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  • 1.
    Chen, Tao
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ku, Xiaoke
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Sjöblom, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; .
    High-temperature pyrolysis modeling of a thermally thick biomass particle based on an MD-derived tar cracking model2021In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 417, article id 127923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass pyrolysis in the thermally thick regime is an important thermochemical phenomenon encountered in many different types of reactors. In this paper, a particle-resolved algorithm for thermally thick biomass particle during high-temperature pyrolysis is established by using reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The temperature gradient inside the particle is computed with a heat transfer equation, and a multiphase flow algorithm is used to simulate the advection/diffusion both inside and outside the particle. Besides, to simulate the influence of intraparticle temperature gradient on the primary pyrolysis yields, a multistep kinetic scheme is used. Moreover, a new tar decomposition model is developed by reactive molecular dynamic simulations where every primary tar species in the multistep kinetic scheme cracks under high temperature. The integrated pyrolysis model is evaluated against a pyrolysis experiment of a centimeter-sized beech wood particle at 800–1050 °C. The simulation results show a remarkable improvement in both light gas and tar yields compared with a simplified tar cracking model. Meanwhile, the MD tar cracking model also gives a more reasonable prediction of the species yield history, which avoids the appearance of unrealistically high peak values at the initial stage of pyrolysis. Based on the new results, the different roles of secondary tar cracking inside and outside the particle are studied. Finally, the model is also used to assess the influence of tar residence time and several other factors impacting the pyrolysis.

  • 2.
    Jonauskaite, D.
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Abu-Akel, A.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Dael, N.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland; .
    Oberfeld, D.
    Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany.
    Abdel-Khalek, A. M.
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Al-Rasheed, A. S.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Antonietti, J. -P
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bogushevskaya, V.
    Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Italy.
    Chamseddine, A.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Chkonia, E.
    Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia.
    Corona, V.
    Universidad Panamericana, Mexico; Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Fonseca-Pedrero, E.
    University of La Rioja, Spain.
    Griber, Y. A.
    Smolensk State University, Russia.
    Grimshaw, G.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Hasan, A. A.
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Havelka, J.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Hirnstein, M.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Laurent, E.
    University Bourgogne Franche Comté, France; .
    Lindeman, M.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Marquardt, L.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mefoh, P.
    University of Nigeria, Nigeria.
    Papadatou-Pastou, M.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Academy of Athens, Greece.
    Pérez-Albéniz, A.
    University of La Rioja, Spain.
    Pouyan, N.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Roinishvili, M.
    I Beritashvili Center of Experimental Biomedicine, Georgia.
    Romanyuk, L.
    Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine; VI Vernadsky Taurida National University, Ukraine; Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts, Ukraine.
    Salgado Montejo, A.
    Universidad de La Sabana, Colombia; BI Norwegian Business School, Norway; Neurosketch, Colombia.
    Schrag, Y.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Sultanova, A.
    National Mental Health Centre, Ministry of Health, Azerbaijan.
    Uusküla, M.
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Vainio, S.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Wąsowicz, G.
    Kozminski University, Poland.
    Zdravković, S.
    University of Novi Sad, Serbia; University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Zhang, M.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Mohr, C.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Universal Patterns in Color-Emotion Associations Are Further Shaped by Linguistic and Geographic Proximity2020In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 1245-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of us “see red,” “feel blue,” or “turn green with envy.” Are such color-emotion associations fundamental to our shared cognitive architecture, or are they cultural creations learned through our languages and traditions? To answer these questions, we tested emotional associations of colors in 4,598 participants from 30 nations speaking 22 native languages. Participants associated 20 emotion concepts with 12 color terms. Pattern-similarity analyses revealed universal color-emotion associations (average similarity coefficient r =.88). However, local differences were also apparent. A machine-learning algorithm revealed that nation predicted color-emotion associations above and beyond those observed universally. Similarity was greater when nations were linguistically or geographically close. This study highlights robust universal color-emotion associations, further modulated by linguistic and geographic factors. These results pose further theoretical and empirical questions about the affective properties of color and may inform practice in applied domains, such as well-being and design. © The Author(s) 2020.

