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  • 1.
    Bergjord Olsen, A. K.
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norway.
    Persson, T.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norway.
    de Wit, A.
    Alterra - Wageningen UR, The Netherlands.
    Nkurunziza, L.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sindhøj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Eckersten, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance2018In: Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, ISSN 0931-2250, E-ISSN 1439-037X, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this model, four winter wheat cultivars were sown in a field experiment in Uppsala, Sweden in 2013 and 2014. The LT50 was determined by tests of frost tolerance in November, and the cultivars’ LT50c was estimated. Further, recorded winter survival from 20 winter wheat field variety trials in Sweden and Norway was collected from two winter seasons with substantial winter damages. FROSTOL simulations were run for selected cultivars at each location. According to percentage of winter damage, the cultivar survival was classified as “survived,” “intermediate” or “killed.” Mean correspondence between recorded and simulated class of winter survival was 75% and 37% for the locations in Sweden and Norway, respectively. Stress factors that were not accounted for in FROSTOL might explain the poorer accuracy at the Norwegian locations. The accuracy was poorest for cultivars with intermediate LT50c levels. When low temperature was the main cause of damage, as at the Swedish locations, the model accuracy was satisfying.

  • 2. Bertilsson, Jan
    et al.
    Barr, U.K.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Borch, E.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lindbom, Ingela
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lundh, Åse
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Åström, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för mjölkproduktion och framställning av konsumtionsmjölk och lagrad ost.2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Possibilities and bottlenecks for implementing slurry acidification techniques in Russian and Belarus2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report: summarizes expert judgements on how slurry acidification technologies (SATs) could be implemented in Belarus and North West Russia. Special focus on bottlenecks for implementing SATs with existing manure management systems was considered.

    In Belarus and North West Russia, a smaller proportion of manure is handled as slurry compared to EU Baltic Sea countries, but this might be due to the high poultry production in Russia since most poultry manure is solid. None the less, SATs are currently only available for slurry manure handling systems and not for solid or semi-solid manure.

    Regarding the current systems used in Russia and Belarus some SATs may be easier to implement than others. For instance, due to health issues, farms do not store manure under animal houses. Further studies related to the legislation are needed to reveal if this factor is a potential bottleneck for the in-house SAT. In-storage SATs, both long term and just before spreading should be possible to implement based on the current handling practices, even in Belarus where lagoons are very commons to store slurry. In-field SATs also have a good potential for implementation, but it is worth mentioning that machine contractors in agriculture are nearly non-existent in these two countries and equipment is usually owned by each farm.

    More information concerning economics and environmental impacts as well as safety issues related to acid handling are still needed to fully understand the implementation potential of SATs in Belarus and Russia.

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  • 4.
    Damgaard Poulsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Kaasik, Allan
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Karhapää, Maija
    MTT Agrifood Research, Finland.
    Henriksen, Julie
    Kiiver, Hannelore
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Kortelainen, Tiina
    MTT Agrifood Research, Finland.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Blaabjerg, Karoline
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Determine Feeding Strategies forReducing P and N Content in Manure2013Report (Refereed)
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    Baltic Manure report
  • 5.
    Edström, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Halldorf, Stefan
    Persson, Sven
    Welander, Ulrika
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Rötning av fjäderfägödsel med gödselförädling i tillämpad skala2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digestion of poultry manure with digestate processing in pilot scale tests

    Twenty farmers in the municipality of Mönsterås in southern Sweden are jointly planning to build a large biogas plant. The plant will digest a very high proportion of poultry manure, resulting in significantly greater biogas yield than normally expected, and higher nitrogen contents in the digestate. A major obstacle to realising the biogas plant is controlling digestion operation under high nitrogen levels resulting from the considerable amounts of poultry manure substrate. Poultry manure also contains both heavy and light particles that can cause challenges with poor stability in the digestion process, formation of sediments and crust in digester tanks. The high nitrogen contents together with high phosphorus and solids concentrations will also create difficulties for digestate management and use as fertiliser. 

    Today solid poultry manure is mainly used as a phosphorus fertiliser, not only due to high concentration of phosphorus but also due to relatively poor utilisation of the nitrogen by crops. However, due to the high concentration of phosphorus, the application rate needed to meet plant needs is lower than modern solid manure spreaders can evenly apply. Over application and inefficient use of nitrogen increases risk of nutrient losses to waters and the environment.

