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  • 1.
    Albolafio, Sofia
    et al.
    CEBAS-CSIC, Spain.
    Gil, Maria
    CEBAS-CSIC, Spain.
    Allende, Ana
    CEBAS-CSIC, Spain.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Potential of Wastewater Valorization after Wet Extraction of Proteins from Faba Bean and Pea Flours2021In: Recent Progress in Materials, E-ISSN 2689-5846, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to characterize wastewater fractions obtained after the wet extraction of proteins from legumes. In addition, the suitability of wastewater fractions for the potential recovery of high value-added compounds was also examined, and consequently, the prevention of the environmental impact of these wastes was explored. Similar to the industrial production of proteins, wet alkaline and acidic extractions of proteins from faba bean and pea flours were performed in two stages of extraction. The different wastewater fractions were characterized by measuring their organic matter content, total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and turbidity. The value-added compounds from these wastewater fractions were quantified, which included the protein content, carbohydrate content, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. In addition, the phenolic compounds in these factions were identified and quantified. It was observed that the fractions obtained in the first extraction stage had 60%–90% higher organic matter content, measured as the chemical oxygen demand (COD), compared to the second fractions, indicating a higher environmental impact of the former in case of disposal. The results obtained for COD, TS, TDS, EC, pH, and turbidity demonstrated that microfiltration reduced only the turbidity (85%), and consequently, a decrease was observed in the particulate matter, while there was a practically negligible reduction in the soluble matter. Wastewater from faba exhibited the highest polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, and was, therefore, considered the most valuable fraction for potential valorization.

  • 2.
    Bakalis, Serafim
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, UK; University of Birmingham, UK .
    Valdramidis, Vasilis P
    University of Malta, Malta.
    Argyropoulos, Dimitrios
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Ahrne, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chen, Jianshe
    Zhejiang Gongshang University, China.
    Cullen, P J
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Cummins, Enda
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Datta, Ashim K
    Cornell University, USA.
    Emmanouilidis, Christos
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Foster, Tim
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Fryer, Peter J
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Gouseti, Ourania
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Hospido, Almudena
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Knoerzer, Kai
    CSIRO, Australia.
    LeBail, Alain
    Oniris, France.
    Marangoni, Alejandro G
    University of Guelph, Canada.
    Rao, Pingfan
    Zhejiang Gongshang University, Canada.
    Schlüter, Oliver K
    Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Germany.
    Taoukis, Petros
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Van Impe, Jan F M
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Perspectives from CO+RE: How COVID-19 changed our food systems and food security paradigms.2020In: Current Research in Food Science, ISSN 2665-9271, Vol. 3, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a few weeks the world has changed, at the time this text is written (May 2020) more than 3.5 million people have been confirmed cases of COVID-19 and estimations propose up to a hundred times the number of actually infected. A third of the global population is on lockdown and a large part of our global economic activity has stopped. Food and access to food has played a visual role in portraying the impact of the outbreak on our society, with images of empty supermarket shelves appearing in mainstream media. In some countries closed schools resulted in many children not having access to free meals and mobilised a number of charities. While parts of the world are now exiting lockdown and measures start relaxing the near future remains uncertain with more waves of the pandemic expected. Given that there is currently no evidence to show that transmission of COVID-19 could occur through food or food packaging there has been limited discussion on the issue, implications and potential future scenarios within the wider food science community.

    Within the food research community, up to the pandemic crisis the discourse has been dominated with design and manufacture of healthy and safe foods. The main issues are relevant to sustainability, circular economy, energy and water efficiency, climate friendly practices of products and processes. Efficiency has been the focus, but resilience has not been a significant issue so far. The term food system resilience has been defined by Tendalla (Tendalla et al., 2015) as ‘capacity over time of a food system and its units at multiple levels, to provide sufficient, appropriate and accessible food to all, in the face of various and even unforeseen disturbances’. We believe that in the future we will continue to see similar pressures in the food system, e.g., comparable pandemics, effects of climate change on food production, and that resilience will become of major importance.

    This commentary aims to present a reflection from the past, considering the present situation to provide thoughts on the actions needed to ensure resilient food systems.

  • 3.
    Barba, Francisco
    et al.
    University of Alcala, Spain.
    Ahrne, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Landerslev, Martin
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Orlien, Vibeke
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Innovative technologies for food preservation: Chapter 22018In: Innovative technologies for food preservation: Inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, 2018, p. 25-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several techniques have been developed during the 20th century in order to preserve foods. These innovative technologies vary considerably and embrace physical technologies (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure and high-pressure homogenization), electromagnetic technologies (e.g., pulsed electric fields, ohmic heating, microwaves, radio-frequency, and UV-light), acoustic technologies (e.g., ultrasound and shockwaves), and others such as membrane filtration and dense phase CO2. In this chapter, the theoretical background and definition of the technologies are explained together with a description of the equipment, main technological/processing parameters, and some advantages and limitations from a technological point of view.

