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  • 1.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety of CLT Buildings with Exposed Wooden Surfaces2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of tall buildings made of CLT have been built in recent years. Current architectural trends involve having visible timber surfaces in these tall CLT structures. This results in new fire safety challenges, especially because fire service interference is increasingly difficult for increasingly tall buildings.

     

    Recently, a number of research projects involving large scale compartment fire testing studied the development of fires in (1) compartments with a fully encapsulated CLT structure and (2) compartments with exposed CLT surfaces. The studies have shown that sufficient gypsum board protection can avoid the involvement of CLT in a fire. However, fall-off of the base layer of gypsum boards during can result in continuous fires that do not extinguish without fire surface interference, as during fall-off large areas of initially protected timber surfaces start to contribute as fuel to the fire.

     

    If CLT is exposed to a fire, fire induced delamination of CLT (also lamella fall-off or char fall-off) could occur due to weakening of bond lines within the CLT. During fire induced delamination the exposed lamella falls from the CLT and a new relatively cold timber surface becomes exposed to potentially high temperatures, which effectively makes additional fuel suddenly available to a fire.

     

    Very recent studies involved the development of CLT products that are not subject to delamination. The studies indicate that the use of (a) sufficient fire protection, (b) CLT products with thermally resistant adhesives and (c) a limit regarding the surface area of CLT that can be exposed, result in fires that decay and eventually self-extinguish.

    This paper reviews the studies and includes a summary of conclusions.

  • 2.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

  • 3.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Behaviour of cavity barriers in modular houses: A revised test methodology2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 623-628Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linne University, Sweden.
    Förslag för brandskydd i flervånings trähus2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ger förslag på lösningar för brandskydd i höga trähus. De förslag som ges är inte fullständiga och andra åtgärder kan vara aktuella för att få till ett bättre brandskydd i höga trähus. De förslag som presenteras baseras på arbetet i forskningsprojektet

    Brandskydd i höga trähus, som finansierats av Brandforsk (Brandforsk projekt 301-152) och Svenskt Trä och denna rapport är till stora delar en översättning av RISE report 2018:43 "Mitigation of fires in multi-storey timber buildings – statistical analysis and guidelines for design" av Daniel Brandon, Alar Just, Petra Andersson och Birgit Östman.

    Brandnormer inriktas i första hand på personsäkerhet, men i höga och stora byggnader blir egendomsskyddet allt viktigare. De förslag som ges här baseras främst på analys av stora skador i USA. De viktigaste punkterna är att begränsa

    1. Direkt brand- och rökspridning mellan brandceller via:

    a. dörrar, väggar och bjälklag

    b. anslutningar mellan byggnadselement

    c. genomföringar i väggar och bjälklag

    d. installationer i väggar och bjälklag

    2. Brand- och rökspridning genom hålrum:

    a. i brandcellsavskiljande byggnadselement

    b. i fasader och yttertak

    3. Utvändig brand- och rökspridning:

    a. längs fasadens yta

    b. genom fönster

    c. genom ventilationsöppningar (t ex vid takfot)

    d. på vindar

  • 5.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Eurocode 5 design in comparison with fire resistance tests of unprotected timber beams2016In: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods (SFPE 2016), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6. Jalas, Raido
    et al.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Analysis of fires in buildings in Estonia2015In: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2015, , p. 123-125Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Improvement of the fire design models of timber frame assemblies in Eurocode 52016In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Wood and Fire Safety 2016, 2016, p. 123-127Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Post protection behavior of wooden wall and floor construction completely filled with glass wool2010Report (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Stops in Buildings2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a statistical study performed by the London fire brigade in the Real Fires Database it was found that out of 30 086 fires occurring between 2009 and 2011, fire spread beyond the floor of origin through gaps or voids occurred in 92 cases. This illustrates that the phenomenon is relatively rare. However, it can lead to severe property damage. Fires can spread invisibly within cavities of the structure, which has led to problems concerning the extinguishment of the fire. Cavity barriers function is to stop the fire spread through cavities. However, these cavity barriers have not always been effective.

    This report is the result of a study that aimed to:

    1. Develop a robust testing method for cavity barriers for cavities with combustible materials within walls, floors and other elements in buildings.

    2. Provide guidelines for the materials, installation, positioning, detailing and location of the cavity barriers.

    Additionally, a preliminary study is performed to assess some extinguishing strategies.

    Based on a study of characteristics of cavity fires, current standard fire tests for cavity barriers were revised for the use in cavities with combustible materials. From tests following the revised methodology, guidelines regarding the dimensions, installation and fire stopping design are provided.

