as a result of their visco-elastic nature, the mechanical behaviour of laminated glass will be severely influenced by exposure to fire. Relatively little research has been conducted in the past to study the response of load bearing structural glass, and laminated glass in particular to radiant heating. This paper represents an effort to try to understand the effects of through depth radiation absorption and temperature conduction through laminated glass with a view to ultimately developing a model for studying load bearing glass exposed to elevated temperatures, such as those that would be expected in a fire. The paper reports on an experimental research programme in which several monolithic and laminated glass configurations were exposed to a radiant heat flux to study the different phenomena that occur upon exposure to fire conditions, including the ratios of absorbed, transmitted and reflected heat flux to the incident heat flux. The paper then presents a numerical heat transfer model which is developed based on these experimental results and that is able to determine the evolution of the temperature profile as a result of a given incident heat flux. The effectiveness of the heat transfer model is demonstrated through comparison with the temperatures measured during the experimental work.

  • 21.
    Elamin, Khalid
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cazzato, Stefano
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    King, Stephen Michael
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Swenson, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Long-range diffusion in xylitol-water mixtures2013In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 117, no 24, p. 7363-7369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) were employed to study mixtures of xylitol and water. The results were also related to a previous dielectric relaxation study on the same system. In the temperature range of the DLS measurements the viscosity related structural (α) relaxation is too fast to be observed on the experimental time scale, but a considerably slower exponential and hydrodynamic relaxation process is clearly observable in the polarized light scattering data. A similar ultraslow process has been observed in many other types of binary liquids and commonly assigned to long-range concentration or density fluctuations. In some studies this interpretation has been supported by observations of substantial structural inhomogeneities in static light scattering or SANS experiments. However, in this study we observe such an ultraslow process without any indication of structural inhomogeneities on length-scales above 2 nm. Hence, we suggest that our observed ultraslow process is due to long-range diffusion of single xylitol molecules or small clusters of a few xylitol molecules (and perhaps some associated water molecules) which are randomly dispersed and sufficiently small to not be structurally detected in our SANS study. In the q-range of the DLS measurements this ultraslow relaxation process is around room temperature several orders of magnitude slower than the structural α-relaxation. However, if its 1/q2-dependent relaxation time is extrapolated to q-values where relaxation times from dielectric spectroscopy and quasielastic neutron scattering are compatible (about 10 nm-1), a relaxation time similar to that of the dielectric α-relaxation is obtained. Thus, the large difference in time scale between the two relaxation processes in the q-range of a DLS study is due to the fact that the α-relaxation is cooperative in nature, rather than caused by long-range single particle diffusion, and thus q-independent at low q-values.

  • 22.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Nytt instrument för att mäta termisk påverkan på linjära objekt som t.ex. kablar.2015In: Brandposten, no 53, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Girardin, Bertrand
    Characterization of the thermal exposure in the EN 50399 cable test apparatus2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Granström, Anders
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Perception of wildfire behaviour potential among Swedish incident commanders, and their fire suppression tactics revealed through tabletop exercises2023In: International journal of wildland fire, ISSN 1049-8001, E-ISSN 1448-5516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Swedish wildfires are handled by multipurpose municipal rescue services, raisingquestions about how non-specialist incident commanders (ICs) perceive and interpret wildfirebehaviour. Aims. Elucidating ICs’ interpretations of fire behaviour, fuel complexes, weather,landscape structure and the role of these in tactical decisions. Methods. We exposed SwedishICs to questionnaires and tabletop exercises for different standardised fire scenarios.Key results. Despite minimal formal wildfire training, ICs showed reasonable consensus in ratingof fuels, fire behaviour, hose-lay production rates, etc. Tactics were to access the fire from thenearest road with hose-line laid from the engine and water ferried on trucks. In a scenario whereinitial attack failed, they typically fell back to roads, without burning off. This indicates a fundamental flaw in tactics employed for high-intensity fires, which easily breach forestry roads, and inviteoutflanking. Conclusions. The IC wildfire knowledge is built on personal and group experiencerather than formal education. We found reasonable competence, despite the organisations beingdesigned primarily for other purposes. However, tactical understanding of complex, large incidentswas poor. IC training should emphasise potential hazards of such incidents to enhance groupcompetence despite their low frequency. Implications. Standardised tabletop exercises canprovide insight into decision-making of ICs that is otherwise hidden.

