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  • 1.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Natalino, C.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, L.
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Bobrovs, V.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Schatz, R.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, X.
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Furdek, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Feedforward Neural Network-Based EVM Estimation: Impairment Tolerance in Coherent Optical Systems2022In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 28, no 4, article id 6000410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Error vector magnitude (EVM) is commonly used for evaluating the quality of m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (mQAM) signals. Recently proposed deep learning techniques for EVM estimation extend the functionality of conventional optical performance monitoring (OPM). In this article, we evaluate the tolerance of our developed EVM estimation scheme against various impairments in coherent optical systems. In particular, we analyze the signal quality monitoring capabilities in the presence of residual in-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalance, fiber nonlinearity, and laser phase noise. We use feedforward neural networks (FFNNs) to extract the EVM information from amplitude histograms of 100 symbols per IQ cluster signal sequence captured before carrier phase recovery. We perform simulations of the considered impairments, along with an experimental investigation of the impact of laser phase noise. To investigate the tolerance of the EVM estimation scheme to each impairment type, we compare the accuracy for three training methods: 1) training without impairment, 2) training one model for all impairments, and 3) training an independent model for each impairment. Results indicate a good generalization of the proposed EVM estimation scheme, thus providing a valuable reference for developing next-generation intelligent OPM systems. 

  • 2.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Natalino, C.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, L.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, S.
    Riga Technical University, Sweden.
    Bobrovs, V.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Schatz, R.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, X.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Furdek, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    EVM Estimation for Performance Monitoring in Coherent Optical Systems: An Approach of Linear Regression2022In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, Optica Publishing Group (formerly OSA) , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple linear regression scheme for optical performance monitoring when applied after modulation format identification. It outperforms the FFNN-based benchmark scheme providing 0.2% mean absolute error for EVM estimation., © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 3.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Natalino, Carlos
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Furdek, Marija
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Laser Linewidth Tolerant EVM Estimation Approach for Intelligent Signal Quality Monitoring Relying on Feedforward Neural Networks2021In: 2021 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robustness against the large linewidth semiconductor laser-induced impairments in coherent systems is experimentally demonstrated for a feedforward neural network-enabled EVM estimation scheme. A mean error of 0.4% is achieved for 28 Gbaud square and circular QAM signals and linewidths up to 12.3 MHz.

  • 4.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Natalino, Carlos
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Furdek, Marija
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Linear Regression vs. Deep Learning for Signal Quality Monitoring in Coherent Optical Systems2022In: IEEE Photonics Journal, E-ISSN 1943-0655, Vol. 14, no 4, article id 8643108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Error vector magnitude (EVM) is a metric for assessing the quality of m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (mQAM) signals. Recently proposed deep learning techniques, e.g., feedforward neural networks (FFNNs) -based EVM estimation scheme leverage fast signal quality monitoring in coherent optical communication systems. Such a scheme estimates EVM from amplitude histograms (AHs) of short signal sequences captured before carrier phase recovery (CPR). In this work, we explore further complexity reduction by proposing a simple linear regression (LR) -based EVM monitoring method. We systematically compare the performance of the proposed method with the FFNN-based scheme and demonstrate its capability to infer EVM from an AH when the modulation format information is known in advance. We perform both simulation and experiment to show that the LR-based EVM estimation method achieves a comparable accuracy as the FFNN-based scheme. The technique can be embedded with modulation format identification modules to provide comprehensive signal information. Therefore, this work paves the way to design a fast-learning scheme with parsimony as a future intelligent OPM enabler. 

  • 5.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Natalino, Carlos
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Furdek, Marija
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Experimental validation of CNNs versus FFNNs for time- and energy-efficient EVM estimation in coherent optical systems2021In: Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, ISSN 1943-0620, E-ISSN 1943-0639, Vol. 13, no 10, p. E63-E71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Error vector magnitude (EVM) has proven to be one of the optical performance monitoring metrics providing the quantitative estimation of error statistics. However, the EVM estimation efficiency has not been fully exploited in terms of complexity and energy consumption. Therefore, in this paper, we explore two deep-learning-based EVM estimation schemes. The first scheme exploits convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to extract EVM information from images of the constellation diagram in the in-phase/quadrature (IQ) complex plane or amplitude histograms (AHs). The second scheme relies on feedforward neural networks (FFNNs) extracting features from a vectorized representation of AHs. In both cases, we use short sequences of 32 Gbaud m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (mQAM) signals captured before or after a carrier phase recovery. The impacts of the sequence length, neural network structure, and data set representation on the EVM estimation accuracy as well as the model training time are thoroughly studied. Furthermore, we validate the performance of the proposed schemes using the experimental implementation of 28 Gbaud 64QAM signals. We achieve a mean absolute estimation error below 0.15%, with short signals consisting of only 100 symbols per IQ cluster. Considering the estimation accuracy, the implementation complexity, and the potential energy savings, the proposed CNN- and FFNN-based schemes can be used to perform time-sensitive and accurate EVM estimation for mQAM signal quality monitoring purposes.

