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  • 1.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety of CLT Buildings with Exposed Wooden Surfaces2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of tall buildings made of CLT have been built in recent years. Current architectural trends involve having visible timber surfaces in these tall CLT structures. This results in new fire safety challenges, especially because fire service interference is increasingly difficult for increasingly tall buildings.

     

    Recently, a number of research projects involving large scale compartment fire testing studied the development of fires in (1) compartments with a fully encapsulated CLT structure and (2) compartments with exposed CLT surfaces. The studies have shown that sufficient gypsum board protection can avoid the involvement of CLT in a fire. However, fall-off of the base layer of gypsum boards during can result in continuous fires that do not extinguish without fire surface interference, as during fall-off large areas of initially protected timber surfaces start to contribute as fuel to the fire.

     

    If CLT is exposed to a fire, fire induced delamination of CLT (also lamella fall-off or char fall-off) could occur due to weakening of bond lines within the CLT. During fire induced delamination the exposed lamella falls from the CLT and a new relatively cold timber surface becomes exposed to potentially high temperatures, which effectively makes additional fuel suddenly available to a fire.

     

    Very recent studies involved the development of CLT products that are not subject to delamination. The studies indicate that the use of (a) sufficient fire protection, (b) CLT products with thermally resistant adhesives and (c) a limit regarding the surface area of CLT that can be exposed, result in fires that decay and eventually self-extinguish.

    This paper reviews the studies and includes a summary of conclusions.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Behaviour of cavity barriers in modular houses: A revised test methodology2016Ingår i: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, s. 623-628Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Tiso, M
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Parametric fire design – zero-strengthlayers and charring rates2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of fire safety engineering performance based design methods are increasingly used to demonstrate that building designs are safe. However, performance based design is not commonly used for the design of timber structures, as there are not many relevant assessment methods available (Östman et al. 2010). For assessment whether the design of a building meets certain criteria, a design fire scenario is needed. Design fires often describe the temperature throughout a fire and are often based on dimensions, ventilation conditions and the fuel load of the compartment. Parametric fires are such design fires, used for structural calculations corresponding to post-flashover fires in compartments, based on the compartment’s dimensions, ventilation openings, lining materials, and the fuel load. Eurocode 1 (EN1991-1- 2:2004) includes parametric fires. Annex A of Eurocode 5 (EN1995-1-2:2004) offers calculation methods to determine charring rates of timber under parametric fire exposure, which depend mostly on the compartment’s ventilation opening sizes. However, Annex A is not accepted for use in all European countries, as the provided charring rates are questioned. Additionally, there are some parameters missing for calculations of structures exposed to parametric fires, namely: (1) notional charring rates, which take into account an increased char depth at the corners of small crosssections and (2) zero-strength-layers, which take into account a strength reduction of uncharred but damaged wood in the structural member. This paper presents an experimental study performed to determine one-dimensional, notional charring rates and zero-strength-layers corresponding to a range of parametric fire curves.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linne University, Sweden.
    Förslag för brandskydd i flervånings trähus2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ger förslag på lösningar för brandskydd i höga trähus. De förslag som ges är inte fullständiga och andra åtgärder kan vara aktuella för att få till ett bättre brandskydd i höga trähus. De förslag som presenteras baseras på arbetet i forskningsprojektet

    Brandskydd i höga trähus, som finansierats av Brandforsk (Brandforsk projekt 301-152) och Svenskt Trä och denna rapport är till stora delar en översättning av RISE report 2018:43 "Mitigation of fires in multi-storey timber buildings – statistical analysis and guidelines for design" av Daniel Brandon, Alar Just, Petra Andersson och Birgit Östman.