  • 4.
    Ben Tobin, Aarti
    et al.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Hildenbrand, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Miljkovic, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bolus rheology and ease of swallowing of particulated semi-solid foods as evaluated by an elderly panel2020In: Food & Function, ISSN 2042-6496, E-ISSN 2042-650X, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 8648-8658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preparation of a bolus is a complex process with both food comminution and degree of lubrication with saliva playing an important role in a safe swallow. Swallowing disorders i.e. dysphagia, are especially present among the elderly population and often lead to choking and further health complications. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between the perception of ease of swallowing in the elderly and the rheological parameters of particulated foods, using broccoli purees as a model system. Particulated foods can be described as a concentrated dispersion of plant particles in a fluid phase. The effect of the fluid phase (Newtonian vs. shear thinning) and dispersed phase (plant particles with different size distribution and morphology) on the rheological properties of simulated boli was studied by characterising shear viscosity, viscoelasticity, yield stress, extensional viscosity and cohesiveness. Ease of swallowing and mouthfeel were evaluated by a semi trained healthy elderly panel (n = 19, aged 61 to 81). Ease of swallowing was correlated with the presence of yield stress and extensional viscosity in the bolus, characteristic of boli with xanthan gum as the fluid phase. Although the properties of the fluid phase played a dominant role in the ease of swallowing, compared to the dispersed phase, both components played a role in the rheological properties of the bolus and the perception of ease of swallowing by the elderly panel. These results provide insights into the design of personalised foods for populations with specific needs such as those suffering from swallowing disorders.

  • 5.
    Dalvi-Isfahan, Mohsen
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Hamdami, Nasser
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    CNRS, France; University of Nantes, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    The principles of high voltage electric field and its application in food processing: A review2016In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 89, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food processing is a major part of the modern global industry and it will certainly be an important sector of the industry in the future. Several processes for different purposes are involved in food processing aiming at the development of new products by combining and/or transforming raw materials, to the extension of food shelf-life, recovery, exploitation and further use of valuable compounds and many others. During the last century several new food processes have arisen and most of the traditional ones have evolved. The future food factory will require innovative approaches food processing which can combine increased sustainability, efficiency and quality. Herein, the objective of this review is to explore the multiple applications of high voltage electric field (HVEF) and its potentials within the food industry. These applications include processes such as drying, refrigeration, freezing, thawing, extending food shelf- life, and extraction of biocompounds. In addition, the principles, mechanism of action and influence of specific parameters have been discussed comprehensively.

  • 6.
    Dalvi-Isfahan, Mohsen
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Hamdami, Nasser
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    UMR GEPEA, France.
    Review on the control of ice nucleation by ultrasound waves, electric and magnetic fields2017In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 195, p. 222-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freezing is the most popular and widely used food preservation method of the modern times. The freezing process of food matrices is related to their high water content and its metamorphoses into ice on cooling. The final quality of the frozen product is highly depended on the ice crystal morphology because it can cause irreversible damage on the microstructure of the food matrix. Supercooling and ice nucleation temperature need to be controlled both in suppressing and inducing the solidification to improve technological processes such as freeze drying, freeze concentration, cryopreservation, ice formation and cold-energy storage both in food industry and domestic preservation. However, the mechanism of freezing is not yet well known and it is affected by several factors. Several emerging technologies have been recently proposed for ice nucleation control during freezing. This review article is focused on the alternative freezing methods such as ultrasound waves, magnetic, electric, and electromagnetic field assisted freezing. In addition, the properties, mechanism of action and possible applications of electrofreezing are extensively discussed.

  • 7.
    Dalvi-Isfahan, Mohsen
    et al.
    Jahrom University, Iran.
    Jha, Piyush
    ONIRIS, France.
    Tavakoli, Javad
    Jahrom University, Iran.
    Daraei-Garmakhany, Amir
    Bu-Ali Sina University, Iran.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Le-Bail, Allain
    ONIRIS, France.
    Review on identification, underlying mechanisms and evaluation of freezing damage2019In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 255, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although freezing is known as the best method of food preservation, physical and chemical changes that occur to the cellular structure during processing and storage may damage the quality of food products. Most freeze damages are associated with ice crystal morphology (size, number, shape and distribution) which in turn affects the microstructure of the frozen food. Therefore, the evaluation of frozen food microstructure provides opportunities for monitoring the ice crystal morphology and also identifies freeze damage at cellular level which can be linked with the final quality of frozen food products. In this review, the most important physical damages that occur during freezing and storage of food matrices are described. In addition, methods for evaluating and observing the morphology of ice crystals and microstructure of frozen food stuffs are comprehensively discussed. An understanding of the freeze damage and their relationship with ice crystal morphology can contribute to the improvement of the freezing process as well as to the frozen product quality.

  • 8.
    Ferri, Maura
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Vannini, Micaela
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Maria, Ehrnell
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Monari, Stefania
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Sisti, Laura
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Marchese, Paola
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Celli, Annamaria
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Tassoni, Annalisa
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    From winery waste to bioactive compounds and new polymeric biocomposites: A contribution to the circular economy concept2020In: Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2090-1232, Vol. 24, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at optimising and validating possible routes toward the full valorisation of grape agrowaste to produce bioactive molecules and new materials. Starting from Merlot red pomace, phenol complex mixtures were successfully extracted by using two different approaches. Extracts obtained by solvent-based (SE) technique contained up to 46.9 gGAeq/kgDW of total phenols. Depending on the used solvent, the prevalence of compounds belonging to different phenol families was achieved. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) gave higher total phenol yields (up to 79 gGAeq/kgDW) but a lower range of extracted compounds. All liquid extracts exerted strong antioxidant properties. Moreover, both SE and PLE extraction solid residues were directly exploited (between 5 and 20% w/w) to prepare biocomposite materials by direct mixing via an eco-friendly approach with PHBV polymer. The final composites showed mechanical characteristics similar to PHVB matrix. The use of pomace residues in biocomposites could therefore bring both to the reduction of the cost of the final material, as a lower amount of costly PHBV is used. The present research demonstrated the full valorisation of grape pomace, an agrowaste produced every year in large amounts and having a significant environmental impact.