  • 6.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Natalino, C.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furdek, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fast signal quality monitoring for coherent communications enabled by CNN-based EVM estimation2021In: Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, ISSN 1943-0620, E-ISSN 1943-0639, Vol. 13, no 4, p. B12-B20, article id 9326316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a fast and accurate signal quality monitoring scheme that uses convolutional neural networks for error vector magnitude (EVM) estimation in coherent optical communications. We build a regression model to extract EVM information from complex signal constellation diagrams using a small number of received symbols. For the additive-white-Gaussian-noise-impaired channel, the proposed EVM estimation scheme shows a normalized mean absolute estimation error of 3.7% for quadrature phase-shift keying, 2.2% for 16-Ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM), and 1.1% for 64QAM signals, requiring only 100 symbols per constellation cluster in each observation period. Therefore, it can be used as a low-complexity alternative to conventional bit-error-rate estimation, enabling solutions for intelligent optical performance monitoring. 

  • 7.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Natalino, C.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Furdek, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Deep learning assisted pre-carrier phase recovery EVM estimation for coherent transmission systems2021In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers 2021 Article number STh1F.2, The Optical Society , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit deep supervised learning and amplitude histograms of coherent optical signals captured before carrier phase recovery (CPR) to perform time-sensitive and accurate error vector magnitude (EVM) estimation for 32 Gbaud mQAM signal monitoring purposes. © OSA 2021, © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 8.
    Han, M.
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Wang, M.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cai, S.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Guo, Y.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Zhang, N.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Schatz, Rickard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Simultaneous modulation format identification and OSNR monitoring based on optoelectronic reservoir computing2022In: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 30, no 26, p. 47515-47527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach for simultaneous modulation format identification (MFI) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring in digital coherent optical communications is proposed based on optoelectronic reservoir computing (RC) and the signal’s amplitude histograms (AHs) obtained after the adaptive post-equalization. The optoelectronic RC is implemented using a Mach-Zehnder modulator and optoelectronic delay feedback loop. We investigate the performance of the proposed model with the number of symbols, bins of AHs and the hyperparameters of optoelectronic RC. The results show that 100% MFI accuracy can be achieved simultaneously with accurate OSNR estimation for different modulation formats under study. The lowest achievable OSNR estimation mean absolute errors for the dual-polarization (DP)-quadrature phase-shift keying signal, the DP-16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) signal, and the DP-64QAM signal are 0.2 dB, 0.32 dB and 0.53 dB, respectively. The robustness of the proposed scheme is also evaluated when the optoelectronic RC is in presence of additive white Gaussian noises. Then, a proof of concept experiment is demonstrated to further verify our proposed method. The proposed approach offers a potential solution for next-generation intelligent optical performance monitoring in the physical layer.

  • 9.
    Han, M.
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, M.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, Sweden.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Salgals, T.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Louchet, H.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Schatz, R.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gruen, M.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Pittala, F.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Krüger, B.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Dippon, T.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Zhang, L.
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Yu, X.
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Spolitis, S.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia; .
    Bobrovs, V.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Optical amplification-free deep reservoir computing-assisted high-baudrate short-reach communication2023In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 2122-2125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optical amplification-free deep reservoir computing (RC)-assisted high-baudrate intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) system is experimentally demonstrated using a 100G externally modulated laser operated in C-band. We transmit 112 Gbaud 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) and 100 Gbaud 6-level PAM (PAM6) signals over a 200-m single-mode fiber (SMF) link without any optical amplification. The decision feedback equalizer (DFE), shallow RC, and deep RC are adopted in the IM/DD system to mitigate impairment and improve transmission performance. Both PAM transmissions over a 200-m SMF with bit error rate (BER) performance below 6.25% overhead hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold are achieved. In addition, the BER of the PAM4 signal is below the KP4-FEC limit after 200-m SMF transmission enabled by the RC schemes. Thanks to the use of a multiple-layer structure, the number of weights in deep RC has been reduced by approximately 50% compared with the shallow RC, whereas the performance is comparable. We believe that the optical amplification-free deep RC-assisted high-baudrate link has a promising application in intra-data center communications.