    Brandnormer inriktas i första hand på personsäkerhet, men i höga och stora byggnader blir egendomsskyddet allt viktigare. De förslag som ges här baseras främst på analys av stora skador i USA. De viktigaste punkterna är att begränsa

    1. Direkt brand- och rökspridning mellan brandceller via:

    a. dörrar, väggar och bjälklag

    b. anslutningar mellan byggnadselement

    c. genomföringar i väggar och bjälklag

    d. installationer i väggar och bjälklag

    2. Brand- och rökspridning genom hålrum:

    a. i brandcellsavskiljande byggnadselement

    b. i fasader och yttertak

    3. Utvändig brand- och rökspridning:

    a. längs fasadens yta

    b. genom fönster

    c. genom ventilationsöppningar (t ex vid takfot)

    d. på vindar

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Ziethen, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Allbrektsson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    High-Fire-Resistance Glulam Connections for Tall Timber Buildings2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Tall timber buildings generally require fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, 120 minutes or more. The vast majority of fire tested structural timber connections, however, did not reach a fire resistance that was relevant for these buildings. Commonly timber connections between glued laminated timber members comprise of exposed steel fasteners, such as bolts, screws, nails and dowels. However, it has previously been concluded that connections with exposed steel fasteners, generally do not achieve fire resistance ratings of 30 minutes and are, therefore, inadequate to be implemented in tall timber buildings without fire encapsulation. The research project presented in this report consists of four connection fire tests that are designed to achieve structural fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, using different design strategies. This goal was achieved for all tested column-beam connections. A single test of a moment resisting connection did not lead to a fire resistance rating of 90 minutes, due to timber failure at the smallest cross-section after 86 minutes. The low temperature of the steel fasteners and the limited rotation of the connection, however, suggest that the connection would have been capable of achieving a 90 minutes fire resistance rating if larger beam cross-sections would be used.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Eurocode 5 design in comparison with fire resistance tests of unprotected timber beams2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods (SFPE 2016), 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8. Jalas, Raido
    et al.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Analysis of fires in buildings in Estonia2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2015, , s. 123-125Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Improvement of the fire design models of timber frame assemblies in Eurocode 52016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Wood and Fire Safety 2016, 2016, s. 123-127Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Post protection behavior of wooden wall and floor construction completely filled with glass wool2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire Stops in Buildings2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In a statistical study performed by the London fire brigade in the Real Fires Database it was found that out of 30 086 fires occurring between 2009 and 2011, fire spread beyond the floor of origin through gaps or voids occurred in 92 cases. This illustrates that the phenomenon is relatively rare. However, it can lead to severe property damage. Fires can spread invisibly within cavities of the structure, which has led to problems concerning the extinguishment of the fire. Cavity barriers function is to stop the fire spread through cavities. However, these cavity barriers have not always been effective.

    This report is the result of a study that aimed to:

    1. Develop a robust testing method for cavity barriers for cavities with combustible materials within walls, floors and other elements in buildings.

    2. Provide guidelines for the materials, installation, positioning, detailing and location of the cavity barriers.

    Additionally, a preliminary study is performed to assess some extinguishing strategies.

    Based on a study of characteristics of cavity fires, current standard fire tests for cavity barriers were revised for the use in cavities with combustible materials. From tests following the revised methodology, guidelines regarding the dimensions, installation and fire stopping design are provided.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    SMART HOUSING SMÅLAND : Optimizing the fire protection of massive timber structures2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A research project to optimize gypsum protection of CLT or other mass timber materials was performed by RISE. The project included 5 intermediate scale furnace fire tests of CLT protected with a fire rated gypsum board. The pattern of the gypsum screws was varied in the tests to allow for a comparative study. The comparisons indicated that fall-off of gypsum boards can be delayed significantly by changing positions of screws and the spacing between them.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Mäger, K. N.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Pukk, R.
    Estonian Academy of Security Sciences, Estonia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    CLT compartment fire test2018Ingår i: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New high-rise timber buildings are planned to be built in the near future all around the world. The fire protection concepts are not always considering natural fire scenarios. As timber is a combustible material, it can contribute to the fire within and outside of the fire compartment. For buildings with cross-laminated timber (CLT) elements the possible fall-off of lamellas should be considered because of the risk for second flashover, which can lead to a continuous fire. However, in case fire service interference or sprinkler activation is absent or inefficient, it may be necessary to design a building so that it leads to a decaying fire. Additionally, it is important to limit fire spread to neighbouring compartments. This paper discusses a compartment test of a two-story building made of CLT performed in Estonia to study delamination behaviour and consequences in compartments with realistic ventilation conditions. State-of-the art solutions to limit fire spread from the first floor into the second floor were applied. This involved robust design of connections, penetrations through the compartment boundary and the façade. The paper provides a description and analysis of the test.