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  • 25.
    Hallberg, Emil
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Termisk påverkan från läckande gasolslangar2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal influence from leaking liquefied petroleum gas: The radiant heat flux from 3 leakage scenarios of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied to determine safety distances when refilling LPG tanks from tank trucks. The three scenarios were a larger and a smaller leakage from a pipe and leakage from a textile reinforced rubber hose. Steady state tests with 5 minutes of burn time were performed as well as tests with 1 minute of burn time after which the emergency stop was activated. Measurements with water cooled heat flux meters and plate thermometers were used to determine heat flux levels. Measurements were designed to determine distances to heat fluxes of 12.5, 15 and 40 kW/m². Heat fluxes were measured both parallel and perpendicular to the flames at the same height as the leakage and 1 meter above the leakage.

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  • 26.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Lund University, Sweden ; Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lenk, Peter
    Arup, UK.
    Behavior of load-bearing glass at elevated temperature2018In: ce/papers, ISSN 2509-7075, Vol. 2, no 5-6, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT The use of glass as a structural material has increased in the built environment over the last decades. Despite the large number of research projects and studies, it still poses difficulties in structural design. This particularly applies to the behaviour of glass in fire and under elevated temperatures since the available data on temperature dependent mechanical and thermal properties of glass is still limited. This contribution provides a brief overview of material properties of glass at elevated temperature and elaborates on current requirements for the fire safety included in standards.

  • 27.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Sweden.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Lund University, Sweden; Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Glass Panes Exposed to Radiant Heating2022In: Fire, ISSN 2571-6255, Vol. 5, no 4, article id 124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite much research and applications, glass material and its use in buildings is still challenging for engineers due to its inherent brittleness and characteristic features such as sensitivity to stress concentrations, reduction in strength over time and from temperature, and breakage due to the stresses that may build up because of thermal gradients. This paper presents the results of an original test series carried out on monolithic glass panes with the dimensions of 500 × 500 mm2 and different thicknesses, under the exposure to radiant heating. The research study also includes a one-dimensional (1D) heat transfer model and a numerical, three-dimensional (3D) thermo-mechanical model that are used to investigate in greater detail the phenomena observed during the experiments. As shown, the behaviour of glass under radiant heating is rather complex and confirms the high vulnerability of this material for building applications. The usability and potential of thermo-mechanical numerical models is discussed towards experimental feedback. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 28.
    Häggkvist, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research. Luleå Technical University, Sweden.
    Using plate thermometer measurements to calculate incident heat radiation2013In: Journal of fire sciences, ISSN 0734-9041, E-ISSN 1530-8049, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 166-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plate thermometer is a device used mainly to measure temperatures in fire resistance tests according to ISO 834-1 and EN 1363-1 and to measure the so-called adiabatic surface temperature. However, it can also be used to measure incident radiant heat flux (q·″inc) as a simpler, more robust and less-expensive alternative to water-cooled heat flux meters. The accuracy of the measured q·″inc is subject to simplifications in the heat transfer analysis model and uncertainties of parameters such as convective heat transfer coefficients, emissivities and ambient gas temperatures. This study investigates the accuracy of the model itself, isolated from the uncertainties of the physical surrounding, by comparing a simple one-dimensional model to the results of finite element modelling. The so-obtained model includes a heat transfer coefficient due to heat losses of the plate thermometer, found to be KPT = 8 W/m2 K and a heat storage lumped heat capacity CPT = 4200 J/m2 K for an ISO/EN standard plate thermometer. The model is also compared to real field experiments.

  • 29.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Forsmark – Laboratory tests for investigation of the influence of rock type, oxidation, and other factors in borehole breakouts. Boreholes KFM01A, KFM04A, KFM05A and KFM24. Thermal properties by TPS method and uniaxial compression and indirect tensile strength tests of intact rock2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The density, thermal and mechanical properties were determined on water saturated specimens from boreholes KFM01A, KFM04A, KFM05A and KFM24 in the Forsmark site investigation area. The tests have been concentrated to sections where borehole breakouts have been observed. The rock types in the selected sections were amphibolite (102017), granite to granodiorite (101057) and skarn (108018).

    All specimens had a more or less foliated rock structure. The cores were sampled from a depth ranging between 308–929 m.

