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  • 1.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Towards traceable dynamic pressure calibration using a shock tube with an optical probe for accurate phase determination2022In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, no 3, article id 035001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce a robust method for dynamic characterization of pressure measuring systems used in time-varying pressure applications. The dynamic response of the pressure measuring systems in terms of sensitivity and phase as a function of frequency at various amplitudes of the measurand can be provided. The shock tube which is the candidate primary standard for dynamic pressure calibration at the National Laboratory for pressure, Sweden, was used to realize the dynamic pressure. The shock tube setup used in this study can realize reference pressure with amplitudes up to 1.7 MPa in the frequency range from below a kilohertz up to a megahertz. The amplitude of the realized step pressure was calculated using the Rankine–Hugoniot step relations. In addition, the accurate time of arrival of the generated shock at the device under test (DUT) was measured using an optical probe based on shadowgraphy. The optical detector has a response time in nanosecond time scale which is several orders of magnitude faster than the response time of any pressure measuring system. Hereby, the latency between physical stimuli and response of the DUT can be measured. By the knowledge of the amplitude and the accurate time of arrival of the reference step pressure, the transfer function of the DUT can be calculated and presented in Bode diagrams of sensitivity and phase response versus frequency. The uncertainty in sensitivity and phase measurements was estimated. The information provided by this work is useful for developing reliable models of dynamic pressure measuring system and provide accurate information about their dynamic response. That in turn will contribute to establish a traceability chain for dynamic pressure calibration.

  • 2.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Wozniak, Mikolaj
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Evaluation of Shock Tube Retrofitted with Fast-Opening Valve for Dynamic Pressure Calibration2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 13, article id 4470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate dynamic pressure measurements are increasingly important. While traceability is lacking, several National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and calibration laboratories are currently establishing calibration capacities. Shock tubes generating pressure steps with rise times below 1 µs are highly suitable as standards for dynamic pressures in gas. In this work, we present the results from applying a fast-opening valve (FOV) to a shock tube designed for dynamic pressure measurements. We compare the performance of the shock tube when operated with conventional single and double diaphragms and when operated using an FOV. Different aspects are addressed: shock-wave formation, repeatability in amplitude of the realized pressure steps, the assessment of the required driver pressure for realizing nominal pressure steps, and economy. The results show that using the FOV has many advantages compared to the diaphragm: better repeatability, eight times faster to operate, and enables automation of the test sequences.

  • 3.
    Forssen, Clayton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Silander, Isak
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Szabo, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Bjerling, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Hausmaninger, Thomas
    VTT, Finland.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Zelan, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    A TRANSPORTABLE REFRACTOMETER FOR ASSESSMENT OF PRESSURE IN THE KPA RANGE WITH PPM LEVEL PRECISION2020In: Acta IMEKO, ISSN 2221-870X, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 287-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transportable refractometer for assessment of kPa pressures with ppm level precision is presented. It is based on the GAs MOdulation Refractometry (GAMOR) methodology, making it resistant to fluctuations and drifts. At the National Metrology Institute at RISE, Sweden, the system assessed pressures in the 4.3 - 8.7 kPa range with sub-ppm precision (0.5 - 0.9 ppm). The system was thereafter disassembled, packed, and transported 1040 km to Umeå University, where it, after unpacking and reassembling, demonstrated a similar precision (0.8 - 2.1ppm). This shows that the system can be disassembled, packed, transported, unpacked, and reassembled with virtually unchanged performance. 

  • 4.
    Jousten, Karl
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Bernien, Matthias
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Boineau, Frederic
    Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais, France.
    Bundaleski, Nenad
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Illgen, Claus
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Jenninger, Berthold
    CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Šetina, Janez
    IMT Institute of Metals and Technology, Slovenia.
    Teodoro, Orlando
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Vičar, Martin
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Electrons on a straight path: A novel ionisation vacuum gauge suitable as reference standard2021In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 189, article id 110239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consortium of the European project 16NRM05 designed a novel ionisation vacuum gauge in which the electrons take a straight path from the emitting cathode through the ionisation space into a Faraday cup. Compared to existing ionisation vacuum gauges, this has the advantage that the electron path length is well defined. It is independent of the point and angle of emission and is not affected by space charge around the collector. In addition, the electrons do not hit the anode where they can be reflected, generate secondary electrons or cause desorption of neutrals or ions. This design was chosen in order to develop a more stable ionisation vacuum gauge suitable as reference standard in the range of 10−6 Pa to 10−2 Pa for calibration purposes of other vacuum gauges and quadrupole mass spectrometers. Prototype gauges were produced by two different manufacturers and showed predictable sensitivities with a very small spread (<1.5%), very good short-term repeatability (<0.05%) and reproducibility (<1%), even after changing the emission cathode and drop-down tests. These characteristics make the gauge also attractive for industrial applications, because a gauge exchange does not require calibration or re-adjustment of a process.