  • 14.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Execution of timber structures and fire safety2016Ingår i: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, s. 5555-5562Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety is one of the six essential performance requirements to consider when building timber structures. Fire safety has to be proven for the whole building process and the end use of the building. On the building site during the execution there might be an increased risk for fire spread because of large amounts of unprotected timber and relatively open structures. Work processes dealing with high temperatures, smoking, vandalism or other reasons can lead to ignition of timber and end up with serious damages. Fire safety on the building site should be handled from the very beginning to the final stage of execution. During the execution the designed solutions have to be checked and followed. This paper gives the background and principles that should be considered in a new Nordic standard for execution of timber structures in terms of fire safety.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandstopp i byggnadskonstruktioner: Resultat från SBUF projekt 129932016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristande brandteknisk funktion hos byggnadstekniska detaljlösningar är ofta en starkt

    bidragande orsak till brandspridning. Flera incidenter de senaste åren visar tydligt att byggsystem

    med hålrum kan ha stor inverkan på brandförloppet och medföra stora egendomsskador i alla

    typer av byggnader. Befintliga rekommendationer om att brandstopp måste installeras i hålrum

    för att hindra att dolda bränder uppstår och sprids mellan brandceller följs tyvärr ofta inte inom

    praktiskt byggande.

    Syftet med projektet är att utveckla en lämplig metodik för att verifiera funktionen hos olika

    typer av brandstopp i byggnader, att dokumentera funktionen hos några typer av brandstopp

    enligt relevant metodik samt att ge underlag för riktlinjer om hur brandstopp ska utformas och

    användas. Resultaten ska även kunna användas för att bedöma befintliga detaljlösningar.

    Arbetet har inriktats främst på brandstopp för hålrum i modulhus. Olika typer av brandstopp för

    sådana hålrum har studerats bland annat genom provningar i modellskala. Befintlig

    provningsteknik har vidareutvecklats och en reviderad metodik har föreslagits.

    Som ett första resultat för praktisk användning har riktlinjer tagits fram för hur brandstopp ska

    utformas och användas i modulkonstruktioner. De främsta målgrupperna är bygg- och