    To study these issues for biogas production, Vinnova (Sweden's innovation agency) has supported this research project in applied digestion and digestate processing.

    The project contained the following components: i) 6 months digestion tests with prospective substrates in a pilot-plant with 5 m3 active digesting volume, provided with mixers and pumps commonly used in full-scale plants, ii) laboratory tests to determine biogas potential for feedstocks, and to determine the potential for increased gas production by post-digestion, iii) applied trials of separating and concentrating the digestate with centrifuge followed by industrial evaporation of the liquid phase, iv) analysis of the nutrient value and the function of the concentrated fertilizer in organic farming.

    The biological and technical operational performance in the pilot test was evaluated in a complete stirred tank reactor at mesophilic temperature during co-digestion of poultry manure, liquid manure and glycerol. The poultry manure contributed with approx. 70% of dry matter in the substrate mixture and 80% of the nitrogen and phosphorus. The digestion process was stable with NH4-N levels close to 6 g/l. To control hydrogen sulphide in the biogas to approx. 100 ppm, ferric chloride was added to the digester. Volumetric methane production reached 1,1 m3 CH4/ m3 digester and day. Significant formation of sediment occurred in both digester and in pipes, however, no crust formation was observed in the digester. The outflow of ammonia from the digester by the digestate was 3.7 times higher than the ammonia inflow by the substrate mixture. Thirteen tonnes of digestate was produced during the pilot test. The digestate was separated with a decanter centrifuge generating a solid fraction corresponding to 23% of digestate weight and approx. 70% of the phosphorus in the digestate. Sulfuric acid was added to the liquid fraction generated by the centrifuge before evaporation to stabilize the ammonium nitrogen. Industrial evaporation of the liquid fraction produced a concentrate corresponding to 23% of digestate weight and containing approx. 70% of the ammonium nitrogen in the digestate.

    The pilot test generated four different fertilisers, (digestate, solid fraction, liquid fraction and concentrate) each with very different physical and chemical properties. Digestate processing increased the N/P ration of the liquid fraction and concentrate allowing more balanced N and P supply to crop demand, reducing the risk of nutrient losses to waters but also increasing the resource use efficiency of the plant nutrients. Processing was also successful at concentrating the two of the fertilisers, enabling cost effective long-distance transport for use in areas with low animal density and a need for the soil amendment properties of from manure.

    These project results have contributed to plans for a full-scale plant by developing the basis of design and the credibility for implementation, resulting in an investment grant and the formation of a new economically stronger company.  Based on the results from the project, the estimated production of biogas in a full-scale plant is 70 GWh /year for renewable automotive fuels. Post-digestion of the digestate with 10 days retention time can increase biogas production with an extra 3 GWh/year (4%). The solid and liquid products can fertilise 12 000 ha/year of organic cultivation with nitrogen and up to 20 000 up to ha/year with phosphorus.

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  • 6.
    Engström, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Eksvärd, Jan
    Orvendal, Jon
    Sjöholm, Niclas
    Energieffektivisering av jordbrukets logistik - pilotprojekt för att undersöka potentialer2015Report (Other academic)
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  • 7.
    Fors, Kikki
    et al.
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Bannbers, Hanna
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Strand, Line
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Arbetsmiljö och säkerhet vid surgörning av flytgödsel: Rapport från WP2, Aktivitet 52018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stallgödsel från animalieproduktion är en källa för kvävetillförseln till Östersjön i form av utsläpp till vatten och atmosfäriskt nedfall. Ammoniakavgång kommer från gödseln vid hantering i stallar, vid lagring och spridning. Jordbruket står för största delen av ammoniakutsläppen och åtgärder för att minska ammoniak-avgången från jordbruket har därför stor effekt på de totala utsläppsmängderna. Att minska kväveläckaget från jordbruket är en viktig del i att minska övergöd-ningen av Östersjön. Minskade kväveförluster från stallgödseln ger även ökad växtnäring till de odlade grödorna och en effektivare recirkulation av kvävet. Ökat växtnäringsvärde hos stallgödseln leder till bättre utvecklade grödor, som förmår att ta upp mer av miljöbelastande fosfor jämfört med sämre utvecklade grödor. Att minska kväveförlusterna genom att förbättra hanteringen av stall-gödseln ger därmed många vinster för miljön och odlaren.

