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  • 1.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Shotton, Elizabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Walsh, St John
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Cramer, Marlene
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Ridley-Ellis, Daniel
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Harte, Annete
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Ui Chulana, Catriona
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Risse, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Ivanica, Raphaela
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    De Arana-Fernández, Marina
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    García Barbero, Manuel
    Klimark + Novadomus Hábitat, Spain.
    Llana, Daniel
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Íñiguez-González, Guillermo
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Nasiri, Bahareh
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Krofl, Žiga
    University of Ljubljana, Slovania.
    Design for deconstruction and reuse of timber structures – state of the art review2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a state-of-the-art on timber construction in selected european countries and and discusses technical premises for a potential circular use of timber in building construction, focusing on Design for Deconstruction and Reuse (DfDR) in low-rise timber buildings, up to 3 storeys. It describes the historic and contemporary building techniques of timber buildings in all project countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, UK, Spain, Germany, Slovenia) and finds, that all of these countries have a long history of building with timber, but in most regions other materials dominated the housing output from the beginning of the 20th century. Only in the second half of the 20th century timber started gaining importance as a building material in Europe again, with light timber frame construction becoming an important construction system. From the beginning of the 21st century, innovations in the sector started transforming the construction industry. Mass timber products like CLT opened the market for high-rise timber buildings and in some countries office blocks, schools and hotels are built using timber, although the majority of timber construction remains residential. An even more important development might be the uptake of offsite construction, that makes timber construction more accurate, material efficient, fast and it reduces waste. These modern methods of construction are gaining importance in the construction sector of all partner countries and are likely to dominate the European housing output in the future. There will be some regional differences in the level of prefabrication, material choices and designs, so that any design guidelines for DfDR need to be adapted to the regional context. However, modern timber construction is not currently aligned with circular economy principles and is seldomly taking buildings endof-life-into account.

    Therefore, the report continues to summarise novel design concepts for deconstruction and reuse, that could be used in modern timber buildings. It outlines that the feasibility as well as the reuse potential depends on the scale of reclaimed components, where larger components and assemblies are often considered beneficial in terms of time, greenhouse gas emissions and waste production. If volumetric or planar units could be salvaged in the future, they also need to be adaptable for altered regulations or standards or alternative functions. It is further necessary that assemblies can be altered within buildings, since different building components have different life expectancies. Various examples for DfDR in buildings with the accompanying design strategies are presented. The buildings in the examples are often designed to be in one place for a limited timeframe and can be deconstructed and re-erected elsewhere without replacement of components. Key-features often include modularity of components, reversible connections, adaptability of the floor-plan and circular procurement. Even though it is evidently possible, the structural reuse of timber is not a wide-spread approach to date. Barriers to the use of reclaimed structural components are mainly a lack in demand for salvaged materials, but also prohibitive building regulations and the lack of design standards. Demolition practices play a crucial role as well and need to be considered in the design of buildings, to avoid damage to the components.

    Finally, the report summarises principles and guidelines for DfDR by different authors. As a generic approach an indicator system for deconstructability and reusability could be introduced. Time, Separability, Risk and Safety, Simplicity and Interchangeability are identified5as the main indicators for DfDR, that remain somewhat abstract. As opposed to using a generic indicator system, a more practical approach of assessing DfDR on an individual basis could be taken. This way specific shortcomings of the design can be addressed. But if DfDR found a wider application in the future, this approach may be too time consuming and there is a need for a more directed decision-making tool that can be used during the design phase of buildings to enhance DfDR. As the InFutUReWood project proceeds, it will examine a more granular approach to DfDR, relating it to the actual construction stages used in practice, developing a general template to be appropriated and adjusted to account for regional variations in construction. A strategic matrix is in development which will provide designers with a methodology based on relating principles, strategies and specific tactics to the typical design stages, to aid design decisions that promote DfDR.

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  • 2.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Guide för att ställa cirkularitetskrav i upphandlingsdokument för nybyggnation2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This guide is a review of the most recent European results from reports which shared experience and knowledge on how to introduce circularity in procurement documents. It also contains the authors’ own conclusions and proposes a business model and a list of possible requirements that could be introduced in procurements by municipalities.

    It refers to the definition of circular building, to the principles behind it. It shows how to use the valuable experience of sustainability and how to pass from a sustainable procurement (Green public procurement) to circular procurement.

    The guide is meant to be a reference, a supporting document for public decisions-makers when choosing criteria for procurement document of new constructions.

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  • 3.
    Norén, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Miljöbedömning av en påbyggnation med trästomme2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to increase the understanding and knowledge of the climateimpact of a timber construction built as a vertical extension of an existing building compared with corresponding timber building built on the ground. The purpose is to make a life cycle analyse of the construction phase and to investigate possibilities to improve the climate impact of future vertical extensions with interventions in the planning phase when decisions on material selection and constructive design are usually taken. 

    The system boundaries have been the same when comparing the vertical extension withthe building on the ground, as a prerequisite for a robust comparison.