    byggmaterialindustrin samt brandkonsulter

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Kraudok, Kairit
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Protection by gypsum plasterboards – state of the art2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2015, , s. 107-110Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Liblik, Johanna
    Lerputs som brandskydd av träkonstruktioner2015Ingår i: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 107, nr 6, s. 53-54Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Nurk, Jane Liise
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Improved fire design model for cross-laminated timber and glulam2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesives state the essential prerequisite for manufacturing large timber construction elements from rigidly bonded solid wood boards of growth and processing bound limited dimensions. In the first two decades after the invention of glulam up to the 1930s, adhesives based on natural organic substances like blood and proteins were used. Such adhesives can have high dry strength but are weak when applying water or temperature. These adhesives were then replaced by synthetic ones, firstly in the early 1930s by (phenol )-resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF/PRF) adhesives and then by urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives. Numerous tests have shown that the boiling water resistant duroplastic RF/PRF adhesives are very stable at high temperatures up to/beyond the charring of wood (Dorn and Egner, 1967; Klippel 2014). Contrary hereto, the UF adhesives later classified in Europe as type II adhesives have significantly reduced water resistance (e.g. Raknes (1997) and are less temperature stable and fire resistant, although the latter was not communicated sufficiently. The RF-, PRF- and UF- adhesives were exclusively used up until the 1980s when the presently existing timber standards for “cold” and fire design were being developed. From the 1980s onwards, adhesives with various chemical compositions have been added to the market. Firstly the duroplastic melamine-urea-formaldehyde and pure melamine formaldehyde (MUF/MF) adhesives, followed in the mid-90s by the moisture-hardening one-component polyurethane (1C-PUR) adhesives, then followed by the emulsion-polymer isocyanate (EPI) adhesives. In order to speed up curing times, being of utmost high economic importance, significant amounts of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) have been added to the hardeners of MUF adhesives with drawbacks on temperature stability. Each of the developed adhesives has its advantages and disadvantages regarding strength, water and/or temperature resistance, application robustness and price. According to EN 1995-1-2:2004, chapter 3.5, the behaviour of a bond line in fire may not be considered explicitly if the bond line is made of phenol-formaldehyde and aminoplastic, Type I adhesives, according to EN 301. Regarding the general principle that adhesives shall produce joints of such strength that the integrity of the bond is maintained in the assigned fire resistance period, a footnote hints at the point that some adhesives show softening considerably below the charring temperature of wood.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brandteknisk dimensionering2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Brandteknisk dimensionering av lätta träregelkonstruktioner enligt Eurokod 52011Ingår i: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 6, s. 15-18Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Effect of mineral wool insulations on charring of timber members2012Ingår i: Proceedings of World Conference on Timber Engineering 2012 (WCTE 2012), WCTE 2012 Committee , 2012, , s. 203-209Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Fire protection by mineral wool for timber frame assemblies2012Ingår i: SIF'2012: 7th International Conference on Structures in Fire,, ETH Zürich and EMPA , 2012, , s. 337-346Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Isover timber framing2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Schmid, Joachim
    Isover Timber Framing – Part 22014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    SPFiT – beräkning av träkonstruktioners brandmotstånd enligt Eurokod 52014Ingår i: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 106, nr 6, s. 34-35Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    SPFiT – Calculating the fire resistance of timber structures in accordance with Eurocode 52014Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 50, s. 22-23Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Wood cladding materials with fire protection ability2014Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 50, s. 32-33Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 28. Just, Alar
    et al.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Failure times of gypsum boards2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, DEStech , 2010, , s. 593-601Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Failure times of gypsum plasterboards2010Ingår i: Interflam 2010: Proceedings of the twelfth international conference, London, UK , 2010, , s. 1695-1700Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Gypsum plasterboards used as fire protection - analysis of a database2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 31.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Post-protection effect of heat-resistant insulations on timber-frame members exposed to fire2011Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 153-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    The effect of insulation on charring of timber frame members2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 33.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brandsäkert träbyggande2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Werther, Norman
    Frangi, Andrea
    Fire protection of timber members – Determination of the fire protection system characteristics for the verification of the load-bearing resistance by means of calculation models2013Ingår i: 8th International Conference on Structures in Fire, Tongji University , 2013, , s. 10Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Fire protection abilities provided by gypsum plasterboards2012Ingår i: Proceedings of World Conference on Timber Engineering 2012 (WCTE 2012), WCTE 2012 Committee , 2012, , s. 540-544s. 540-544Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gypsum plastcrboards and gypsum fibrcboards arc often used as cladding on timber frame assemblies. Being the first layer on the fire exposed side, the protective properties of the boards are important for the whole assembly, especially for load bearing structures. Different design rules for the protection effect of gypsum plastcrboards arc presented and compared in the paper.

  • 36.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Tiso, Mattia
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    Design of separating function – state of the art2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2015, , s. 62-64Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Mäger, K. N.
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Olofsson, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Influence of adhesives on fire resistance of wooden i-joists2021Ingår i: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2021, WCTE 2021, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    FIRENWOOD is an Era-NET cofund Forest Value project (2019-2022) dealing with the fire resistance testing and design methods of engineered wood products at elevated temperatures and fire. As one part of the project, various adhesives, allowed for load bearing timber structures, are tested in finger joints in small scale and medium scale fire tests. The paper will provide a description of these tests and an overview and analysis of the results. Based on the test data of both types, a good agreement regarding the adhesive performance between the tests can be shown. The design model for wooden I-joists is described and values for the depth of the zero-strength layer are proposed for different adhesive performance levels in finger joints.