    Surgörning av flytgödsel är en känd metod för att minska ammoniakavgången från stallgödsel i stall, i lager och vid och efter spridning i fält (Petersen, 2012). Metoden praktiseras dock inte i Sverige, till stor del för att tekniken inte är till-gänglig och för att det i stort saknas erfarenheter. Teknik för surgörning finns nu utvecklad i Danmark, där 18 % av all flytgödsel försurades år 2014 (SEGES, 2015). Vid surgörningen minskas förlusterna av kväve genom att den kemiska jämvikten mellan ammonium och ammoniak förskjuts mot större andel ammoniumkväve, som inte kan avgå i gasform.

    Teknik finns för surgörning i stallar, i lager respektive vid spridning. I stallar och lager strävar man efter att pH-värdet i gödseln ska vara mindre än 5,5 för att få effekt under längre tid dvs. under efterföljande lagring och spridning. I test enligt VERA:s testprotokoll minskade ammoniakavgången i medeltal med 64 % från de två studerade svinstallarna när man surgjorde gödseln i stallet med tekniken från JH Forsuring NH4+ jämfört med ingen surgörning (ETA-Danmark, 2011). I ett av de två studerade stallarna kunde man påvisa en årlig luktminskning med 29 procent vid surgörning. För Sverige är det dock inte aktuellt med surgörning i stallar med nuvarande system och lagstiftning. Istället kan system för tillförsel av syra i lager vara aktuellt. Vid tillförsel i lager strax innan spridning eftersträvas pH<6. För att begränsa mängden syra som behöver tillsättas är det då viktigt att snarast möjligt påbörja spridningen efter att svavelsyran blandats med gödseln i lagret, med tanke på gödselns buffrande förmåga (pH stiger). För att surgöra flytgödseln under spridning doseras svavelsyran till gödseln automatiskt under körning i fält med på marknaden olika tekniker. Målet är då att gödseln håller pH <6,4 vid spridningstillfället för att det ska vara godkänt i Danmark som ammoniakbegränsande åtgärd, och ett alternativ till att mylla ner gödseln vid spridning. Enligt VERA:s testprotokoll så minskade ammoniakavgången med 49 % vid surgörning till pH 6,4 vid spridning med tekniken SyreN jämfört med ingen försurning (VERA, 2012). Det gick inte att påvisa någon luktminskning med surgörning.

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  • 8.
    Joubin, Maxime
    et al.
    Agrocampus Ouest, France.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Animal slurry acidification: effects of slurry characteristics, use of different acids, slurry pH buffering: Student work2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification of slurry is one method to reduce ammonia emissions. Mainly implemented in Denmark, SAT use sulfuric acid to decrease the pH in in-house, in storage or in field system. Organic acids could be a good alternative to sulfuric acid to develop SATs for organic farming. Successive acidifications of slurry could be a solution to keep a stable pH and avoid ammonia emissions during all the period of storage.

    In Experiment 1, sulfuric acid, nitric acid and four organic acids were tested in order to compare efficiency and the economic aspects for cattle and pig slurry acidification. In experiment 2, the buffer system of 9 different slurries (4 from cattle, 3 from pig, and 2 filtrated slurry of each) were studied after several acidifications with sulfuric acid to pH 5.5 in order to quantify the acid consumption and to determine by modelling which slurry characteristics influenced the most this consumption of acid. For both experiments, the storage temperature was 20°C.

    For acid solutions with the same normality, organic acid and nitric acid were as efficient as sulfuric acid. However, results show, considering commercial concentrated acid proprieties, sulfuric acid was still the best option with a third to half of the consumption compared to other acids and acidification cost divided by 10 to compare with the use of organic acid. Acid consumption and acidification cost were highest for nitric acid. For organic acids, the acid consumption and acidification cost depends on slurry types and the target pH value. Furthermore, sulfuric acid and acetic acid had better ability to maintain the pH value below 6.4.

    In experiment 2, for all slurries, the pH cannot be stabilized by successive acidifications, possibly due to the degradation of organic matter by acid hydrolysis and probably aerobic degradation of volatile fatty acids. The total acid consumption depended on slurry characteristics and varied between 5.97 to 8.06 liters per m3 for cattle slurry and 6.7 to 10.7 for pig slurry.