  • 9.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    del Pilar Castillo, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Fahrni, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Olsson, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wallin, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Utvinning av högvärdiga komponenter för förbättrad värdekedja för vall till etanol och bioolja2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Grass-clover ley holds an importance role for a sustainable crop production and is mainly used as feed for ruminants. But ley also contains proteins, if extracted, suitable for monogastric animals such as pigs and poultry. If these proteins are extracted, the degree of self-sufficiency of proteins in Sweden can increase and better resource utilization is achieved. In this study we evaluated the utilization of fresh and ensiled grass-clover ley in a straw-based agricultural biorefinery for producing protein concentrate, ethanol, bio-oil and biogas.

    Practical lab scale tests of extraction of high value components for food and feed applications from the liquid fraction after ley pressing were carried out. Pretreatments of the solid fraction prior to ethanol fermentation, bio-oil production using HTL (hydrothermal liquefaction) and biogas production were tested. The system for production and supply of the ley was described and the potential for increased ley production in Sweden was quantified. The environmental and economic efficiency of the proposed biorefinery system was evaluated using environmental systems analysis and technoeconomic assessment.

    In terms of system profitability, a high protein yield in the extracted protein concentrate it is important. To achieve that, a thorough pre-treatment using mechanical biomass disintegration before fractioning is crucial. This may need to be done in several steps. Screw pressing is a common technique for fractionating ley into a liquid and solid fraction. Double pressing combined with enzymatic treatments or only water addition during the second pressing stage were found to increase the protein yield compared to single pressing. Second pressing had no effect on the amino acid profile of the protein concentrate.

    After pressing fresh ley, heat coagulation or isoelectric precipitation can be used to precipitate protein concentrates in one- or two-step processes to produce protein fractions with different functional properties. Tests showed that it is possible to recover chlorophyll and carotenoids from the ley using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. which is a suitable method for food applications as toxic organic solvents can be avoided. The ensiling process degrades the protein into smaller peptides or free amino acids which makes ensiled grass less suitable for protein recovery by heat coagulation or isoelectric precipitation. Fresh and ensiled timothy and meadow fescue showed a similar amino acid profile as soybeans.

    The initial hypothesis that mechanical pressing may disintegrate the lignocellulosic structure of ley sufficiently to produce a sugar stream with a high concentration of sugar for further fermentation by enzymatic hydrolysis was not confirmed. The content of sugars released after the enzymatic hydrolysis was relatively low. The fibre fraction after the mechanical pressing can be suitable for ethanol production if an additional pretreatment method will be incorporated. Fermentation of pressed and steam-exploded ensiled mixed ley showed promising results. The bio-oils produced with the HTL-process were described of high quality, i.e., high carbon content and low ash content. Although, the obtained materials are not directly integrable in today's refineries, the ensiling did not seem to affect the material's potential for biofuel production. The methane potential tests that were carried out in the project of the liquid residual fraction after protein extraction and after the HTL process showed that both can be suitable for methane production, but they showed great behavior differences.

    The results from the environmental system analysis showed that extraction of high-quality products from ley, straw and sawdust according to the studied system reduces climate impact (CO2 eq) when the use of ethanol, bio-oil and biogas replaces fossil fuels, protein concentrate replaces soy as feed and carbon dioxide replaces fossil carbon dioxide. At present, the climate impact from extracted protein concentrate is higher than for soybean meal. Grass source for protein extraction followed by ethanol and bio-oil production as an alternative to straw-based ethanol and bio-oil production did not seem to improve the profitability of the studied biorefinery system. Profitability may be improved if protein extraction is performed the whole all year and not seasonal. Higher prices of the extracted protein concentrate may also improve profitability.

    The potential for increased grassland cultivation in Sweden for biorefining was estimated at approximately 3.4 million tonnes grass per year. This included incorporating grassland in the crop rotation in grain-dominated areas, intensification of existing grassland cultivation, utilization of fallow and abandoned arable land for grassland cultivation.

    Based on the results and the experience acquired from this project, we suggest an extraction plant for grass-clover ley that operates for both fresh and ensiled grassland all year. The plant needs to be supplemented with more advanced technologies such as membrane filtration for the extraction of amino acids from the ensiled ley during the winter season. The protein extraction plants should be located near farms. The extraction plant is also suggested to be located together with a biogas plant to enable co-digesting residual fractions with manure. Thereby, enabling plant nutrients and minerals in digestate to be returned to arable land. Utilizing the solid fiber fraction for biofuel production with fermentation and HTL in large-scale processes remains promising.