  • 38.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Determination of the effective material properties for the thermal simulations2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Network on Timber Engineering Research 2016 (INTER 2016), 2016, s. 397-400Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Wikner, Alfred (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Masonite Beams, Sweden.
    Improved fire design model for walls and floors with I-joists2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wooden I-joists, being factory-made ultra-light and highly optimised products, are typically used as the load-bearing elements in timber frame assemblies (TFA), which consist of a combination of material layers – sheeting boards (claddings) and cavities which may be partially or completely filled with insulation. The materials used in conjunction with a timber member in a TFA affect the heating of the timber member. The joists consist of flanges (made of sawn wood, LVL or glulam) and a web (made of a wood - based board). Fire resistance of such wooden structural products is a complex matter. However, the current European design standard for timber structures in fire – Eurocode 5 Part 1-2 (2004) provides no guidance for I-joists. The fire resistance of wooden I-joists has been previously investigated by König (2006) and Schmid et al. (2011), who developed calculation models to analyse the load-bearing capacity of wooden I-joists exposed to fire for floors. There have been significant changes in the variety and types of materials used in conjunction with I-joists. Therefore, the application of these models is limited nowadays. Additionally, they focus on the reduced properties method. Only the effective cross-section method will be included in the revised Eurocode 5 Part 1-2. This report describes the unified model for wooden I-joists in both wall and floor assemblies which follows the philosophy of the effective cross-section method. Additionally, it should be used with all types of cavity insulation and fire protection systems. The unified I-joists model aims to be introduced to the new revised Eurocode 5 Part 1-2. Two phenomena have to be considered according to the ECSM: charring and mechanical resistance. It is assumed that the charring of wood is a material characteristic which is not dependent on the orientation of the structure (wall or floor). The charring of the flanges is primarily dependent on the cladding material and thickness. After the failure of the claddings, the charring is influenced by cavity insulation. Gypsum plasterboards as cladding and stone and glass wool as cavity insulation have been tested and analysed. A large number of thermal simulations have been analysed to investigate the influence of various factors (e.g. flange size, cavity insulation material, protective boards) on the charring behaviour of the fire-exposed flange and the web. The combination of different materials and the slender nature of I-joists makes their fire resistance a complicated issue. The thin web is very sensitive to elevated temperatures and charring. Additionally, adhesives used in finger joints in the flanges and the joint between the flanges and the web influences the load-bearing capacity. The loss of strength and stiffness were seen in wood at elevated temperatures is considered in the ECSM by a zero-strength layer. The zero-strength layer (ZSL) is an additional reduction of the cross-section to compensate for the decrease in strength and stiffness properties. The development of the expressions to calculate the ZSL depths for compression elements is discussed in this paper.

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  • 40.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Klippel, Michel
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Procedure for implementing new materials to the component additive method2019Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, s. 149-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of light timber frame wall and floor assemblies in fire depends on their composition. The assemblies' ability to form fire-separations between building compartments (separating function) can be assessed by full-scale fire testing or calculation methods. Calculations are the low cost and more flexible alternative.The component additive method is a commonly used calculation method for fire design of timber structures. The method considers the insulation ability of the material layers present in the assembly. The component additive method described in this article is developed to be flexible to implement different materials and products of different dimensions. However, the amount of different materials currently included in this method is rather limited and there is no generally accepted procedure to implement new materials.This paper presents a common agreement of the procedure to implement new materials which comprises of: (1) the design and execution of model-scale fire tests; (2) determination of the modified thermal properties needed for simulations; (3) thermal simulations of assemblies in fire conditions; (4) development of design equations and; (5) verification by one or more full-scale fire test(s). The abovementioned steps have been clearly presented in this paper and supported by examples.

  • 41.
    Nele Mäger, Katrin
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Development of Design Equations for Termoträ Fire Protect for the Component Additive Method2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report details the development of effective thermal properties and design equations for Termoträ Fire Protect which can be used for the improved component additive method for fire design of timber structures.

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    fulltext
  • 42.
    Nele Mäger, Katrin
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Development of Design Equations for the Component Additive Method for Paroc eXtra2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report details the development of effective thermal properties and design equations for Paroc eXtra which can be used for the improved component additive method for fire design of timber structures.  The results are validated with full scale fire tests where such reports are available. 