    The specimens were water saturated using tap water and all subsequent measurements were conducted at this moisture condition. The density was determined on 41 specimens followed by measuring the thermal properties of 20 pairs of specimens. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity were measured and the volumetric heat capacity was calculated from the thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The testing ended with 35 indirect tensile tests yielding the indirect tensile strength and three uniaxial compression tests including the post-peak response yielded the Young’s modulus, Poisson ratio and the uniaxial compressive strength.

    Three specimens aimed for the indirect tensile tests had a major crack and fell apart after measuring the density and the mechanical properties were not tested.

    Some variation of rock material along the short cores could be seen, which is reflected in the measured data. The density at a water saturated condition was 2 640–2 814 kg/m3 for granite to granodiorite, 2 768–3 033 kg/m3 for amphibolite and 2 787–2 920 kg/m3 for skarn.

    Thermal properties were measured at ambient temperature (22 °C) and under water saturated conditions. The determination of the thermal properties is based on a direct measurement method, the so called “Transient Plane Source Method” (TPS).

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity at 22 °C were in the range of 1.6–3.5 W/(m, K) and 0.9–1.9 mm2/s, respectively. The volumetric heat capacity, which was calculated from the thermal conductivity and diffusivity, ranged between 1.6 and 2.6 MJ/(m3, K). Variations are most likely due to both depth and variations in rock type.

    The indirect tensile tests were conducted such that every second specimen was tested with the diametrical compression along and every second across the foliation planes, with higher values for the indirect tensile strength on the specimens with loading across the foliation. The ratio between the strength measured on specimens with loading across over along the foliation was up to 1.6 for granodiorite and possible higher for the amphibolite. The strength variation in the amphibolite was large. The indirect tensile strength was 8.07–14.5 MPa for the granite to granodiorite, 1.18–16.2 MPa for amphibolite and 4.49–8.51 MPa for skarn.

    Two of the uniaxial compression test specimens of amphibolite got a diagonal failure and the third had a spalling failure. The maximum axial compressive stress was 61.5 and 68.5 MPa for the specimens with a diagonal failure and 238.7 MPa for the specimen with a spalling failure. The Young’s modulus for the same specimens was 61.6 and 57.5 GPa, respectively 91.0 GPa and the Poisson ratio 0.288 and 0.407, respectively 0.375.

  • 30.
    Jiménez-Ruano, A.
    et al.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain; University of Lleida, Spain.
    Mimbrero, M. R.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain; University of Lleida, Spain.
    Urdíroz, F. A.
    University of Lleida, Spain.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Marrs, C.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Ribeiro, L. M.
    Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal.
    Palaiologou, P.
    Agricultural University of Athens, Greece.
    Chuvieco, E.
    University of Alcalá de Henares, Greece.
    Gelabert, P. J.
    University of Lleida, Spain.
    Vega-García, C.
    University of Lleida, Spain.
    Assessing human-caused wildfire ignition likelihood across Europe2023In: Int. Conf. Smart Sustain. Technol., SpliTech, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire ignition probability is an essential component of most fire risk assessment frameworks. This study, framed within the H2020 project FirEUrisk, features a cohesive modelling approach in a set of representative regions (pilot sites; PS) in terms of fire activity across the European territory. These PS encompass different wildfire regimes in contrasting environmental settings: PS-1 Northern Europe, Kalmar Iän (South-East Sweden); PS-2 Central Europe, Southern Brandenburg and Eastern Saxony (Germany), North Bohemia (Czechia), and Lower Silesia (Poland); PS-3 Central Portugal; PS-4 Barcelona province (Spain); and PS-5 Attica region (Greece). Our main goal was to develop a common approach to model human-caused ignitions at a fine-grained spatial resolution (100 meters). For each pilot site we: (i) ascertain which factors influence ignition, hence, addressing potential differences in driving forces and, (ii) provide a spatial-explicit depiction of the patterns of ignition probability. For that propose, we fitted a Random Forest (RF) model in each PS from historical fire records (compiled by local fire agencies) and geospatial layers for land cover, accessibility, and population related factors. All models attained a high predictive accuracy, with AUCs that ranging from 0.69 (Northern Europe) to 0.89 (Attica Region). In turn, the most relevant explanatory variable was the population density that ranked most influential in four out of the five PS, followed by the fuel type, distance to roads, distance to the WUI, and percent cover of forest and wildlands. These findings are a valuable product to upscale future solutions at regional level (beyond NUTS3-type areas), conduct fire behavior modelling simulations, and enrich the science-based decisions which come from the forest and fire management agents at national and European level. © 2023 University of Split, FESB.