    The results of the environmental calculation for the timber vertical extension show that what mainly contributed to the climate impact in the studied case was the steelreinforcement that distributes the load on the existing building. 

    The results of the environmental calculation of the building on the ground show that the basic structure, ie an insulated slab on ground with stiffening under dividing walls in this case entails most of the total climate impact during the construction phase. 

    An important conclusion of the study is that the choice of reinforcement measure is of great importance in an extension. Careful review of the existing building's condition and load-bearing capacity is required. Material, material quantity and structural design need to be evaluated so that the climate impact can be minimized while maintaining function. 

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  • 4.
    Råberg, Tora
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Västerdal, Mårten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pettersson Skog, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Atongka Tchoffor, Placid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Potentiella kolsänkor i Malmö stad2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöförvaltningen inom Malmö stad gav RISE uppdraget att identifiera möjligheter att öka kolsänkorna inom kommungränsen. Syftet med den här rapporten är att sammanställa ett brett underlag för klimatarbete med åtgärder som möjliggör en ökning av de lokala kolsänkorna i Malmö stads geografiska område. Genom att uppskatta olika åtgärders potential för kolinlagring, teknisk mognadsgrad och kostnadseffektivitet från ett klimatperspektiv, samt visa på vilka skalor det går att jobba med dessa åtgärder inom kommunen, avses rapporteringen ge en översikt över vilka satsningar som kan göras för att kolsänkorna ska kunna bidra till Malmö stads miljö- och klimatmål. Forskargruppen från RISE har analyserat 18 olika kategorier som har potential att öka den lokala kolinlagringen inom: • de urbana grönområdena, • den urbana infrastrukturen, bebyggd mark och tillhörande mark • rural markanvändning och • övriga möjligheter. I beräkningarna ingår inte klimatpåverkan från insatser som krävs för att genomföra åtgärderna, till exempel avverkning, uppdrivning och plantering av skogsplantor, transport av timmer och förädling av virke. I rapporten tas inte hänsyn till om en ökad användning av mark i en kategori, minskar markanvändning inom en annan kategori.

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  • 5.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Häggström, Urban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Schlyter, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Scharf, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Så tog vi fram fasadsystemet Fasaden i staden Snabb, Snygg, Smart2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Facade of the city Swift, Stylish, Smart. "The Facade of the city Swift, Stylish, Smart" is a project within BioInnovation's project "IPOS", funded by Vinnova, Formas, Swedish Energy Agency together with industry partners. The aim of the project was to develop a facade system of pine adapted for buildings up to eight stories in an urban environment, in terms of fire safety, adaptable aesthetic design and maintenance routines. This report is a compilation of results that form the basis for the participating companies continued work with the facade concept. Customer requirements, building regulations and the market for facade systems were initially investigated, analyzed, and compiled. An architectural design was developed with the purpose of making the facade attractive and easy for architects to use. Solutions for design and mounting of the façade formed a technical platform that combined design, materials, maintenance with economy. Wood properties and surface treatments were studied and verified in tests to achieve fire safety and long service life. Heartwood of pine was chosen because of its suitable material properties for facades. The facade system's functions were verified in lab tests and by small scale design prototypes. Full scale tests of the mounting of the facade system were carried out on two buildings in Luleå, whereafter mounting time and functions were evaluated. The pilot test showed that mounting was easy and quick once the builders got acquainted with the system. However, since the elements need to be adjusted to the wall it is important to prepare mounting well in advance. A full-scale fire test of the facade system was carried out with Teknos fire protection paint, which passed the SP Fire 105 test. Overall, the façade system was developed to be market-competitive and contribute to a sustainable bio-based economy. To assure this, durability and circularity have been considered both in the design and the choice of materials. “The Facade of the city Swift, Stylish, Smart" challenges the traditional way of purchase, designing, and assembling a wooden facade. Today, when longer maintenance routines and long service life of facades are in focus, it is important to highlight the strengths of pine heartwood in terms of moisture inertia and resistance to biological degradation. By manufacturing and commercialising a high-quality tested product, developed with an iterative research approach, this façade system has become competitive and can contribute to an increased demand for pine heartwood. The results can also open up new business opportunities for component manufacturers of wooden facade systems. The work has also been documented in a film available on Youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-lo_evWiUs

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  • 6.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Råberg, Tora
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Önskehus på Tomt 91 i nya Kiruna2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the work with generating a proposal for a sustainable, circular and reusable house on Site number 91 in new central parts of Kiruna. New ideas have been developed and tested in collaboration between Kirunabostäder, municipality and research partners. The study includes: generative design (GD) where a software prototype has been developed to be able to generate different building volumes for Site 91 and assess social factors like solar radiation, view, variation and green spaces. A representation of neighbouring buildings was also created to allow for a better evaluation of the generated building. Compared to the earlier developed optimization method the idea with GD is to create more opportunities for interaction between Kirunabostäder, Kiruna municipality and architects.Design for disassembly and reuse was studied in a cooperating master thesis project which resulted in an architect model of a proposed building for Site 91. An environmental assessment for three different building systems was done assuming that the building will be moved and reassembled after 50 years.An inspiring attic garden and orangery has also been developed for increased wellbeing and social comfort. A playing ground based on natural building elements (e.g. unaltered trees) was also developed.Procurement and requirements that can be formulated for circularity and reuse have also been discussed.In a longer perspective, the results from the project can contribute to a more sustainable Kiruna by exemplifying choices for sustainable and circular solutions for Kiruna housing and Kiruna municipality.