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  • 10.
    Gustinelli, G.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Andreu-Cabedo, P.
    University of Birmingham, Uk.
    Lopez-Quiroga, E.
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Influence of microwave assisted freezing parameters on ice crystal growth2020In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, International Institute of Refrigeration , 2020, p. 140-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Final quality of frozen foods is determined by the shape and size of the formed ice crystals, as they might cause irreversible damage to the cellular structure -crystals larger than cells will break them appart, impairing quality. Recent studies using microwave assisted freezing (MAF) - a novel alternative freezing technology - have shown that microwave radiation can influence the ice crystal formation leading to crystal size reduction. Two concepts have been proposed regarding the mechanism of action such as”NITOM” concept (Nucleation Induced by Temperature Oscillation caused by MWs) and the”NIMIW” (Nucleation Induced by constant or pulsed MIcroWaves power). The present study aimed to enlighten the influence of different microwave assisted freezing parameters on the ice crystal growth. A Response Surface Method (RSM) has been used to evaluate the effect of three process parameters (i.e. MW pulse width, power and cooling rate) on final crystal size, correlating processing conditions to final crystal sizes and setting the basis for further analysis.

  • 11.
    Hashemifesharaki, Reza
    et al.
    Mute Hammer LLC, USA.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Altintas, Zeznep
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Guo, Ya
    Jiangnan University, China.
    Gharibzahedi, Seyed
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the marshmallow roots: Optimization, purification, structure, and bioactivity2020In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 240, article id 116301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process optimization and biological characterization of marshmallow root polysaccharides (MRPs) obtained from the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were studied. The highest MAE-yield (14.47%) was optimized at 457.32 W and 75 °C for 26 min. The extracted crude polysaccharides were purified using ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatographies and eluted a single symmetrical narrow peak, showing a homogenous fraction (MRP-P1) with a molecular weight of 4.87 × 104 Da. The surface morphology of polysaccharides and functional groups of MRP-P1 were determined by employing scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The major monosaccharide composition of MRPs were the three monomers of rhamnose, galactose, and glucose. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities were increased in a concentration-dependent manner (1.0-10.0 mg/mL). MRP-P1 exhibited a strong in vitro antiproliferative activity against lung (A549), liver (HepG2), and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. The anticancer activity of polysaccharides extracted under optimal MAE conditions was highly associated with their antioxidant and antibacterial functions. 

  • 12.
    Isaksson, Sven
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sadot, M.
    ONIRIS, France; CNRS, France.
    Da Silva, A.
    AGROSUP DIJON, France.
    Curet, S.
    ONIRIS, France; CNRS, France.
    Rouaud, O.
    ONIRIS, France; CNRS, France.
    Le-Bail, A.
    ONIRIS, France; CNRS, France.
    Havet, M.
    ONIRIS, France; CNRS, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of foods during freezing and thawing2017In: 16th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dielectric properties of a variety of foodstuffs were measured during freezing and thawing conditions, and are presented here as functions of temperature. Measurements were done with the Agilent 85070 high temperature dielectric probe. The differences in characteristics of the graphs resulting from cooling and thawing are discussed. A specific model accommodating the amount of frozen water in the food sample as a function of temperature is used and compared to experimental results. The mass fraction of each component is coupled to the dielectric properties of each fraction to evaluate the effective dielectric properties based on a two phases Maxwell-Wagner model considering ice as a dispersed fraction and food as a continuous fraction. The unknown dielectric properties of dry matter and an adjusting coefficient are used to optimize the fitting between experimental data and calculated data.

  • 13.
    Jha, Piyush
    et al.
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Chevallier, Silvie
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Effect of innovative microwave assisted freezing (MAF) on the quality attributes of apples and potatoes2020In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 309, article id 125594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considered the effect of low energy microwave assisted freezing (MAF) on freezing time and quality attributes (microstructure, texture, drip loss and colour) of apple and potato. MAF of apples and potatoes was performed by applying constant microwave (MW) power (167 W/kg) and pulsed MW power (500 and 667 W/kg with 10 s pulse width and 20 s pulse interval resulting in an average power of 167 and 222 W/kg) during the freezing process. The temperature profile was monitored during the freezing process, and the microstructure was examined using X-ray micro-tomography and cryo-SEM. Other quality parameters such as texture, drip loss and colour were evaluated with thawed samples. It appeared that the freezing time was not affected by the MAF process. It is the first time that a MAF process is used for freezing plant-based products and showed that the application of microwaves during freezing process caused less freeze damage than the control condition.

  • 14. Jha, Piyush K.
    et al.
    Jury, Vanessa
    Chevallier, Sylvie
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    Freezewave H2020 project-microwaveassisted freezing of potato2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 190-195Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent times, several novel freezing techniques have been attracting remarkable attention not only within the scientific community but also in the food industry due to their ability to enhance the formation of small size ice crystals and to prevent food products from freeze-damage. One of these is freezing assisted by electromagnetic waves. This short study was intended to investigate the impact freezing under low power microwaves (MWs) (2450 MHz) had on the freezing time and the microstructure of the potatoes. The time taken by the conventional freezing process to reach - 10°C from 6°C was 13.95 min, while the same temperature change was achieved within 37.53, 19.87 and 20.18 min for short pulse high power (SPHP), long pulse low power (LPLP) and constant microwave (MW) freezing conditions, respectively. Although that the application of MWs during freezing process, as it was expected, resulted in longer freezing time compared to conventional freezing condition, the image analysis (X-ray micro-computed tomography) results revealed that the application of MWs during freezing process produced better microstructure than the conventional method.