  • 31.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Behaviour of an intumescing system subjected to different heating conditions2013In: Fire and Materials 2013 - 13th International Conference and Exhibition, Conference Proceedings, 2013, , p. 187p. 187-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that the expansion of fire seals and fire stoppers will be dependent on the heat exposure. Standardized methods for classification includes exposure to a rapid heat exposure of the product that is tested, but this might not always be the worst case scenario for the product. In this paper a series of tests are presented in order to study how a graphite based intumescing system, intended for cavities, reacts when subjected to fire conditions different form that in the standardised method EN 1366-4. Two different experimental setups, a cone calorimeter at Lund University and a small-scale furnace at SP Fire Technology, were used in the tests. The start of expansion reaction in the tested fire stopper was around 180°C. The start of reaction temperature is rather independent of the incident heat flux, while expansion rate is clearly dependent on the incident heat flux. Furthermore, the studied fire stopper performed well in the small-scale furnace because the graphite expanded enough to give the same protection, although it is preheated or wet, as when subjected to a heat exposure similar to ISO 834. These results are good but they are only considered valid for the studied system and for the given situation. Future research is needed in order to study how other types of intumescing fire protection systems work when subjected to realistic fire environments.

  • 32.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mäger, K. N.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Pukk, R.
    Estonian Academy of Security Sciences, Estonia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    CLT compartment fire test2018In: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New high-rise timber buildings are planned to be built in the near future all around the world. The fire protection concepts are not always considering natural fire scenarios. As timber is a combustible material, it can contribute to the fire within and outside of the fire compartment. For buildings with cross-laminated timber (CLT) elements the possible fall-off of lamellas should be considered because of the risk for second flashover, which can lead to a continuous fire. However, in case fire service interference or sprinkler activation is absent or inefficient, it may be necessary to design a building so that it leads to a decaying fire. Additionally, it is important to limit fire spread to neighbouring compartments. This paper discusses a compartment test of a two-story building made of CLT performed in Estonia to study delamination behaviour and consequences in compartments with realistic ventilation conditions. State-of-the art solutions to limit fire spread from the first floor into the second floor were applied. This involved robust design of connections, penetrations through the compartment boundary and the façade. The paper provides a description and analysis of the test.

  • 33.
    Kozlowski, Marcin
    et al.
    Silesian University of Technology,Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Lenk, Peter
    ARUP, UK.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Structural Considerations on Timber-Glass Composites at Fire Scenarios2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on a recently developed concept, in which glass is combined with timber to provide post-breakage strength and ductility. This combination allows for good post-breakage performance and overall robustness of timber-glass composite beams and wall elements, which has been reported in several publications. The application of timber-glass elements in practice, however, raises important issues related to structural fire performance. The paper elaborates on this issue and provides general information about the behavior of glass, timber and adhesives at elevated temperatures and under fire conditions. Furthermore, it presents ideas and strategies developed for potential application of timber-glass composites in practical situations. The paper presents also initial results from an on-going research project on fire performance of timber-glass composites.

  • 34.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mechanical response of a partially restrained column exposed to localised fires2014In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 67, no Jul, p. 82-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent trends in structural fire engineering research have focussed on the response of buildings with large open plan spaces to so-called travelling fires. These fires travel horizontally across the floor plate of a building and result in time and spatially varying thermal exposure and response of the structure to the fire. What has received little attention, however, is the effect that non-uniform thermal exposure has on columns. Recent tests conducted at SP demonstrated the effect of a small non-uniformity of thermal exposure, resulting in a thermal gradient of around 1 °C/mm, on a column exposed to a pool fire. The curvature resulting from a non-uniform thermal exposure where the column is pinned, or in cases where the column is partially restrained, will result in an eccentricity in the column's loading and large second order effects. This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure varying in both the horizontal and vertical axes to columns by means of including this thermal boundary in a solution of classical Euler beam theory. The resulting solution allows for a variation in the stiffness of the rotational restraint at both ends of the column and a non-uniform temperature exposure through the column's section and along its height. The resulting equations help to understand better the impact of the assumptions of 'lumped capacitance' on steel columns, suggesting a challenge to this assumption in some instances, as well as to enhance understanding of the impact of non-uniform fires on steel columns.