  • 10.
    Han, M.
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, M.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Salgals, T.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Louchet, H.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gruen, M.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Pittala, F.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Krüger, B.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Dippon, T.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Zhang, L.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Yu, X.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, S.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, V.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Deep Reservoir Computing for 100 Gbaud PAM6 IM/DD Transmission Impairment Mitigation2023In: Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., OFC - Proc., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally evaluate a deep Reservoir Computing (RC)-based post-equalization for 100 Gbaud PAM6 IM/DD transmissions. It achieves ∼1 dB higher sensitivity than DFE, and ∼50% implementation complexity reduction compared with the conventional RC configuration.

  • 11.
    Han, Mengyao
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Muguang
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Maisons, Gregory
    MirSense, France.
    Abautret, Johan
    MirSense, France.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Teissier, Roland
    MirSense, France.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Long-Wave Infrared Discrete Multitone Free-Space Transmission Using a 9.15-μm Quantum Cascade Laser2023In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 489-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A free-space optical (FSO) transmission system is experimentally demonstrated in the long-wave infrared (LWIR, 9.15μ m ) using a directly modulated quantum cascade laser (DM-QCL) and a commercial mercury-cadmium-telluride infrared photovoltaic detector. At room temperature, the DM-QCL is current-modulated by discrete multitone signals pre-processed with bit-/power-loading. Up to 5.1 Gbit/s data rate is achieved with bit error rate performance below the 6.25% overhead hard-decision forward error correction limit of 4.5× 10-3 , enabled by a frequency domain equalizer. The stability study of the FSO system is also performed at multiple temperature values. This study can provide a valuable reference for future terrestrial and space communications. 

  • 12.
    Han, Mengyao
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Muguang
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Puerta, Rafael
    Ericsson, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Maisons, Gregory
    mirSense, France.
    Abautret, Johan
    mirSense, France.
    Roland, Roland
    mirSense, France.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    High Spectral Efficiency Long-wave Infrared Free-Space Optical Transmission with Multilevel Signals2023In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the potential of long-wave infrared free-space optical (FSO) transmission that leverages multilevel signals to attain high spectral efficiency. The FSO transmission system consists of a directly modulated-quantum cascade laser (DM-QCL) operating at 9.15 μm and a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector. To fully understand the system, we conduct measurements on the DM-QCL chip and MCT detector and assess the overall amplitude response of the DM-QCL, MCT detector, and all electrical components. We apply various signals, including on-off keying (OOK), 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), 6-level PAM (PAM6), and 8-level PAM (PAM8) to maximize the bit rate and spectral efficiency of the FSO transmission. Through a two-dimensional sweeping of the laser bias current and MCT detector photovoltage, we optimize the transmission performance. At the optimal operation point, the FSO system achieved impressive results which are up to 6 Gbaud OOK, 3.5 Gbaud PAM4, 3 Gbaud PAM6, and 2.7 Gbaud PAM8 signal transmissions, with a bit error rate performance below 6.25% overhead hard decision-forward error correction limit when the DM-QCL operates at 10 °C. We also evaluate the eye diagrams and stability of the system to showcase its remarkable transmission performance. Our findings suggest that the DMQCL and MCT detector-based FSO transceivers offer a highly competitive solution for the next generation of optical wireless communication systems