  • 3.
    Jonauskaite, Domicele
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland; University of Vienna, Austria.
    Epicoco, Déborah
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Al-rasheed, Abdulrahman S.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Aruta, John Jamir Benzon R.
    De La Salle University, Philippines.
    Bogushevskaya, Victoria
    University of Salento, Italy.
    Brederoo, Sanne G.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Corona, Violeta
    Universidad Panamericana, Mexico; Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Fomins, Sergejs
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Gizdic, Alena
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Griber, Yulia A.
    Smolensk State University, Russian Federation.
    Havelka, Jelena
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Hirnstein, Marco
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    John, George
    Government of India, India.
    Jopp, Daniela S.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Konstantinou, Nikos
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Laurent, Éric
    Université de Franche-Comté, France.
    Marquardt, Lynn
    Haukeland University Hospital, Norway.
    Mefoh, Philip C.
    University of Nigeria, Nigeria.
    Oberfeld, Daniel
    Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Perchtold-Stefan, Corinna M.
    University of Graz, Austria.
    Spagnulo, Giulia F. M.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Sultanova, Aygun
    National Mental Health Centre, Azerbaijan.
    Tanaka, Takumi
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Tengco-Pacquing, Ma. Criselda
    University of Santo Tomas, Phillipines.
    Uusküla, Mari
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Wąsowicz, Grażyna
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland; University of Vienna, Austria.
    Mohr, Christine
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    A comparative analysis of colour–emotion associations in 16–88-year-old adults from 31 countries2023In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As people age, they tend to spend more time indoors, and the colours in their surroundings may significantly impact their mood and overall well-being. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence to provide informed guidance on colour choices, irrespective of age group. To work towards informed choices, we investigated whether the associations between colours and emotions observed in younger individuals also apply to older adults. We recruited 7393 participants, aged between 16 and 88 years and coming from 31 countries. Each participant associated 12 colour terms with 20 emotion concepts and rated the intensity of each associated emotion. Different age groups exhibited highly similar patterns of colour–emotion associations (average similarity coefficient of.97), with subtle yet meaningful age-related differences. Adolescents associated the greatest number but the least positively biased emotions with colours. Older participants associated a smaller number but more intense and more positive emotions with all colour terms, displaying a positivity effect. Age also predicted arousal and power biases, varying by colour. Findings suggest parallels in colour–emotion associations between younger and older adults, with subtle but significant age-related variations. Future studies should next assess whether colour–emotion associations reflect what people actually feel when exposed to colour. 

  • 4.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Sjöblom, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Light my fire but don't choke on the smoke: Wellbeing and pollution from fireplace use in Sweden2020In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 69, article id 101696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fireplaces are popular in Northern Europe. However, particle emissions from fireplaces have been identified as an environmental problem and a health problem. User behaviors affect particle emissions and the success of particle reducing technologies to a large extent. This interdisciplinary study aims to investigate why and how people use their fireplaces, including what emotions people associate with fire, and their interest in learning more about fire making and changing behavior related to fire making. It does so by applying an emotion regulation model in a novel way. In total, 146 Swedish individuals owning a fireplace (the majority had wood stoves, a few had tiled stoves, boilers or other types of fireplaces) participated in an online questionnaire about motives, behaviors, knowledge, and interest in learning and changing behavior. The most common motives for using a fireplace in this sample were complementary heating and “cozy fire making”. Our results suggest that watching a fire can aid in regulating emotions from unpleasant stress towards joy and provide a pleasant atmosphere for socialization, and that wood fuel may be a preferred complementary energy choice because it provides beautiful light, comfortable warmth, beautiful design and safety. People reporting emotional motives for using a fireplace also reported an interest in changing behavior.

  • 5.
    Kawasaki, Yayoi
    et al.
    Waseda University, Japan.
    Reid, J Nick
    Western University, Canada.
    Ikeda, Kazuhiro
    Shokei Gakuin University, Japan.
    Liu, Meiling
    DIS Study Abroad in Scandinavia, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Color Judgments of #The Dress and #The Jacket in a Sample of Different Cultures.2021In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 216-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two viral photographs, #The Dress and #The Jacket, have received recent attention in research on perception as the colors in these photos are ambiguous. In the current study, we examined perception of these photographs across three different cultural samples: Sweden (Western culture), China (Eastern culture), and India (between Western and Eastern cultures). Participants also answered questions about gender, age, morningness, and previous experience of the photographs. Analyses revealed that only age was a significant predictor for the perception of The Dress, as older people were more likely to perceive the colors as blue and black than white and gold. In contrast, multiple factors predicted perception of The Jacket, including age, previous experience, and country. Consistent with some previous research, this suggests that the perception of The Jacket is a different phenomenon from perception of The Dress and is influenced by additional factors, most notably culture.