  • 15.
    Jha, Piyush Kumar
    et al.
    ONIRIS CS 82225, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144 - ONIRIS, France.
    Chevallier, Sylvie
    ONIRIS CS 82225, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144 - ONIRIS, France.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS CS 82225, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144 - ONIRIS, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS CS 82225, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144 - ONIRIS, France.
    Assessment of freeze damage in fruits and vegetables2019In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 121, p. 479-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freezing is an efficient and widely used method of food preservation. However, it can also cause irreversible damages at cellular level which in turn degrade the overall quality of the frozen food products. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative methods and technologies that will be able to evaluate with accuracy the freeze damage are of great importance. This review paper provides a comprehensive study of the methods that have been used to evaluate the freeze damage in fruits and vegetables. Further than the principles and the applications of those methods, the advantages and the limitations are also being discussed.

  • 16.
    Jha, Piyush Kumar
    et al.
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Havet, Michel
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Advances of electro-freezing in food processing2018In: Current Opinion in Food Science, ISSN 2214-7993, E-ISSN 2214-8000, Vol. 23, p. 85-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food freezing is a complex process, involving heat transfer and a series of physical and chemical changes which may profoundly affect the product quality. Several novel freezing methods have been developed in recent times taking into account the energy saving and/or quality preservation to a greater extent upon thawing. Electro-freezing technique, especially electric field assisted freezing is gaining momentum among them; it offers less energy intensive freezing conditions (higher set point ambient temperature, lower air velocity), and allows better quality retention. In the present short review article, a focused overview of the main findings and the latest studies regarding the applications of electro-freezing in food is given.

  • 17.
    Jha, Piyush Kumar
    et al.
    ONIRIS-GEPEA, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS-GEPEA, France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS-GEPEA, France.
    An Overview on Magnetic Field and Electric Field interactions with Ice crystalization; Application in case of frozen food2017In: Crystals, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 299Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ice nucleation is a stochastic process and it is very difficult to be controlled. Freezing technologies and more specifically crystallisation assisted by magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fields have the capability to interact with nucleation. Static magnetic field (SMF) may affect matter crystallisation; however, this is still under debate in the literature. Static electric field (SEF) has a significant effect on crystallisation; this has been evidenced experimentally and confirmed by the theory. Oscillating magnetic field induces an oscillating electric field and is also expected to interact with water crystallisation. Oscillating electromagnetic fields interact with water, perturb and even disrupt hydrogen bonds, which in turn are thought to increase the degree of supercooling and to generate numerous fine ice crystals. Based on the literature, it seems that the frequency has an influence on the above-mentioned phenomena. This review article summarizes the fundamentals of freezing under magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fields, as well as their applicability and potentials within the food industry.

  • 18.
    Jha, Piyush
    et al.
    ONIRIS, France.
    Vidot, Kevin
    SFR IBSM, France; INRA, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Falourd, Xavier
    SFR IBSM, France; INRA, France.
    Fontaine, Joran
    ONIRIS, France.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS, France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS, France.
    Benchmarking of techniques used to assess the freeze damage in potatoes2019In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 262, p. 60-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, benchmarking of methods used for assessing freeze damage in potatoes was carried out. Initially, the samples were frozen by subjecting them to three different temperatures (i.e. at –18 °C, − 30 °C, and at −74 °C). Then, different analytical techniques comprising of focused methods (i.e. cryo-Scanning elctron microscopy-cryo-SEM, confocal laser scanning microscopy-CLSM)and global methods (i.e. texture analysis, low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), exudate loss and colour change)were used to assess the impact of the freezing treatment from the different point of view addressed by each method. As a result, each of these methods were able to distinguish significantly fresh samples from the frozen-thawed samples. Focused methods like cryo-SEM and CLSM methods could differentiate the impact of all three different protocols. Meanwhile, texture analysis (including conventional method and novel method based on a touchless laser puff firmness tester), NMR and exudate loss could only determine the quality difference between −18 °C and − 74 °C freezing conditions. Colour analysis was found as an inappropriate parameter for comparing the three freezing protocols. Among all analytical techniques, cryo-SEM provides the most authentic information about the product as the analysis is performed in frozen state, while for other techniques the product is thawed prior to analysis.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Menzel, Carolin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Daniel P.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mixed legume systems of pea protein and unrefined lentil fraction: Textural properties and microstructure2021In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 144, article id 111212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the context of circular economy, there is an increasing interest to utilise agrifood by-products. However, extensive extraction and purification steps make the valorisation of side streams not always cost effective. Therefore, an increased knowledge of the functionality of unrefined side streams could increase their utilisation in food products. We investigated the thermal gelation of mixed legume systems containing a commercial pea protein isolate (Pisum sativum) and the unrefined fraction remaining after protein extraction from lentils (Lens culinaris). The unrefined lentil fraction contained mainly starch (~45 g/100 g) and insoluble cell wall polysaccharides (~50 g/100 g) with minor amounts of soluble protein (4 g/100 g) and polyphenols (<1 mg GAE/g). The addition of the unrefined lentil fraction increased the strength and Young's modulus of pea protein gels in the pH range 3–4.2, and also increased the gels’ elastic modulus G'. The microstructure could be described as a mixed network of swollen protein particles of different sizes (5–50 μm), gelatinised starch and cell wall fragments. The results demonstrate that unrefined side streams from lentils could be used for textural modification of plant protein gels, with implications for the design of novel plant-based foods.