  • 13.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dely, Hamza
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gacemi, Djamal
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Salgals, Toms
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Rodriguez, Etienne
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Vasanelli, Angela
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sirtori, Carlo
    Sorbonne University, France.
    High-Speed 9.6-μm Long-Wave Infrared Free- Space Transmission with a Directly-Modulated QCL and a Fully-Passive QCD2023In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 1087-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-space optics (FSO) in the mid-infrared (mid- IR) contains rich spectral resources for future ultrahigh-speed wireless communications yet is currently under-exploited. Two atmospheric transmission windows at the mid-IR, namely, the mid-wave IR (MWIR, 3-5 µm) and the long-wave IR (LWIR, 8-12 µm), show great potential in supporting free-space communications for both terrestrial and space application scenarios. Particularly, the LWIR signal with a longer wavelength has high intrinsic robustness against aerosols' scattering and turbulence-induced scintillation and beam broadening effects, which are the main concerns hindering the wide deployment of practical FSO systems. In this context, high-bandwidth semiconductor-based mid-IR FSO transceivers will be desirable to meet the requirements of low energy consumption and small footprints for large-volume development and deployment. Quantum cascade devices, including quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and quantum cascade detectors (QCDs), appear promising candidates to fulfill this role. In this work, we report a high-speed LWIR FSO transmission demonstration with a 9.6-µm directly-modulated (DM)-QCL and a fully passive QCD without any active cooling or bias voltage. Up to 8 Gb/s, 10 Gb/s, and 11 Gb/s signal transmissions are achieved when operating the DM- QCL at 10°C, 5°C, and 0°C, respectively. These results indicate a significant step towards an envisioned fully-connected mid-IR FSO solution empowered by the quantum cascade semiconductor devices.

  • 14.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Han, Mengyao
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Puerta, Rafael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Maisons, Gregory
    mirSense, France.
    Abautret, Johan
    mirSense, France.
    Teissier, Roland
    mirSense, France.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Wang, Muguang
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    8.1 Gbps PAM8 Long-Wave IR FSO Transmission using a 9.15-µm Directly-Modulated QCL with an MCT Detector2023In: Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2023, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally demonstrate a Long-Wave IR FSO link with a 9.15-µm directly modulated quantum cascade laser at room temperature. Up to 8.1 Gb/s PAM8 transmission over 1.4 meter is achieved with a wideband MCT detector.

  • 15.
    Ostrovskis, A.
    et al.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Salgals, T.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Krüger, B.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Pittalà, F.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Joharifar, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Koenigsmann, M.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Chacinski, M.
    Coherent, Sweden.
    Westergren, U.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, L.
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Mardoyan, H.
    Nokia Bell Labs, France.
    Spolitis, S.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Popov, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, X.
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Gruen, M.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Bobrovs, V.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia; .
    Louchet, H.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Riga Technical University, Latvia; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    106.25 Gbaud On-Off Keying and Pulse Amplitude Modulation Links Supporting Next Generation Ethernet on Single Lambda2023In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of Data Center based computing technology require energy efficient high-speed transmission links. This leads to optical amplification-free intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) systems with low complexity equalization compliant with IEEE standardized electrical interfaces. Switching from on-off keying to multi-level pulse amplitude modulation would allow to reduce lane count for next generation Ethernet interfaces. We characterize 106.25 Gbaud on-off keying, 4-level and 6-level pulse amplitude modulation links using two integrated transmitters: O-band directly modulated laser and C-band externally modulated laser. Simple feed forward or decision feedback equalizer is used. We demonstrate 106.25 Gbaud on-off keying links operating without forward error correction for both transmitters. We also show 106.25 Gbaud 4-level and 6-level pulse amplitude modulation links with performance below 6.25% overhead hard-decision forward error threshold of 4.5×10-3. Furthermore, for EML-based transmitter we achieve 106.25 Gbaud 4-level pulse amplitude modulation performance below KP-FEC threshold of 2.2×10-4. That shows that we can use optics to support (2x)100 Gbps Ethernet on single lambda at expense of simple forward error correction.

  • 16.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Optical Amplification-Free 310/256 Gbaud OOK, 197/145 Gbaud PAM4, and 160/116 Gbaud PAM6 EML/DML-based Data Center Links2023In: 2023 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2023 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a record 310/256 Gbaud OOK, 197/145 Gbaud PAM4, and 160/116 Gbaud PAM6 EML/DML-based IM/DD links without any optical amplification with performance below the 6.25% overhead HD-FEC threshold after 100-m/6-km SMF, respectively. © 2023 The Author(s).