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    fulltext
  • 43. Nore, Kristine
    et al.
    Toratti, Tomi
    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Execution of timber structures2014Ingår i: INTER : International Network on Timber Engineering Research : Proceeding, Timber Scientific Publishing , 2014, , s. 359-361Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Olofsson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Wikner, Alfred (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Masonite Beams, Sweden.
    Loaded fire tests with I-joists2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the tests was to evaluate the potential reduction of the moment capacity of I-joists caused by bondline integrity of the finger joints. Each I-joist was made with 11 different adhesives in the finger joints in tension flange. All the adhesives were from Firenwood selection. Finger joints in tension may show a lower load-bearing capacity in the fire situation depending of the bond line integrity in fire. I-joists were loaded in bending with the tension flange being closer to the fire. I-joists were protected with gypsum plasterboard during the entire fire test. Cavities of the test assembly were filled with stone wool.

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    fulltext
  • 45.
    Olofsson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Model scale fire tests with cross-laminated timber2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the fire tests presented in this report was to measure the mass loss and the charring depth of CLT (cross-laminated timber) elements with different types of adhesives when exposed to fire from below. CLT elements may heat delaminate when exposed to heat. If this occurs, it depends, among other things, on the temperature of the adhesive and on the adhesive’s ability to retain its adhesive properties. Eleven adhesives are used in FIRENWOOD project in order to compare properties in fire. Adhesives originate from four different chemical backgrounds and represent the state of the art of adhesives used in timber structures. Adhesives are manufactured by 4 leading European adhesive manufacturers, and all 11 adhesives have passed requirements in European standards for load-bearing timber structures. Adhesives are marked with numbers 1 to 12 (adhesive no 10 is not included in this Work Package). Not all adhesives were tested for this method and is therefore not presented in the results.However, some additional adhesives were used in the tests presented in this report and are marked 21, 22, 23 and 24. The same numbers are used for all adhesives in all tests throughout FIRENWOOD project.

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    fulltext
  • 46.
    Olofsson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Persson, Tommy (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Masonite Beams, Sweden.
    Wikner, Alfred (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Masonite Beams, Sweden.
    Large-scale fire tests of engineered wood systems2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the four large-scale fire tests performed within the FIRENWOOD project. The aim of the tests was to verify the improved fire design models for the I-joists and crosslaminated timber. The results of the loaded floor test with cross-laminated timber were also compared with results from an unloaded model-scale test with similar lamella thicknesses and adhesive. The aim of the compartment fire test was to study the behaviour of I-joists in physically based fire compared to the behaviour in standard fire. The second aim was to compare the fire behaviour of the compartment made of timber frame assemblies with I-joists and the previously performed similar compartments made with CLT. All large-scale tests reported here were performed with engineered wood structures using adhesive No.9

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  • 47.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Design model for wood I-joists in wall assemblies exposed to fire2012Ingår i: SIF'2012: 7th International Conference on Structures in Fire,, ETH Zürich and EMPA , 2012, , s. 357-366Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    ISOVER ULTIMATE – Parameters for fire design according to Eurocode 52014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Prediction of load bearing resistance of timber beams in fire2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    University of Sassari, Italy.
    The reduced cross-section method for evaluation of the fire resistance of timber members: Discussion and determination of the zero-strength layer2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1285-1309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reduced cross-section method (RCSM) is included in Eurocode 5 (EN-1995-1-2) for the design of timber members in fire conditions. The method considers the strength and stiffness reduction beneath the charred layer by adding an additional depth (known as the ‘zero-strength’ layer) to the charring depth. The zero-strength layer is one of the key parameters for the fire design of timber members. Recently, some concerns have been raised that the zero-strength layer might be non-conservative in some applications. This paper presents the background to the RCSM, followed by a short discussion on the mechanical assumptions, simplifications and possible limitations of the method itself. Further, it discusses determination of the zero-strength layer thickness for members in bending, tension and compression, and provides guidelines on the use of standard experimental tests to determine this quantity. For demonstration of the determination procedure, the results of fire tests in bending, tension and compression were analysed following the described procedure. Results show that the zero-strength layer exceeds the value used in practice, indicate that the method of Eurocode 5 may be non-conservative and should be revised.

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