    The best model variable to explain the quantity of acid needed for the first acidification depended on the target pH. The total amount of acid needed was explained by total nitrogen, total solids, total carbon: total nitrogen ratio and volatile solids. For the total amount of acid needed for all re-acidification, total nitrogen, ammonium concentration, total carbon and volatile solids were the best sub model variables. The latter was not correlated with the acid consumption for the first titration, even though models have common variables. That supposes slurry characteristics are modified by acidification.

    In conclusion, the use of organic acids was more expensive than the use of sulfuric acid. The pH can’t be stabilized by successive acid additions due to the organic matter degradation and modification of slurry characteristics which influence the acid consumption.

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  • 9.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Blad, M
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Berg, C
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wallenbeck, A
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Controlled atmosphere stunning of pigs using nitrogen, argon and carbon dioxide in high-expansion foam.2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sindhøj, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Brattlund Hellgren, Rebecka
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Berg, Charlotte
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wallenbeck, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Responses of Pigs to Stunning with Nitrogen Filled High-Expansion Foam2020In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 1-13, article id 2210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen gas (N2) delivered in high expansion foam in a closed container could be a feasible method for humanely stunning pigs. This study aimed to evaluate potential aversion in pigs to the N2 foam method and its effect on stun quality. Furthermore, the study aimed to assess potential aversion to the foam itself. Sixty pigs (27.8 ± 4.4 kg) were divided into three treatments and were exposed to either N2-filled foam, air-filled foam, or no foam air. The N2 foam was effective at purging the air from the container and quickly created stable anoxic conditions. The pigs did not show any strong aversive behaviours when exposed to foam. However, they seemed to avoid putting their heads and snouts into the foam when foam levels became high. Escape attempts through the lid also increased when the foam started covering their heads. The mean time to loss of posture was 57.9 s. Based on the results, stunning with the N2 foam technique could be a viable alternative to high concentration CO2 stunning and potentially lead to improved animal welfare at slaughter.

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  • 11.
    Luostarinen, Sari
    et al.
    LUKE, Finland.
    Tampio, Elina
    LUKE, Finland.
    Laakso, Johanna
    LUKE, Finland.
    Sarvi, Minna
    LUKE, Finland.
    Ylivainio, Kari
    LUKE, Finland.
    Riiko, Kaisa
    HELCOM, Finland.
    Kuka, Katrin
    Julius Kühn Institut, Germany.
    Bloem, Elke
    Julius Kühn Institut, Germany.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Manure processing as a pathway to enhance nutrient recycling2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular economy is increasingly demanded across the world to minimize the need for non-renewable sources of materials and energy. The need to introduce new nutrients into the current demand from mineral resources could be reduced significantly via nutrient recycling. This means recovery of nutrients from different nutrient-rich side-streams and their reuse in different measures, the most significant being food production. Nutrients, especially phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), are vital for crops to grow. The amounts required as fertilizer products are large. Still, at the time of writing nutrients are not effectively recycled, but a significant share is lost as final disposal and emissions. Recyclable nutrients are available in different side-streams from agriculture, municipalities and industry. The most significant recyclable material is animal manure which is traditionally used as a fertilizer. However, due to segregation of crop and animal production, manure is often regionally concentrated so that its nutrients may be available in excess to the region’s need. This may result in excessive use of manure in the regions of concentrated animal production, while the crop producing regions need to rely on mineral fertilizers. Both have negative environmental consequences. Thus, solutions for regional manure reallocation via improving the transportability of manure are needed to reallocate the nutrients to areas in nutrient deficit. To enable such transportation over long distances and to separate P and N from each other and thus enhance their reuse, manure processing could be used.  Manure can be processed with different technologies providing various end-products. The aim of processing is usually to reduce the mass of manure and to concentrate nutrients to improve their transportability. An important aim is also to produce such fertilizer products that replace mineral fertilizers and provide reduced emissions into the environment. Several processing technologies are available and more are being developed. At the time of writing, manure processing is still limited mainly due to challenges with profitability. The investment into large-scale manure processing as required by regional nutrient reallocation is significant and the market for the novel manure-based fertilizer products is only starting to develop. Development of practices for the storage and spreading of the products is also still required.  In this report, examples of regions in need of nutrient reallocation via manure processing are described for the Baltic Sea Region and the potential and challenges of manure processing as one solution to reduced nutrient emissions discussed. Summaries of available processing technologies and their end-products as fertilizer products are also presented.