  • 17.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    106.25 Gbaud 4-Level Pulse Amplitude Modulation Links Supporting (2x)100Gigabit Ethernet on Single Lambda2023In: 2023 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2023 - Proceedings. 2023 Article number Tu3I.1, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally demonstrate and compare EML- and DML-based optical interconnects with 106.25 Gbaud NRZ-OOK and PAM4 for computing applications. The results show that both transmitters can be used to enable optical-amplification-free transmissions with low-complexity DSP. © 2023 The Author(s).

  • 18.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    High Baudrate Short-Reach Communication2022In: OECC/PSC 2022 - 27th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching and Computing 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a 200 Gbps IM/DD link without any optical amplification using C-band externally modulated laser with 3.3 dBm of modulated output power and O-band directly modulated laser with 7.3 dBm of modulated output power. 

  • 19.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Salgals, Toms
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Louchet, Hadrien
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gruen, Markus
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Dippon, Thomas
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Kruger, Benjamin
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Pittala, Fabio
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Che, Di
    Nokia Bell Labs, USA.
    Matsui, Yasuhiro
    II-VI Incorporated, USA.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Westergren, Urban
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang Universitsy, China.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang Universitsy, China.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Optical Amplification-Free High Baudrate Links for Intra-Data Center Communications2023In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enormous traffic growth sets a stringent requirement to upgrade short-reach optical links to 1.6 TbE capacity in an economically viable way. The power consumption and latency in these links should be as low as possible, especially for high-speed computing. This is possible to achieve using high baudrate on-off keying links thanks to a better noise tolerance and a relaxed requirement on linearity for electronics and photonics. In this regard, we demonstrate a 200 Gbaud on-off keying link without any optical amplification using an externally modulated laser with 3.3 dBm of modulated output power operating at 1541.25 nm wavelength. We achieve transmission over 200 meters of single-mode fiber with performance below 6.25% overhead hard-decision forward error correction threshold for each baudrate and all selection of modulation formats. We also show 108 Gbaud on-off keying link with superior performance without decision feedback equalizer up to 400 meters of single-mode fiber. In addition, we benchmark the short-reach optical link with 112 Gbaud four-level pulse amplitude modulation and 100 Gbaud six-level pulse amplitude modulation. For 108 Gbaud on-off keying and 112 Gbaud four-level pulse amplitude modulation, we can achieve an even lower bit error rate.

  • 20.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    et al.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Ostrovskis, Armands
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Salgals, Toms
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Kruger, Benjamin
    Keysight Technologies Deutschland GmbH, Germany.
    Pittala, Fabio
    Keysight Technologies Deutschland GmbH, Germany.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Koenigsmann, Michael
    Keysight Technologies Deutschland GmbH, Germany.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Westergren, Urban
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mardoyan, Haik
    Nokia Bell Labs, France.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Gruen, Markus
    Keysight Technologies Deutschland GmbH, Germany.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Louchet, Hadrien
    Keysight Technologies Deutschland GmbH, Germany.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    High-Baudrate SiP and InP Modulators for Data Center Interconnects2023In: 31st International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks, SoftCOM 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The booming internet traffic sets highly challenging requirements for high-speed computing where low latency is required. This leads to a choice of intensity modulation and direct detection system with the highest baudrate possible. Furthermore, record baudrate supporting modulators will be the key technology for future optical interconnect applications. Therefore, we demonstrated silicon photonics and indium phosphide modulators at highest possible sysmbolrate.

  • 21.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Salgals, T.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Louchet, H.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Che, D.
    Nokia Bell Labs, USA.
    Matsui, Y.
    II-VI Incorporated, USA.
    Gruen, M.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Dippon, T.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Pittala, F.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Kruger, B.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Westergren, Urban
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, L.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Yu, X.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, S.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, V.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Error-Free 108 Gbps On-Off Keying Link for Optical Interconnect Applications2022In: 2022 European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate an error-free 108 Gbps OOK link using a C-band externally modulated laser with 3.3 dBm of modulated output power and an O-band directly modulated laser with 7.3 dBm of modulated output power. This paves the way forward for high-speed optical interconnects without FEC. 