  • 10.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mäger, K. N.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Pukk, R.
    Estonian Academy of Security Sciences, Estonia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    CLT compartment fire test2018In: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New high-rise timber buildings are planned to be built in the near future all around the world. The fire protection concepts are not always considering natural fire scenarios. As timber is a combustible material, it can contribute to the fire within and outside of the fire compartment. For buildings with cross-laminated timber (CLT) elements the possible fall-off of lamellas should be considered because of the risk for second flashover, which can lead to a continuous fire. However, in case fire service interference or sprinkler activation is absent or inefficient, it may be necessary to design a building so that it leads to a decaying fire. Additionally, it is important to limit fire spread to neighbouring compartments. This paper discusses a compartment test of a two-story building made of CLT performed in Estonia to study delamination behaviour and consequences in compartments with realistic ventilation conditions. State-of-the art solutions to limit fire spread from the first floor into the second floor were applied. This involved robust design of connections, penetrations through the compartment boundary and the façade. The paper provides a description and analysis of the test.

  • 11.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Execution of timber structures and fire safety2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, p. 5555-5562Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety is one of the six essential performance requirements to consider when building timber structures. Fire safety has to be proven for the whole building process and the end use of the building. On the building site during the execution there might be an increased risk for fire spread because of large amounts of unprotected timber and relatively open structures. Work processes dealing with high temperatures, smoking, vandalism or other reasons can lead to ignition of timber and end up with serious damages. Fire safety on the building site should be handled from the very beginning to the final stage of execution. During the execution the designed solutions have to be checked and followed. This paper gives the background and principles that should be considered in a new Nordic standard for execution of timber structures in terms of fire safety.

  • 12.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandstopp i byggnadskonstruktioner: Resultat från SBUF projekt 129932016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristande brandteknisk funktion hos byggnadstekniska detaljlösningar är ofta en starkt

    bidragande orsak till brandspridning. Flera incidenter de senaste åren visar tydligt att byggsystem

    med hålrum kan ha stor inverkan på brandförloppet och medföra stora egendomsskador i alla

    typer av byggnader. Befintliga rekommendationer om att brandstopp måste installeras i hålrum

    för att hindra att dolda bränder uppstår och sprids mellan brandceller följs tyvärr ofta inte inom

    praktiskt byggande.

    Syftet med projektet är att utveckla en lämplig metodik för att verifiera funktionen hos olika

    typer av brandstopp i byggnader, att dokumentera funktionen hos några typer av brandstopp

    enligt relevant metodik samt att ge underlag för riktlinjer om hur brandstopp ska utformas och

    användas. Resultaten ska även kunna användas för att bedöma befintliga detaljlösningar.

    Arbetet har inriktats främst på brandstopp för hålrum i modulhus. Olika typer av brandstopp för

    sådana hålrum har studerats bland annat genom provningar i modellskala. Befintlig

    provningsteknik har vidareutvecklats och en reviderad metodik har föreslagits.

    Som ett första resultat för praktisk användning har riktlinjer tagits fram för hur brandstopp ska

    utformas och användas i modulkonstruktioner. De främsta målgrupperna är bygg- och