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  • 12.
    Lyngsø Foged, Henning
    et al.
    Organe Institute ApS, Denmark.
    Szymanski, A
    CDR, Poland.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Kuka, K
    JKI, Germany.
    Krystoforski, M
    CDR, Poland.
    Sarvi, M
    LUKE, Finland.
    Kaasinen, S
    HELCOM, Finland.
    Melnalksne, Z
    Zemnieku Saeima, Latvia.
    Typical pitfalls leading to gaps between envisaged and realised impacts of manure and nutrient related projects - a gap analysis2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SuMaNu is a thematic platform concerning nutrients and manure management, established “in order to strengthen the impact of projects’ outcomes in the selected thematic field”, especially via better integration of project results and conclusions into policies. The present gap analysis clarifies in this connection gaps between envisaged and realised impacts of seven projects to promote sustainable manure management, and specifies the impeding pitfalls, i.e. shortcomings and weaknesses that have caused the missing impact. The rationale behind the gap analysis is to help the design and implementation of future projects to achieve stronger impact. For this aim, it summarizes knowledge of selected projects' ability to produce results and recommendations and to communicate these to the end users for integration into policies. To conduct the gap analysis, an approach of deductive and theory-testing research was used based on a set of described and classified potential pitfalls in project design and implementation that could potentially lead to gaps between envisaged and realised policy impact of projects. Links between pitfall categories and implementation gaps were tested by the use of empirical data collected during this study. Six typical pitfalls were defined, and ten recommendations selected for the gap analysis. The analysis was as far as possible based on referenced documentation. Key target stakeholders representing Germany, Poland and Denmark as well as the BSR region were interviewed in order to increase the quality of the analysis and secure impartiality of the results.  Generally, there were found gaps between envisaged and realised policy impacts. Out of the six classified pitfalls, not all projects had planned to create policy recommendations or impact among end users. The observed projects performed best with respect to producing planned results, whereas the most common pitfall was the ability to communicate these results. There were found considerable differences between the seven projects’ ability to support policy development and create impacts among end-users. It was among others concluded that projects are more likely to be integrated into policies and be implemented by end users if they adhere to some basic principles: 

    1) Objectives are SMART and in line with end-user needs; 

    2) Activities match the objectives and lead to the production of the foreseen results; and 

    3) Representatives of the administration and the end-users are directly involved in project partnerships and activities.

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  • 13.
    Persson, Tomas
    et al.
    NIBIO Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway .
    Bergjord Olsen, Anne Kari
    NIBIO Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway .
    Nkurunziza, Libère
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Estimation of Crown Temperature of Winter Wheat and the Effect on Simulation of Frost Tolerance2017In: Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, ISSN 0931-2250, E-ISSN 1439-037X, Vol. 203, no 2, p. 161-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate estimation of winter wheat frost kill in cold-temperate agricultural regions is limited by lack of data on soil temperature at wheat crown depth, which determines winter survival. We compared the ability of four models of differing complexity to predict observed soil temperature at 2 cm depth during two winter seasons (2013-14 and 2014-15) at Ultuna, Sweden, and at 1 cm depth at Ilseng and Ås, Norway. Predicted and observed soil temperature at 2 cm depth was then used in FROSTOL model simulations of the frost tolerance of winter wheat at Ultuna. Compared with the observed soil temperature at 2 cm depth, soil temperature was better predicted by detailed models than simpler models for both seasons at Ultuna. The LT50 (temperature at which 50 % of plants die) predictions from FROSTOL model simulations using input from the most detailed soil temperature model agreed better with LT50 FROSTOL outputs from observed soil temperature than what LT50 FROSTOL predictions using temperature from simpler models did. These results highlight the need for simpler temperature prediction tools to be further improved when used to evaluate winter wheat frost kill. 

  • 14.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Krysztoforski, Marek
    CDR Agricultural Advisory Centre in Radon, Poland .
    Kuka, Katrin
    JKI Julius Kühn Institute, German.
    Luostarinen, Sari
    Luke Natural Resources Institute Finland.
    Melnalksne, Zanda
    ZSA Farmers’ Parliament, Riga, Latvia.
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Riiko, Kaisa
    HELCOM Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, Helsinki, Finland .
    Tamm, Kalvi
    ECRI Estonian Crop Research Institute, Estland.
    Ylivainio, Kari
    Luke Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Sarvi, Minna
    Luke Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Technologies and management practices for sustainable manure use in the Baltic Sea Region2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Livestock production in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) is often geographically concentrated in certain areas, which creates greater livestock density in those areas. The intensification of livestock production seen in recent decades has compounded this problem by generating large amounts of manure to use in a local area. Poor manure management results in loss of nutrients to the air through gaseous emissions and to water though leaching and runoff. These nutrient losses are responsible for considerable negative impacts to the environment, climate and society. 