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  • 20.
    Le-Bail, A.
    et al.
    ONIRIS, France ; LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France.
    Curet, S.
    ONIRIS, France ; LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France.
    Havet, M.
    ONIRIS, France ; LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France.
    Jha, P.
    ONIRIS, France ; LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS, France ; LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France.
    Rouaud, O.
    ONIRIS, France ; LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France.
    Sadot, M.
    ONIRIS, France ; LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Huen, J.
    TTZ-BILB, Germany.
    Shresta, M.
    TTZ-BILB, Germany.
    Bernard, J. P.
    SAIREM, France.
    Freezewave; A new European project on freezing under microwaves irradiation2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 182-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FREEZEWAVE project is an ERANET SUSFOOD project (May 2015 - Dec. 2018). It concerns the freezing of foods using a highly innovative technique combining freezing at slow rate with part time emission of microwaves (2450 MHz); this innovative concept has been investigated recently by ONIRIS and results showed that a 62% decrease of the average ice crystal size was acquired when samples were frozen under microwave irradiation compared to the control (Xanthakis et al., 2014, IFSET - study on pork meat). To improve the quality of frozen foods, fast freezing is usually recommended, resulting in a reduction of the ice crystals. However, a fast freezing increases the energy demand: low ambient temperature & high air velocity to enhance the rate of heat transfer are needed to achieve a fast freezing. FREEZEWAVE project aims at expanding & optimizing the concept to several foods (sauce, meat, vegetable & ready to eat meals) and also at designing industrial equipment. The novel concept concerns the freezing equipment sector thanks to a French SME partner (SAIREM) and the global frozen food sector. FREEZEWAVE will provide scientific knowledge and new scientific insights in food freezing. Project's outcomes may also be of interest for non-food applications such as biotechnology.

  • 21.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    et al.
    ONIRIS, France ; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Jha, Piyush K.
    ONIRIS, France ; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sadot, Matheiu
    ONIRIS, France ; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS, France ; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Curet, Sebastien
    ONIRIS, France ; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Rouaud, Olivier
    ONIRIS, France ; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Havet, Michel
    ONIRIS, France ; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Review on the impact of electrical and magnetic disturbances during freezing2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 225-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase change in biological tissues may be affected by electrical and magnetic disturbances. This presentation proposes a review based on existing literature as well as some very recent results on freezing under static electric field (SEF), magnetic field (MF) and electromagnetic radiations. Freezing under static electric field of water, aqueous solution and pork meat has been investigated by the authors, showing the ability of this process to refine ice crystals in frozen matrices. SEF permits to lower the supercooling and to trigger the phase change of water to ice. Radiofrequencies and microwaves havebeen used recently by researchers to promote refined ice crystallization in food systems. Even though the energy optimization of the process is still in debate, the benefit in terms of size of ice crystals has been evidenced. © 2018 International Institute of Refrigeration. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    et al.
    LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France; CNRS, France.
    Jha, Piyush
    LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France; CNRS, France; IICPT Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, India.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Havet, Michel
    LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France; CNRS, France.
    Jury, Vanessa
    LUNAM Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, France; CNRS, France.
    Phase change under static electrical field; in the case of lipids2016In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2016, p. 138-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase change in biological tissues may be affected by electrical and magnetic disturbances. Freezing under static electric field of water, aqueous solution and pork meat has been investigated by the authors, showing the ability of this process to refine ice crystals in frozen matrices. SEF affects the supercooling, which is usually reduced with SEF. SEF also triggers the nucleation. The use of radiofrequencies and microwaves has also been used recently by researchers to promote refined ice crystallization in food systems. A focus is proposed on recent experiments done on solidification of a vegetable fat mix (Vegetaline ® - France) under static electric field (SEF). Results showed that SEF affects the supercooling and the phase change temperature of the fat mix indicating a possible impact on the crystalline structure of the solidified fat.

  • 23.
    Monari, Stefania
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy,.
    Ferri, Maura
    University of Bologna, Italy,.
    Vannini, Micaela
    University of Bologna, Italy,.
    Sisti, Laura
    University of Bologna, Italy,.
    Marchese, Paola
    University of Bologna, Italy,.
    Maria, Ehrnell
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Celli, Annamaria
    University of Bologna, Italy,.
    Tassoni, Annalisa
    University of Bologna, Italy,.
    Cascade strategies for the full valorisation of Garganega white grape pomace towards bioactive extracts and bio-based materials2020In: PLOS ONE, Vol. 15, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agro-waste reduction and reuse are among the current main social challenges. In this perspective, the present research was aimed at the complete valorisation of Garganega grape pomace by recovering bioactive phenol extracts and by testing the solid fibre extract residues in composite formulation for packaging applications. The pomace was derived from white wine production, therefore, respect to red pomace, it was promptly removed from must after pressing, and its exploitation can be particularly interesting and valuable as still rich in active compounds. Phenol extracts were obtained both via solvent-based and pressurised liquid extractions and their phytochemical compositions were compared in terms of total amount of phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and reducing sugars. Antioxidant activity and detailed phenol profiles were also achieved. The highest phenol yield was obtained via solvent-based extraction with 75% acetone (v/v), solid/liquid ratio 1:5, 2h incubation at 50°C (77.9 gGAeq/kgDW). The fibrous solid residue of the extraction was characterized via thermogravimetric analysis and used for composite preparation by melt mixing with the renewable and biodegradable PHBV polymer through a green approach (solvent-less process). The composites resulted thermally stable at high temperatures, showing initial degradation processes only at temperatures higher than 250°C. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses were carried out to study melting and crystallization phenomena, while mechanical properties were investigated by tensile tests. The materials finally showed properties similar to those of the matrix. The bio-composites can be considered as an alternative to plain PHBV, since they are less expensive and eco-friendlier thanks to a reduced polymeric content, and they could represent a suitable way for full agro-waste exploitation.