  • 35.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Deflection of concrete floor slab during fire test: tests and modeling2012In: Proceedings from 15th Int Conf on Experimental Mechanics, Porto, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Directional dependence of deflections and damages during fire tests of post-tensioned concrete slabs2012In: Proceedings from 7th Int Conf on Structures in Fire, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Modeling the deflection of an unloaded concrete floor slab during a fire test2012In: Proceedings from 7th Int Conf on Structures in Fire, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Hidalgo, Juan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    A Comparison of the Conditions in a Fire Resistance Furnace When Testing Combustible and Non-combustible Construction2020In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 1621-1654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on two experiments conducted in a fire resistance furnace to study the differences in the boundary conditions, the fire dynamics and the fuel required to run the furnace when a combustible timber specimen as opposed to a non-combustible concrete specimen is tested. In both experiments measurements were taken in the furnace to evaluate the difference in the environments of the furnace and the response of the elements being tested. These include non-control plate thermometers distributed throughout the furnace; O2, CO2 and CO gas measurements taken at different distances from the specimen surface and in the furnace exhaust; instrumentation of one of the bricks comprising the furnace lining with thermocouples at different depths from the exposed surface; and mass loss of the combustible timber specimen. Thermal exposure of elements in a furnace is discussed, as well as the impact of the different materials on the similarity of thermal exposure. This is done through analysis and discussion of the different measurements taken and the apparent influence of the specimen being tested on the boundary condition of the heat diffusion equation. We conclude that; (1) the fire dynamics in a furnace are dependent on the specimen being tested; (2) that the test with the combustible specimen requires less fuel flow to the burners such that the control plate thermometers follow the ISO 834 temperature–time curve compared to the non-combustible specimen, however that this is not only a result of the combustibility of the specimen but is also a consequence of the different thermal inertia of the two materials; (3) that the boundary condition for heat transfer to a test object in furnace tests is dependent on the properties of the specimen being tested; and (4) that the timber when placed on the furnace experiences smouldering combustion after the char layer has formed. A fire resistance test of combustible construction of a given period represents a significantly less onerous test in terms of energy absorbed or fuel made available than one of a non-combustible construction, implying that the existing fire resistance framework may not be appropriate for timber structures and that an alternative approach may be required.

  • 39.
    Lägermo, Caroline
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sokoti, Hasan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lindström, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Forsmark – Laboratory tests in borehole KFM24 : Thermal properties by TPS method and indirect tensile strength tests with strain measurements of intact rock2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The density, thermal and mechanical properties were determined on water-saturated specimens from borehole KFM24 in the Forsmark site investigation area. The rock type was granite to granodiorite (101057). All specimens had a more or less foliated rock structure. The cores were sampled from depths ranging between 65–526 m. The specimens were water-saturated using tap water and all subsequent measurements were conducted at this moisture condition. The density was determined on 25 specimens followed by measuring the thermal properties of 9 pairs of specimens. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity were measured and the volumetric heat capacity was calculated from the thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The testing ended with 21 indirect tensile tests yielding the indirect tensile strength. The strain was measured using strain gauges during the indirect tensile tests. The density at a water-saturated condition was 2648–2694 kg/m3 . Thermal properties were measured at ambient temperature (23°C) and under water-saturated conditions. The determination of the thermal properties is based on a direct measurement method, the so called “Transient Plane Source Method” (TPS). Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity at 23°C were in the range of 3.1–3.8 W/(m, K) and 1.8–2.0 mm2 /s, respectively. The volumetric heat capacity, which was calculated from the thermal conductivity and diffusivity, ranged between 1.8 and 2.3 MJ/(m3 , K). The indirect tensile tests were conducted with the diametrical compression across the foliation planes. The indirect tensile strength was in the range 9.7–16.5 MPa