    During the past decade, there have been multiple BSR projects addressing sustainable manure use. Most projects have focused on one or a few aspects of sustainable manure use, such as reducing ammonia emissions, or reducing leaching and runoff problems, or increasing nutrient use efficiency from manure. Some projects have focused on specific technologies while others focused more on management practices that can improve sustainability.

    The objective of this report was to synthesize relevant results and recommendations from the previous BSR projects to create a comprehensive list of their recommendations for improving the sustainability of manure use in the BSR. This was done within the context of various aspects of sustainability that have been dealt with in previous projects, and in terms of where along the manure handling chain the measures are to be applied.

    Aspects of sustainability that were addressed here are decreasing ammonia emissions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing runoff and leaching, increasing on farm nutrient use, increasing regional nutrient recycling and addressing odors, pathogens, heavy metals and other risks. Possible measures for improving these aspects of sustainable manure nutrient use recommended in the previous projects were summarized and synthesized in relation to where along the manure handling chain the measures should be implemented. These were presented in a matrix of best practices and techniques for sustainable manure nutrient use in the BSR. Aspects of economic sustainability of manure handling and use were discussed as well as how various governance actions can be used in order to help promote the implementation of these best practices.

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    RISE Report 2020:77
  • 15.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Kuligowski, Ksawery
    Sipilä, Ilkka
    Tamm, Kalvi
    Manure Properties on Case-Study Farms in the Baltic Sea Regions: knowledge report2013Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 16. Sindhöj, Erik
    et al.
    Lehtonen, Heikki
    Rintamäki, Heidi
    Oostra, Huibert
    Sindhöj, Erik
    JTI, Sweden.
    Economics of manure logistics, separation and land application2013Report (Other academic)
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    Baltic manure report
  • 17.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Surgörning av flytgödsel som åtgärd för minskade utsläpp av ammoniak och växthusgaser i Sverige2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    ·   Om Sverige ska uppnå takdirektivets utsläppsmål för ammoniak till 2030, minska jordbrukets utsläpp av växthusgaser och samtidigt, enligt den nationella livsmedelsstrategin, öka vår självförsörjningsgrad genom ökad livsmedelsproduktion krävs snabb handling och en seriös åtgärdsplan för de kommande åren.

    ·   Surgörning är bevisat som en effektiv åtgärd för att minska utsläpp av ammoniak och metan från stallgödsel. Tekniken har främst använts i Danmark och mycket erfarenhet kan hämtas därifrån.

    ·   Surgörning skulle kunna implementeras i Sverige för att minska utsläpp av ammoniak och metan från stallgödselhanteringen och därmed minska miljöpåverkan från animalieproduktionen. 

    ·   I denna rapport redogörs för följande tekniker: surgörning i stall, surgörning innan lagring (tekniken ännu inte utvecklad) och surgörning innan spridning. Den sistnämnda kan ske antingen i lagringstanken strax innan spridning eller i fält vid själva spridningen men bägge varianter har liknande effekt på utsläppen.

    ·   För befintlig surgörningsteknik (surgörning i stall eller innan spridning) finns inga tekniska hinder för implementering, bara ekonomiska hinder. Surgörning blir en kostnad för lantbrukare eftersom värdet av det besparade kväve täcker inte kostnader. Det har funnits ett försök att etablera försäljning av surgörningsteknik hos en maskinstation i Skåne där erfarenhet om eventuella hinder till implementering av surgörningsteknik i Sverige kan hämtas.

    ·   Av befintlig surgörningsteknik skulle den som implementeras i stallet ge störst utsläppsminskning av både ammoniak och metan, men denna teknik kan kräva ombyggnad av befintliga stallar varvid tekniken förmodligen lämpar sig bättre vid nybyggnation. 

    ·   Surgörning innan lagring skulle vara lättare att implementera vid befintliga stallar i Sverige, men tekniken behöver utvecklas och valideras eftersom den inte finns kommersiellt tillgänglig i dagsläget.