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  • 7.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Harte, Annette
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Shotton, Elisabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Ridley-Ellis, Daniel
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Turk, Goran
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Iniguez-Gonalez, Guillermo
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Risse, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Summary report InFutUReWood – Innovative Design for the Future – Use and Reuse of Wood (Building) Components2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Kunskapsläge kring byggnader med stomme av trä: teknik, hållbarhet och cirkulär materialanvändning2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    More use of biobased materials has been proposed as important for reducing the high resource use and severe environmental impact of buildings. For increased and sound use of biobased building materials, decision makers need information on their technical and sustainability performance – but there is a lack of an updated synthesis of such information in the scientific literature. Therefore, this project has gathered scientific knowledge on the technical and sustainability viability of biobased building materials, with a focus on load-bearing structures.

    Specific objectives were to:

    a) Clarify technical challenges that bio-based building frames have been associated with, and how these have been handled.

    b) Clarify the sustainability impact of bio-based building frames, in a life-cycle perspective, compared to non-bio-based building frames.

    c) Explore the opportunities for bio-based building frames to be part of a circular economy, in terms of their reusability and recyclability.

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  • 9.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Shotton, Elizabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Cramer, Marlene
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Walsh, St John
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Östling, Janina
    IsoTimber Holding AB, Sweden.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    González-Alegre, Violeta
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Íñiguez-González, Guillermo
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Llana, Daniel F
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Derome AB, Sweden.
    Uí Chúláin, Caitríona
    National University of Ireland Galway, Sweden.
    Jackson, Nicola
    Robertson Timber Engineering and Offsite Solutions Scotland, UK.
    García Barbero, Manuel
    Klimark and Nova Domus Hábitat, Spain.
    Zabala Mejia, Andres
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Design of Timber Buildings for Deconstruction and Reuse — Three methods and five case studies2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for a shift towards circular economy in the construction sector and design philosophies as Design for Deconstruction and Reuse (DfDR) and Design for Adaptability (DfA) are being developed as means to design out waste and enhance resource efficiency. However, applying these philosophies is not yet common practice. The amount of DfDR/A timber buildings described in literature is limited. This study aims at increasing and spreading knowledge on DfDR/A for timber buildings. It has four goals: 1) To suggest methods to apply DfDR/A. 2) To suggest new design solutions. 3) To collect experiences on connections in relation to DfDR. 4) To suggest how guidelines for deconstruction and reuse can be formulated. The study presents three methods that all proved valuable in applying DfDR/A: one discussion-based method to improve an already existing timber building design, one indicator system to assess the DfDR/A potential of building designs, and one matrix to guide design decisions. We used the first method to conduct five case studies in four European countries. The studied designs were judged to be well or relatively well adapted for deconstruction and reuse already today. The fact that the studied buildings are all offsite manufactured and of modular composition benefits the deconstruction process, partly because construction and deconstruction are similar processes so that the knowledge and infrastructure that companies have can be directly transferred to enable deconstruction and reuse. Where large modules can be recovered, the time and energy needed for deconstruction as well as the risk for damage will be reduced. Disadvantages to deconstruction and reuse identified were typically linked to the complexity of building modules and that individual components are not independent. This was reflected as irreversible or hidden connections, inaccessible services, interconnected layers of the structural modules and many different component sizes. One of the case study buildings, designed with mass timber panels, excelled in the simplicity and reduction of number of steps required for maximum material recovery. New designs suggested included making fasteners more accessible to deconstruction, avoiding letting sensitive materials as plastic foils and particle boards pass continuously over joints between elements, and (for cases where standard units are not already used) standardizing elements. One case suggested using solid wood components instead of engineered wood products to achieve durability. The study showed that simple changes in design can lead to an augmented reuse potential. Some of the new design solutions generated will be taken into production by the participating manufacturers. Insights on connections included recognizing the fact that the use of reversible screwed connections is not sufficient to ensure deconstructability and that although nailed or glued connections severely complicate reuse of components, they might be accepted within elements in case reuse on element level is the target. Guidelines for deconstruction and reuse were developed in all case studies. Taken as a group of studies, there are advantageous additions proposed to earlier guidance documents. Despite being based on the same source, the different plans suggested varied substantially. There was a noteworthy difference between manufacturers’ in-house plans to those proposed by architects, engineers, or researchers, which speaks to the uncertainty regarding the appropriate structure and format.

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