  • 40.
    McNamee, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Reduction of fire spalling of concrete with small doses of polypropylene fibres2021In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 943-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of polypropylene (PP) fibres has been shown to reduce the fire spalling propensity of concrete. When including this type of fibres in the concrete, the concrete mix becomes less robust, and small deviations in the constitutes change the workability and properties of the concrete. So, from a manufacturing perspective as small dosages as possible of PP fibres are desirable. Very few large-scale fire resistance tests of concrete loaded in compression exist showing the function of PP fibres at low dosages on concrete mixes sensitive to spalling if no fibres are added. In this paper, results from 26 fire tests are presented and analysed. The test results are from four different experimental campaigns, but all the mixes have in common that the water-to-cement ratio is 0.40. The results show that an amount of only 0.6 kg/m3 PP fibres has a significant effect on the spalling propensity and that even lower amounts reduce the spalling although they do not eliminate it entirely. During one of the fire tests on large slabs loaded in compression, unloaded small cubes of the same mixes were also included in the furnace. None of the small specimens spalled, whereas some of the corresponding large slabs spalled beyond the layer of reinforcement. This illustrates that tests on small, unloaded specimens are not relevant when assessing fire spalling of larger cross-sections loaded in compression.

  • 41.
    Nadjai, Ali
    et al.
    University of Ulster, Ireland.
    Alam, Naveed
    FireSERT, Ireland.
    Charlier, Mariaon
    Arcelormittal Global RD, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal Inc, Luxembourg.
    Dai, Xu
    University of Edinburgh, UK; NIST, USA.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Universite de Liege, Belgium.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Travelling fire in full scale experimental building subjected to open ventilation conditions2023In: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, ISSN 2040-2317, E-ISSN 2040-2325, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 149-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In the frame of the European RFCS TRAFIR project, three large compartment fire tests involving steel structure were conducted by Ulster University, aiming at understanding in which conditions a travelling fire develops, as well as how it behaves and impacts the surrounding structure. Design/methodology/approach: During the experimental programme, the path and geometry of the travelling fire was studied and temperatures, heat fluxes and spread rates were measured. Influence of the travelling fire on the structural elements was also monitored during the travelling fire tests. Findings: This paper provides details related to the influence of travelling fires on a central structural steel column. Originality/value: The experimental data are presented in terms of the gas temperatures recorded in the test compartment near the column, as well as the temperatures recorded in the steel column at different levels. Because of the large data, only fire test one results are discussed in this paper.

  • 42.
    Nadjai, Ali
    et al.
    Ulster University, UK.
    Naveed, Alam
    Ulster University, UK.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Welsh, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Glorieux, Antoine
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Large scale fire test: The development of a travelling fire in open ventilation conditions and its influence on the surrounding steel structure2022In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 130, article id 103575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the frame of the European RFCS-TRAFIR project, natural fire tests in large compartment were conducted by Ulster University, involving steel structure and aiming at understanding the conditions in which a travelling fire develops, how it behaves and impacts the surrounding structure. During the experimental programme, the path and geometry of the travelling fire was studied and temperatures, heat fluxes and spread rates were measured. The experimental data is presented in terms of gas temperatures recorded in the test compartment at different positions and levels. The influence of the travelling fire on the surround structure is presented in terms of the temperatures recorded in the selected steel columns and beams. The temperatures in the test compartment were dependent on the positioning of the travelling fire band as well as the height from the floor level. The non-uniform temperatures in the compartment lead to transient heating of the nearby structural steel elements, resulting in a reduction of their resistance which may influence the global structural stability. The results obtained will help to understand the behaviour of travelling fires and their influence on the structural members. This knowledge will help to reduce the travelling fire associated risks in future. 

  • 43.
    Olsen, Hans
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Thermal properties of heated insulation materials2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Amon, Francine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Sjöström, Johan
    Are you prepared for an ethanol tank fire?2013In: Industrial Fire Journal, no Winter, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    ETANKFIRE – Experimental results of large ethanol fuel pool fires2015Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 46.
    Petersen, L.
    et al.
    Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Teixeira, R.
    Barreiro Municipality, Portugal.
    Creating comparable public tolerance and technical performance measures for critical infrastructure resilience evaluation2018In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 1231-1240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No consensus currently exists on how to measure and evaluate Critical Infrastructure (CI) resilience. Attempting to use the public’s declared coping capacity as a target for CI resilience, this paper explores how to develop relevant resilience performance measurements that enable comparison to the tolerance levels of the general public. To do so, one must first establish the normal performance of the system and the applicable performance measures. Then, a survey is used to convert public perception into these measures as to enable comparison with the technical resilience performance. The CI resilience will be presented through a family of so-called resilience triangles which will illustrate the evolution of the performance, before, during and after a crisis event. A case study of the Municipal Water Network of Barreiro, Portugal, is used. The overall performance is preferably described with the categories quality, quantity and delivery. In quantifying the performance the importance of what is being assessed, to what hazard and for which end-user became evident.