  • 5.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Gas flow measurement of evaporated liquid nanoflows2023In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the miniaturisation of fluidic components, the demand for traceable measurements of micro and nanoflows is increasing in various technological fields such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and automotive industry. Gravimetric flow measurement methods are accurate at microflows and above, but have a lower limit of about 5nLmin−1. Several alternative approaches have been developed to circumvent this limit. Here a measurement setup and proof of principle is presented for a method measuring the gas flows generated by complete evaporation of liquid ethanol nanoflows. The gas flow measurement is based on the well-established method of determining the pressure drop across a geometrically precisely defined circular opening in the molecular flow regime. Liquid flow rates from a syringe pump in the range of 5nLmin−1 to 200nLmin−1 are measured with an expanded uncertainty as low as 340pLmin−1 at instantaneous flow rates. Strategies to further improve accuracy are discussed.

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  • 6.
    Saxholm, Sari
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics. VTT MIKES, Finland.
    Högström, Richard
    VTT MIKES, Finland.
    Sarraf, Christophe
    ENSAM Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Mietiers, France.
    Sutton, Gavin J.M.
    NPL Management Limited, UK.
    Wynands, Robert
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Durgut, Yasin
    TUBITAK Turkiye Bilimsel Ve Teknolojik Arastirma Kurumu, Turkey.
    Peruzzi, Andrea
    VSL, The Netherlands.
    Fateev, Alexander A.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Liverts, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Adolfse, C.
    Minerva Meettechniek, The Netherlands.
    Oster, A.
    Wartsilä, Finland.
    Development of measurement and calibration techniques for dynamic pressures and temperatures (DynPT): Background and objectives of the 17IND07 DynPT project in the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR)2018In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2018, Vol. 1065, no 16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project has five specific objectives: To provide traceability for dynamic pressure and temperature through development of measurement standards and validated calibration procedures; To quantify the effects of influencing quantities on the response of dynamic pressure and temperature sensors, in order to determine the appropriate calibration procedures and measurement uncertainties for industrial measurements; To develop new measurement methods and sensors for measuring dynamic pressure and temperature in demanding industrial applications, and to demonstrate the improved accuracy and reliability obtained with those; To validate all of the methods and sensors developed in this project through demonstrations in selected industrial applications; and To ensure by close engagement with industry, that the developed calibration and measurement techniques and technology are adopted by them. The challenge is that in many industrial applications pressure and temperature measurements are performed under dynamically changing conditions. The aim of this project is to improve the accuracy and reliability of pressure and temperature measurements in these challenging conditions. A European joint research project named Development of measurement and calibration techniques for dynamic pressures and temperatures (shortname DynPT) started in the summer 2018.

  • 7.
    Svete, A.
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Amer, Eynas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Kutin, J.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    A method for correcting the high-frequency mechanical vibration effects in the dynamic calibration of pressure measurement systems using a shock tube2023In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 193, article id 110246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extremely rapid reflection of a shock wave from the end wall generated in the shock tube, in addition to the high-frequency content of pressure, inevitably also excites mechanical vibrations. These can potentially produce acceleration-induced spurious signals as part of the dynamic output of the pressure measurement system being calibrated. This paper proposes and evaluates a method for correcting the frequency response of a pressure measurement system obtained with a calibration using a shock tube for the acceleration-induced errors due to vibrations. The proposed method is based on the predetermined frequency response of the pressure measurement system to the accelerations and simultaneous measurements of the vibration accelerations of the pressure sensor during its calibration in the shock tube. The acceleration-induced errors were corrected for a piezoelectric pressure measurement system calibrated in a diaphragmless shock tube developed at the National laboratory for pressure and vacuum at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, where different vibrational conditions were induced by changing the initial driver pressure, while keeping the initial driven pressure constant. The uncertainty of the correction of the frequency response of the piezoelectric pressure measurement system being calibrated was determined by considering the uncertainty contributions of the measured acceleration frequency response of the pressure measurement system, the measured acceleration of the pressure sensor during its calibration in the shock tube, the generated reference end-wall step pressure and the repeatability of the correction. The results show that the proposed method effectively eliminates acceleration-induced errors in the sensitivity and phase frequency responses of an acceleration-sensitive piezoelectric pressure measurement system being calibrated with a shock tube.

1 - 7 of 7
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