  • 24.
    Rodríguez Arzuaga, Mariana
    et al.
    Latitud, Uruguay; University of Copenhagen, Denmark Argentina.
    Felix da Silva, Denise
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Aalaei, Kataneh
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Czaja, Tomasz Pawel
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Wrocław, Poland.
    Añón, María Cristina
    Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos, Argentina.
    Abraham, Analía G.
    Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos, Argentina.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Impact of wet-mix total solids content and heat treatment on physicochemical and techno-functional properties of infant milk formula powders2021In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 390, p. 473-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigated the effects of heat treatment (75 °C × 18 s and 100 °C × 18 s) and wet-mix total solids level (TS: 50 and 60%, w/w) on the physicochemical and techno-functional properties of model infant milk formula (IMF) powders. IMF produced from wet-mixes with 50% TS preheated at 75 °C (50%-75°C) exhibited the longest wettability time (55 ± 2 s) and the poorest flowability, explained by the small particle size (D [4;3]= 16.5 ± 2.29 μm) and low poured bulk density (0.27 ± 0.02 g/cm3). Larger particles were obtained by increasing both pasteurization temperature and TS. Further, powders from 60% TS wet-mixes showed less particle size uniformity, leading to better packing and higher bulk densities. 50%-75°C powders also showed the lowest onset glass transition temperature, which may affect its storage stability. Wettability time was reduced by increasing TS from 50 to 60% or by increasing pre-heating temperature from 75 to 100 °C. However, as observed by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, the increase in the pasteurization temperature slowed down the global rehydration process. The flowing properties of the powders improved by increasing TS level of the wet-mix. In conclusion, the pre-spray drying wet-mix processing variables, pasteurization temperature and TS level, had a major effect on the physicochemical and functional properties of the IMF powders. It is crucial to understand how variations in the process parameters affect these powder characteristics, due to their functional, technological and economic importance.

  • 25.
    Semenoglou, Ioanna
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Uddstål, Roger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Tsironi, Theofania
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece; Agricultural University of Athens, Greece.
    Taoukis, Petros
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil from Arctic charr side streams from filleting processing2021In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 71, article id 102712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Arctic charr side streams contain limited amounts of fish flesh, they are a rich fish oil source (46.3 ± 0.6%). The aim of the study was to investigate the potential for valorization of Arctic charr filleting side streams through the extraction of oil by supercritical CO2 technology. The effect of temperature (40 °C and 80 °C) and pressure (20, 35 and 45 MPa) on the final extract after supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was evaluated. Temperature increase enhanced the yield but decreased the antioxidant activity at 45 MPa, did not affect the yield and the antioxidant activity at 35 MPa, whereas yield was limited at 20 MPa and 80 °C. Extracts were rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (56.7–58.3%, especially oleic acid 37.2–38.0%), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (20.2–26.1%, especially DHA 7.3–11.4%). The presence of astaxanthin significantly preserved the extracts from oxidation. Industrial relevance: Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a green technology appropriate for the recovery of non-polar and heat sensitive compounds. The extracted Arctic charr oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and astaxanthin which inhibited oxidation in combination with the absence of oxygen and light during the process. This technology could be an excellent alternative for more sustainable valorization of fish processing side streams. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 26.
    Shenoy, Pooja
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. University College Cork, Ireland.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Caroline
    Santa Maria AB, Sweden.
    Fitzpatrick, John
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Dry mixing of food powders: Effect of water content and composition on mixture quality of binary mixtures2015In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 149, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work studied the effect of composition of powders and water content on mixture quality (MQ) of three binary powder mixtures with good (salt/paprika or salt/sugar) or poor mixing (salt/oregano) behaviour. The mixing behaviour was assessed using coefficient of variation. Results showed that mixture composition did not influence the MQ of sugar/salt and paprika/salt within 20-80% salt content range but it did influence the MQ of oregano/salt with a progressive dis-improvement in MQ with higher oregano content and also for low concentrations of 1% salt. Water content did have an effect on mixing behaviour. When paprika with high water activity (aw) was mixed with salt, the time required to reach good MQ was longer because of the increased cohesiveness and when oregano with high aw was mixed with salt it displayed improved MQ because salt particles were able to stick onto the larger oregano particles and reduced segregation.

  • 27.
    Slettengren, Katarina
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Windhab, Erich J.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Flow Properties of Spices Measured with Powder Flow Tester and Ring Shear Tester-XS2016In: International journal of food properties, ISSN 1094-2912, E-ISSN 1532-2386, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 1475-1482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the importance of powder flow properties and the variety of available measuring methods, several studies were published regarding the comparison of different flow properties testers. Within this work, a ring shear tester from Dr. Dietmar Schulze and a powder flow tester from Brookfield Engineering Laboratories Inc. were compared for cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and onion (Allium cepa) powder and granules. The spices showed similar flow behavior from both methods. Flow function plots and effective angle of internal friction measurements indicated contiguous trends and showed that the methods were comparable.

