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  • 1.
    Huffmeier, Johannes
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Bram, Staffan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Human Impact on Safety of Shipping2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans, especially the crews have an important role in the safe operation of ships. The crews, given the right circumstances are able to safely maneuver, navigate, maintain and operate the vessel. The crews are dependent on many factors that enable this work, from the design of the vessel and work place, the procedures, processes given by the ship management and the business approach the ship owner applies to the vessel.

    The traffic to and from Åland is an advanced transport system that enables safe ferry services in shipping fairways with narrow passages, meeting and crossing traffic as well as winter navigation - a shipping system combining people and technology to create safe transport.

    The introduction of more automation requires a systems perspective and will not be a straight forward development. Total autonomy as proposed by some technology developers is often neglecting the functions and roles that humans have on maritime safety and the business case for increased automation neglects the full contribution of humans onboard. Total autonomy will therefore require high-end products that are built on standardized complex systems. Controlling and monitoring these systems will set new requirements on operators to uphold situated understanding in these complex systems.

    Many aspects will be affected by increased automation towards smart shipping - regulations, organization, workplace, working methods, HMI, roles and skills. To cope with the foreseen changes it is important to develop further training, skills, experience, openness in the organization and familiarization giving the future crews the right pre-conditions to succeed in the future, as well as mindful design and integration of newly automated systems

    In the future, the ISM code will likely have to change to improve the interaction between land organisations and crews in order to facilitate better integration of split responsibilities and split physical locations by the management system which in the long run allows for an increased land-based monitoring and control

    of vessels’ systems and move certain tasks to shore to lower workload onboard, which should be one of the main drivers for automation.

  • 2.
    Huffmeier, Johannes
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sjögren, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Vessel Emission Control System: ett alternativtill landström?: 8P05667: Analys över de tekniska-, affärsmässiga- och miljömässiga förutsättningarnaför VECS i svenska hamnstäder2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    den här rapporten utvärderas alternativa tekniker till elanslutningar av fartyg vid kaj, huvudsakligen vessel emission control system (VECS). Rapporten behandlar de luftkvalitetutmaningar som uppstår i hamnar som är integrerade i stadsmiljö. Hamnverksamheten, och då främst fartygen, ger upphov till utsläpp vilka har en negativ påverkan på den lokala omgivningen. Att ansluta fartygen till elnätet är en befintlig lösning men en åtgärd som i många fall inte är tekniskt eller ekonomiskt möjlig. Ett alternativ till landströmsanslutning är VECS d.v.s. externa reningssystem för fartygsutsläpp. VECS består av mobila plattformar som är utrustade med rökgasrening vilka sedan kopplas direkt till fartygens skorstenar då de ligger vid kaj. En sådan lösning skulle kunna användas när landström inte är möjligt eller otillräcklig och på så vis förhindra utsläpp av partiklar (PM10 och PM2.5), kväveoxider (NOx) och svaveldioxid (SO2) men även koldioxid (CO2) i Svenska hamnstäder.

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