  • 22.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Salgals, Toms
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Louchet, Hadrien
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gruen, Markus
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Dippon, Thomas
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Kruger, Benjamin
    Che, Di
    Nokia Bell Labs, USA.
    Matsui, Yasuhiro
    II-VI Incorporated, USA.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, Vjaseclavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Optical Amplification-Free 200 Gbaud On-Off Keying Link for Intra-Data Center Communications2022In: 2022 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2022 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, article id Th4A.6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a 200 Gbaud OOK link without any optical amplification using C-band externally modulated laser with 3.3 dBm of modulated output power. We achieve below 6.25% overhead HD-FEC threshold after 200 meters of SMF. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 23.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Dely, Hamza
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gacemi, Djamal
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Salgals, Toms
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Rodriguez, Etienne
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, latvia.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Vasanelli, Angela
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Sirtori, Carlo
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    11 Gb/s LWIR FSO Transmission at 9.6 μm using a Directly-Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser and an Uncooled Quantum Cascade Detector2022In: 2022 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2022 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, article id Th4B.5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Record 11 Gb/s LWIR FSO transmission is demonstrated with a 9.6-μm directly-modulated QCL and a fully passive QCD without cooling, surpassing the previous bitrate record of DM-QCL-based FSO in this spectral window by 4 times. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 24.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Salgals, T.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Louchet, H.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Che, D.
    Nokia Bell Labs, USA.
    Gruen, M.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Matsui, Y.
    II-VI Incorporated, USA.
    Dippon, T.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kruger, B.
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Zhang, L.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Yu, X.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, S.
    Riga Technical University, Sweden.
    Bobrovs, V.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    200 Gb/s Unamplified IM/DD Transmission over 20-km SMF with an O-band Low-Chirp Directly Modulated Laser2022In: 2022 European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    200 Gb/s IM/DD transmission over 20-km SMF is demonstrated without any optical amplifiers, achieving BER below the 6.25%-overhead HD-FEC limit, enabled by a broadband and high-power DML with low-complexity digital equalizations.

  • 25.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Salgals, Toms
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Louchet, Hadrien
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Che, Di
    Nokia Bell Labs, USA.
    Gruen, Markus
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Matsui, Yasuhiro
    Nokia Bell Labs, USA.
    Dippon, Thomas
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kruger, Benjamin
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Pittala, Fabio
    Keysight Technologies GmbH, Germany.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Yu, Xianbin
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    200 Gb/s Optical-Amplifier-Free IM/DD Transmissions using a Directly Modulated O-band DFB+R Laser targeting LR Applications2023In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 3635-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally demonstrate an O-band single-lane 200 Gb/s intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) transmission system using a low-chirp, broadband, and high-power directly modulated laser (DML). The employed laser is an isolator-free packaged module with over 65-GHz modulation bandwidth enabled by a distributed feedback plus passive waveguide reflection (DFB+R) design. We transmit high baud rate signals over 20-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) without using any optical amplifiers and demodulate them with reasonably low-complexity digital equalizers. We generate and detect up to 170 Gbaud non-return-to-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK), 112 Gbaud 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), and 100 Gbaud PAM6 in the optical back-to-back configuration. After transmission over the 20-km optical-amplifier-free SSMF link, up to 150 Gbaud NRZ-OOK, 106 Gbaud PAM4, and 80 Gbaud PAM6 signals are successfully received and demodulated, achieving bit error rate (BER) performance below the 6.25%-overhead hard-decision (HD) forward-error-correction code (FEC) limit. The demonstrated results show the possibility of meeting the strict requirements towards the development of 200Gb/s/lane IM/DD technologies, targeting 800Gb/s and 1.6Tb/s LR applications.

  • 26.
    Puerta, R.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Ericsson, Sweden.
    Han, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    Joharifar, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schatz, R.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sun, Y. -T
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fan, Yuchuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Maisons, G.
    mirSense, France.
    Abautret, J.
    mirSense, France.
    Teissier, R.
    mirSense, France.
    Zhang, L.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Spolitis, S.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Wang, M.
    Beijing Jiaotong University,.
    Bobrovs, V.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Lourdudoss, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, X.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Popov, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    NR Conformance Testing of Analog Radio-over-LWIR FSO Fronthaul link for 6G Distributed MIMO Networks2023In: Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., OFC - Proc., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally test the compliance with 5G/NR 3GPP technical specifications of an analog radio-over-FSO link at 9 μm. The ACLR and EVM transmitter requirements are fulfilled validating the suitability of LWIR FSO for 6G fronthaul. © 2023 The Author(s).

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