  • 47.
    Petersen, Laura
    et al.
    UIC, France.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Fallou, Laure
    European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Lange, David
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Teixeira, Rui
    Barreiro Municipality, Portugal.
    Bonavita, Alexandre
    European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Resilience for whom?: The general public's tolerance levels as CI resilience criteria2020In: International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, ISSN 1874-5482, E-ISSN 2212-2087, Vol. 28, article id 100340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While maintaining a minimum level of service and rapidly restoring services to normal are key components of critical infrastructure (CI) resilience, who should and how to define these parameters remains under debate. Rarely solicited in the debate, yet integral actors in CI resilience, is the general public. In response to this, this paper presents a questionnaire-based methodology for determining public tolerance levels for service reduction and recovery rapidity. This paper explores this under-researched area using a case-study of the Barreiro Municipal Water Network. It draws on key themes that emerged from the literature as well as interviews with the CI operators in order to develop a tolerance questionnaire, implements said questionnaire (N = 1005), and analysizes the results. Results demonstrate that the methodology works for collecting tolerance levels, that when taking into account vulnerable groups, public tolerance levels appear higher than CI operator capability and that communication expectations are high. 

  • 48.
    Petersen, Laura
    et al.
    UIC International union of railways, France.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Horvath, Eva
    Magyar Közút Nonprofit Zrt, Hungary.
    Evaluating critical infrastructure resilience via tolerance triangles: Hungarian Highway pilot case study2019In: Proceedings of the International ISCRAM Conference, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM , 2019, p. 1210-1225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While accepted as part of critical infrastructure (CI) resilience, no consensus exists on how to measure the exact minimum level of service or the rapidity of rapidly restoring services. The H2020 European project IMPROVER (Improved risk evaluation and implementation of resilience concepts to critical infrastructure) suggests to use the public's declared tolerance levels for both minimum level of service and rapidity of service restoration as criteria with which to evaluate if the resilience of a given CI is resilient enough. This paper demonstrates the development of a questionnaire-based methodology to determine public tolerance levels. It then tests this methodology via a pilot case study at IMPROVER's Hungarian Highway Living Lab. The paper argues that public tolerance levels are a reasonable choice for resilience evaluation criteria and demonstrates that the questionnaire-based methodology permits one to evaluate public perception in such a way as to compare it to technical resilience analyses.

  • 49.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Lange, David
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    The use of furnace tests to describe real fires of timber structures2018In: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire resistance is an important characteristic for all building structures regardless the building materials used. Methods for fire resistance testing were developed already before 1900 to measure the response of the structure in fire and compare different products. In the last decade, the increased popularity of timber buildings has led to a renewed interest in the performance of timber structures in fire and timber products were frequently tested in furnaces. Currently, some discussions question the validity of furnace test results for timber members which are carried out according to standards. Generally, it was stated that combustible and incombustible products are exposed to different thermal exposures when tested in furnaces or exposed in real fires. Additionally, some experts think that massive timber elements, e.g. cross-laminated timber (CLT), cannot be tested in furnaces as these products increase the fire load and, thus, statements in the framework of fire resistance testing are not possible. This paper investigates the validity of furnace resistance testing for combustible products and its limitations. It is shown that, firstly, the thermal exposure in fire resistance tests of incombustibles and combustibles is similar. Secondly, in addition to thermal exposure, the term fire exposure should be introduced where the oxygen concentration is described as the oxygen concentration significantly influences the behaviour of combustible material in fires. Thirdly, the furnace and compartment environment in flash-over fires is similar with respect to this fire exposure. Finally, it is not possible to directly use furnace test results to predict a compartment response in real fires including the cooling phase but recent investigations indicate that results from fire resistance tests can be used to predict burn-out when the mass loss of the timber specimen is measured.

  • 50.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Nytt analysinstrument för termiska egenskaper2011In: Brandposten, no 44, p. 17-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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