  • 6.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Carolina, Hiller
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Alguren, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hållbarhetseffekter av ljus som tjänst2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom cirkulär ekonomi är funktionsförsäljning en affärsmodell som väntas ge incitament för tillverkare att göra produkter som håller längre och använder färre resurser över tid, och även säkerställer återbruk och återvinning vid end-of-life. Inom belysning kan detta exempelvis ta uttryck i att sälja ljus som tjänst. Denna rapport går igenom olika hållbarhetsaspekter relaterade till belysning, såväl miljömässiga som sociala och ekonomiska, och hur de skulle kunna påverkas av ett skifte i affärsmodell från traditionellt linjärt produktköp till ljus som tjänst. Arbetet har haft fokus på allmänbelysning inomhus i skolor och kontor i Sverige och fokuserat på områden där ett skifte i affärsmodell skulle kunna ha inverkan på hållbarhet. Det finns många olika strategier för att öka cirkularitet inom belysning, från cirkulärt anpassad hårdvara till ändrade affärsmodeller. I denna rapport används företaget Brightecos erbjudande av ljus som tjänst som exempel på en cirkulär affärsmodell, och diskuterar hur affärsmodellen kan påverka förutsättningar för hållbarhet relativt traditionellt linjärt produktköp. De exempel som studerats indikerar att ljus som tjänst i dagsläget inte är företagsekonomiskt fördelaktigt, sett till enbart kostnader för belysning. Ur ett större hållbarhetsperspektiv där även effekter på miljö, välbefinnande och samhällsekonomi räknas in, är det däremot troligen att föredra. De största miljövinsterna med Brighecos modell är dess potential att minska resursanvändning och avfall, stimulera teknikbyte till LED och minska risk för överinstallation av produkter. Samtidigt innebär affärsmodellen en ökad sannolikhet för att belysningsfrågor uppmärksammas och anpassningar görs för ökat välbefinnande hos användarna. Detta skulle kunna leda till betydande besparingar för såväl organisationer som samhälle, men det är effekter som är svåra att mäta och det råder således stor osäkerhet på storheterna. De potentiella fördelar för ekonomi, miljö och välbefinnande som denna rapport pekat på när det gäller ljus som tjänst är möjliga att uppnå även på andra sätt, exempelvis genom en kombination av olika produkter och tjänster. Ljus som tjänst är dock en affärsmodell som ökar förutsättningarna för att denna typ av åtgärder blir av, inte minst i organisationer som kanske inte själva har stark belysningskompetens.

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  • 7.
    Sahlberg, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöblom, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Don't extinguish my fire – Understanding public resistance to a Swedish policy aimed at reducing particle emissions by phasing out old wood stoves2022In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 167, article id 113017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood stoves emit particulate matter when used for domestic heating. Consequently, the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning in Sweden enforced a prohibition of new installations of old wood stoves in 2017 to protect the public health. The prohibition caused a public backlash that organized itself as a “wood stove rising”, eventually leading to a cancellation of the new legislation in 2019. We performed comprehensive interviews with 11 signatories of the original appeal to analyze the underlying motives for combating the implementation of this pro-environmental energy policy. We find that domestic heating through fire-making is an age-old human behavior that is deeply connected to several social and emotional human needs, but also to survival in remote areas with cold climate. The likelihood of policy observance and acceptance is higher if the policy is not perceived as being in direct conflict with these needs: basic emotion regulation, sensations of tradition and connection to other people, and means of crisis management for the individual. We also find that the protesters acted out of a sustainability perspective, albeit one where the continued use of functional devices was valued more than the perceived wear-and-tear of replacing outdated technology. © 2022 The Authors

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