    ·   Surgörning av flytgödsel innan/vid spridning skulle kunna implementeras på bred front i Sverige men det minskar bara utsläpp av ammoniak och inte metan. Om maskinstationer investerade i tekniken kunde även mindre gårdar utnyttja surgörning.

    ·   Surgörning av stallgödsel sparar kväve som annars i konventionell produktion ersätts med mineralkväve från inköpt handelsgödsel. Minskad användning av mineralkväve minskar utsläppen av växthusgaser ytterligare men denna utsläppsminskning ingår inte i beräkningarna som presenteras i denna rapport. 

    ·   Sparat kväve kan ha ännu större betydelse i ekologisk odling eftersom det är svårt att ersätta förlorat kväve med gödselmedel tillåtna i ekologisk produktion. Vid surgörning används dock svavelsyra som inte är tillåtet i ekologisk odling. 

    ·   Forskning krävs för att utvärdera tillämpning av surgörningsteknik under svenska förhållanden och för att utveckla tekniken för surgörning innan lagring som lättare kan anpassas till befintliga stallar. Det är viktig att forskningsresultaten kan användas som grund för att inkludera surgörningspåverkan i vår nationella klimat- och luftinventering. 

    ·   Främjandet av teknik som minskar utsläpp av ammoniak och metan från stallgödsel, som till exempel surgörning, bör vara en given del av en åtgärdsplan för Sverige att kunna uppnå takdirektivets utsläppsmål till år 2030 och vårt långsiktiga klimatmål om nettonollutsläpp av växthusgaser till år 2045 samtidigt som vi ökar vår självförsörjningsgrad av livsmedel. 

    ·   Politiska styrmedel är nödvändiga för att genomföra implementering av tillräckligt många åtgärder inom svenska jordbruket så att både miljömål och andra samhällsmål kan nås. Implementering av miljöteknik på bred front skulle utföra en samhällstjänst men då det ofta innebär en kostnadsökning för lantbrukarna så bör de få ersättning för merkostnader. Därför bör de politiska styrmedlen vara en blandning av ekonomiska incitament och strängare regelverk.

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    Rapport
  • 18.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Examples of Implementing Manure Processing Technology at Farm Level: Knowledge Report2013Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Manure Handling Techniques on Case-Study Farm in the Baltic Sea Region: Knowledge report2013Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Tamm, Kalvi
    Estonian Crop Research Institute, Estonia.
    Bryukhanov, Aleksandr
    Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production, Russia.
    Casimir, Justin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Uvarov, Roman
    Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production, Russia.
    Oblomkova, Natalia
    Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production, Russia.
    Slurry acidification as a tool to reduce ammonia emissions2019In: Agricultural Machinery and Technologies, ISSN 2618-6748, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 4-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Slurry acidification techniques to reduce NH3 emissions
  • 21.
    Sindhøj, Erik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bark, Linnea
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Potential alternatives to high-concentration carbon dioxidestunning of pigs at slaughter2021In: Animal, ISSN 1751-7311, Vol. 15, no 3, article id 100164Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using carbon dioxide (CO2) for stunning pigs at slaughter is common in Europe. The use of group stunning is amajor advantagewith CO2,which is donewithout restraining the pigs and with minimized human contact. However,high concentrations of CO2 have been known for decades to cause pain, fear and distress in pigs before lossof consciousness, and the stunning method is clearly associated with animal welfare concerns. This studyreviewed the scientific literature to find recent developments or evaluations of alternative methods that couldlead to the replacement of CO2 for stunning pigs at slaughter. Potential alternative methods found in the literaturewere described and then assessed to identify specific research and development needs for their further development.Only 15 empirical studies were found in the search of peer-reviewed literature since 2004, which is lessthan one per year. Furthermore, half of the studies focused on evaluatingmethods to improve high-concentrationCO2 stunning rather than an alternative to CO2. Since no clear alternative has emerged, nor a method to improveCO2 stunning, there is obviously a strong need to focus research and development to find solutions for improvinganimal welfare when stunning pigs at slaughter.