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  • 28.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gogou, Eleni
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Taoukis, Petros
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effect of microwave assisted blanching on the ascorbic acid oxidase inactivation and vitamin C degradation in frozen mangoes2018In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 48, p. 248-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of microwave assisted and conventional water blanching of mango (Mangifera indica) under two different blanching scenarios, High Temperature Short Time (HTST) and Low Temperature Long Time (LTLT) on ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) inactivation and on vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid & dehydroascorbic acid) retention were comparatively studied. The impact of alternative blanching processes and subsequent frozen storage on enzymatic inactivation and vitamin C was kinetically modelled. Both water and microwave HTST as well as LTLT microwave treatments of mango pieces showed high degree of AAO inactivation. An approximately 30% residual AAO activity was observed and was described through a first order fractional conversion model. Microwave assisted blanching led to higher retention of total vitamin C in both LTLT and HTST treatments. In LTLT water blanching, vitamin C loss was mainly caused by mass transfer phenomena rather than temperature degradation, while after HTST treatments the decrease of total vitamin C content seemed to be mainly related to thermal degradation than due to the leakage of the nutrients in the blanching medium. Further inactivation of the thermostable fraction of AAO and degradation of total vitamin C were observed after frozen storage for 130 days at −18.63 ± 0.48 °C.

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  • 29.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Huen, Julien
    TTZ-BILB, Germany.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Jha, Piyush K.
    ONIRIS, France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS, France.
    Shrestha, Marie
    TTZ-BILB, Germany.
    Evaluation of microwave assisted freezing (MAF) impact on meat and fish matrices2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 176-181Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several preservation methods have been investigated, developed and exploited over the last years but freezing still remains one of the most popular among them which offers fresh-like characteristics on the food matrix after long period of storage. The freezing process of food matrices is affected by their dominant constituent which is water. The final quality of the frozen product depends on the phase transition or the crystallization process of changing water into ice. The size of the ice crystals is critical for the final quality of the frozen food. In the present study a novel more advanced experimental setup was designed and developed for the application of microwave radiation during freezing. The influence of microwave assisted freezing (MAF) on meat and fish matrices under different conditions was investigated and promising results regarding the microstructure of the frozen samples were acquired.

  • 30.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. CNRS, France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    LUNAM University, France; CNRS, France.
    Ramaswamy, Hosahalli Swamy
    McGill University, Canada.
    Development of an innovative microwave assisted food freezing process2014In: Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, Vol. 26, p. 176-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a novel experimental setup was developed and an innovative process was implemented aiming at the application of microwave radiation during freezing of a food matrix. The results acquired from the present study are considered as remarkable and promising. The developed freezing process was applied on pork tenderloin samples. The application of microwaves during cooling the samples caused oscillated decrease of temperature and had a significant impact on the crystallization process as the degree of supercooling was decreased circa 92% under the tested conditions. The meat microstructure evaluation showed a 62% decrease in the average ice crystal size when samples were frozen under a microwave field as compared to the conventional freezing process. These results indicate that the application of microwave radiation during freezing may reduce the damage of the meat tissue and in turn to retain better texture in the frozen meat. Industrial relevance The reduction of freeze damage exerted to any tissue undergoing freezing remains a challenge. The mechanical and biochemical stress caused by the ice crystals to the cellular membranes results in irreversible tissue damage. The application of electric and/or magnetic disturbances has been identified as a possible means to reduce the size of ice crystals during freezing of biological tissues. In the present study microwaves were applied during freezing of pork meat. Our results indicate that the size of the formed ice crystals was significantly reduced during microwave assisted freezing leading to a lower damage on the microstructure of meat. This paper describes an innovative and novel freezing process that could be used in order for higher quality frozen products to be produced. 

  • 31.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Valdramidis, Vasilis
    University of Malta, Malta.
    Impact of heating operations on the microbial ecology of foods2017In: Quantitative Microbiology in Food Processing: Modeling the Microbial Ecology / [ed] Anderson de Souza Sant'Ana, John Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 117-141Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several drawbacks of heat processes as their application may also lead to nutritional and quality deterioration of the food product. The chapter presents basic information regarding the heating processes and unit operations and covers the impact of these operations on food-borne microorganisms. It describes the main cooking methods, such as grilling, broiling, and roasting. Quantitative methodologies are the main tools to describe the impact of a process as well as the storage conditions post-processing on the food stability. In order to assess the efficacy of a specific processing technology, the estimation of the time to achieve a certain number of log reductions can be applied. The most common process in the food industry is the thermal process. The chapter reviews a number of different thermal processes and outlines critical issues in relation to their efficacy and to their impact on the microbial inactivation

  • 32.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    van Ommen, J. Ruud
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Flowability characterization of nanopowders2015In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 286, p. 156-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applications of nanopowders are increasing significantly over the last years. In most of these applications, the flow behavior of the nanopowders seems to be a complicated, multiparametric but critical issue for the proper design of the processes. We have investigated, classified and compared several different metal oxide nanoparticles with respect to their flow properties. The flow properties of titania, silica and alumina hydrophilic nanopowders as well as their corresponding hydrophobic counterparts were determined by means of an annular shear cell powder flow tester (PFT). All the tested powders showed difficulties in flow while the titania nanopowders showed the highest difficulty among them. The results acquired regarding the compressibility, the flow functions and the effective angle of internal friction revealed that in all the cases the hydrophobic nanopowder seemed to be more cohesive than its hydrophilic counterpart. Moreover, the nanoparticles, no matter their polarity, showed negligible hygroscopicity while in the case of the alumina nanopowders the flow properties can be significantly influenced by ca. 1% (w/w) of moisture content.

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