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    Sindhoj et al 2021_Review stunning pigs_In press
  • 22.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Annica
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Barr, Ulla-Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Bertilsson, Jan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Brunius, Carl
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Margareta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Göransson, Leif
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hessle, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kumm, Karl-Ivar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundh, Åse
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stenberg, Bo
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Wall, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Paths to a sustainable food sector: integrated design and LCA of future food supply chains: the case of pork production in Sweden2016In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 664-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. Changing a supply chain inevitably means that various attributes of the product and its system will change. This project assumed this challenge and delivered detailed descriptions, life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluations, and consequence assessments of the supply chains of six commodities, i.e., milk, cheese, beef, pork, chicken, and bread, from a Swedish region. This paper presents results for the pork supply chain. Methods: In the project setup, experts on production along supply chains designed three scenarios for environmentally improved systems. These scenarios, i.e., the ecosystem, plant nutrients, and climate scenarios, were intended to address different clusters of environmental goals. The next step was to challenge these scenarios by considering their possible consequences for products and systems from the food safety, sensory quality, animal welfare, consumer appreciation, and (for primary production only) cost perspectives. This led to changes in production system design to prevent negative consequences. The final supply chains were quantified using LCA and were again assessed from the three perspectives. Results and discussion: The scenario design approach worked well, thoroughly and credibly describing the production systems. Assessment of consequences bolstered the credibility and quality of the systems and results. The LCA of pig production and smoked ham identified large potentials for improvement by implementing available knowledge: global warming potential (GWP) could be reduced 21–54 % and marine eutrophication by 14–45 %. The main reason for these improvements was improved productivity (approaching the best producers’ current performance), though dedicated measures were also important, resulting in increased nitrogen efficiency, more varied crop rotations for crop production and better production management, and improved animal health and manure management for animal production. Reduced post-farm wastage contributed as did reduced emissions from fertilizer production. Conclusions: The working approach applied was successful in integrating LCA research with food system production expertise to deliver results relevant to supply chain decision-makers. The consequence assessments brought considerable value to the project, giving its results greater credibility. By introducing constraints in the form of “no negative consequences and no increased costs,” the work was “guided” so that the scenario design avoided being hampered by too many opportunities.

  • 23.
    Wallenbeck, A
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Berg, C
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Euthanasia of healthy and non-viable piglets using high-expansion nitrogen foam.2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Wallenbeck, A
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Brattlund Hellgren, R
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Berg, C
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    1mproved pig welfare at slaughter - pigs', responsesto air, or nitrogen foam.2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Rodhe, Lena (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Casimir, Justin (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sindhöj, Erik (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Possibilities and bottlenecks for implementing slurry acidification techniques in the Baltic Sea Region2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report: 1) describes those slurry acidification techniques (SATs) that are commercially available today in Denmark including In-house, In-storage and In-field SATs, and 2) summarizes expert judgements on how these SATs could be implemented in each country in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Special focus on bottlenecks for implementing SATs with existing manure management systems was considered.

    Data from Eurostat and national statistics show that a large portion of manure in each country is handled as slurry and all the national experts considered implementing SATs as relevant for their respective countries.

    The In-field SATs were considered the most applicable SATs for implementation in the BSR. They are flexible and mobile and in general have the lowest acid consumption. If investments in In-field SATs are done by agricultural contractors or farmer cooperation’s, then acidification techniques will also be available to smaller farms.

    The In-storage SATs that acidify slurry just before spreading were ranked second of interest in most countries. Mobile equipment is ideal for contractors and co-operations and therefore each unit could potentially treat a lot of slurry. Another advantage is that once the slurry is acidified, any available spreading equipment can be used. The major drawback is that extra storage capacity is needed during acidification so the foaming will not overflow. Most farmers do not have this extra storage capacity, so if storages are full, some slurry would have to be spread untreated before the rest of the tank could be acidified.

    The stationary In-house SAT was thought to be of less interest in most countries, since it is perhaps the hardest SAT to implement into existing manure handling systems. They are best suited for new animal houses so the SAT can be integrated into the manure handling system from the start. Installing them in existing animal houses would, in many cases, probably require re-construction of slurry channels. Also, in some countries like Estonia and Sweden, flushing systems inside the barn are currently not allowed due to regulations. Another aspect is that In-house SATs are permanent installations which use more acid than In-field and In-storage SATs. However, In-house SATs have the best potential for reducing ammonia emissions so this might be of interest for farms in environmentally sensitive areas.

    Compared to In-house, there was greater interest in the In-storage SAT that acidifies all slurry sent to the storage, since this could likely more easy to implement into existing manure handling systems. It is still a stationary system for a specific farm, but installation would be simpler and emissions would be lower from both storage and spreading.

    In general, there is a good potential to implement currently available SATs into existing manure handling systems in BSR countries and most identified bottle-necks could be dealt with.

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