    byggmaterialindustrin samt brandkonsulter

  • 13.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Kraudok, Kairit
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Protection by gypsum plasterboards – state of the art2015In: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2015, , p. 107-110Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Liblik, Johanna
    Lerputs som brandskydd av träkonstruktioner2015In: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 53-54Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brandteknisk dimensionering2014Report (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Brandteknisk dimensionering av lätta träregelkonstruktioner enligt Eurokod 52011In: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 6, p. 15-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Effect of mineral wool insulations on charring of timber members2012In: Proceedings of World Conference on Timber Engineering 2012 (WCTE 2012), WCTE 2012 Committee , 2012, , p. 203-209Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Fire protection by mineral wool for timber frame assemblies2012In: SIF'2012: 7th International Conference on Structures in Fire,, ETH Zürich and EMPA , 2012, , p. 337-346Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Isover timber framing2013Report (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Schmid, Joachim
    Isover Timber Framing – Part 22014Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    SPFiT – beräkning av träkonstruktioners brandmotstånd enligt Eurokod 52014In: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    SPFiT – Calculating the fire resistance of timber structures in accordance with Eurocode 52014In: Brandposten, no 50, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Wood cladding materials with fire protection ability2014In: Brandposten, no 50, p. 32-33Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24. Just, Alar
    et al.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Failure times of gypsum boards2010In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, DEStech , 2010, , p. 593-601Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Failure times of gypsum plasterboards2010In: Interflam 2010: Proceedings of the twelfth international conference, London, UK , 2010, , p. 1695-1700Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Gypsum plasterboards and gypsum fibreboards - protective times for fire safety design of timber structures2011In: p. 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Gypsum plasterboards used as fire protection - analysis of a database2010Report (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Post-protection effect of heat-resistant insulations on timber-frame members exposed to fire2011In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 153-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    The effect of insulation on charring of timber frame members2010Report (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brandsäkert träbyggande2014Report (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Werther, Norman
    Frangi, Andrea
    Fire protection of timber members – Determination of the fire protection system characteristics for the verification of the load-bearing resistance by means of calculation models2013In: 8th International Conference on Structures in Fire, Tongji University , 2013, , p. 10Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Fire protection abilities provided by gypsum plasterboards2012In: Proceedings of World Conference on Timber Engineering 2012 (WCTE 2012), WCTE 2012 Committee , 2012, , p. 540-544Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Tiso, Mattia
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    Design of separating function – state of the art2015In: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2015, , p. 62-64Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Determination of the effective material properties for the thermal simulations2016In: Proceedings of the International Network on Timber Engineering Research 2016 (INTER 2016), 2016, p. 397-400Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Klippel, Michel
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Procedure for implementing new materials to the component additive method2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of light timber frame wall and floor assemblies in fire depends on their composition. The assemblies' ability to form fire-separations between building compartments (separating function) can be assessed by full-scale fire testing or calculation methods. Calculations are the low cost and more flexible alternative.The component additive method is a commonly used calculation method for fire design of timber structures. The method considers the insulation ability of the material layers present in the assembly. The component additive method described in this article is developed to be flexible to implement different materials and products of different dimensions. However, the amount of different materials currently included in this method is rather limited and there is no generally accepted procedure to implement new materials.This paper presents a common agreement of the procedure to implement new materials which comprises of: (1) the design and execution of model-scale fire tests; (2) determination of the modified thermal properties needed for simulations; (3) thermal simulations of assemblies in fire conditions; (4) development of design equations and; (5) verification by one or more full-scale fire test(s). The abovementioned steps have been clearly presented in this paper and supported by examples.

  • 36.
    Nele Mäger, Katrin
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Development of Design Equations for Termoträ Fire Protect for the Component Additive Method2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report details the development of effective thermal properties and design equations for Termoträ Fire Protect which can be used for the improved component additive method for fire design of timber structures.

  • 37.
    Nele Mäger, Katrin
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Development of Design Equations for the Component Additive Method for Paroc eXtra2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report details the development of effective thermal properties and design equations for Paroc eXtra which can be used for the improved component additive method for fire design of timber structures.  The results are validated with full scale fire tests where such reports are available. 

  • 38. Nore, Kristine
    et al.
    Toratti, Tomi
    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Execution of timber structures2014In: INTER : International Network on Timber Engineering Research : Proceeding, Timber Scientific Publishing , 2014, , p. 359-361Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Design model for wood I-joists in wall assemblies exposed to fire2012In: SIF'2012: 7th International Conference on Structures in Fire,, ETH Zürich and EMPA , 2012, , p. 357-366Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    ISOVER ULTIMATE – Parameters for fire design according to Eurocode 52014Report (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Prediction of load bearing resistance of timber beams in fire2010Report (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    University of Sassari, Italy.
    The reduced cross-section method for evaluation of the fire resistance of timber members: Discussion and determination of the zero-strength layer2015In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 1285-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reduced cross-section method (RCSM) is included in Eurocode 5 (EN-1995-1-2) for the design of timber members in fire conditions. The method considers the strength and stiffness reduction beneath the charred layer by adding an additional depth (known as the ‘zero-strength’ layer) to the charring depth. The zero-strength layer is one of the key parameters for the fire design of timber members. Recently, some concerns have been raised that the zero-strength layer might be non-conservative in some applications. This paper presents the background to the RCSM, followed by a short discussion on the mechanical assumptions, simplifications and possible limitations of the method itself. Further, it discusses determination of the zero-strength layer thickness for members in bending, tension and compression, and provides guidelines on the use of standard experimental tests to determine this quantity. For demonstration of the determination procedure, the results of fire tests in bending, tension and compression were analysed following the described procedure. Results show that the zero-strength layer exceeds the value used in practice, indicate that the method of Eurocode 5 may be non-conservative and should be revised.

  • 43.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Klippel, Michael
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Verification of the load-bearing resistance of timber members by means of the reduced cross-section method – Background to the Eurocode model and comparison to fire tests in bending2013In: 8th International Conference on Structures in Fire, Tongji University , 2013, , p. 8Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Fire exposed wooden I-joists for wall assemblies2011Report (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Model scale fire tests of Isover Ulitmate - Part 1.1. Effective material properties in the fire situation2010Report (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Model scale fire tests of Isover Ulitmate - Part 1.2. Load Bearing Tests2010Report (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Klippel, Michael
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Comparison of test results and the Reduced Cross-Section Method using a zero-strength layer2014In: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2014, , p. 51-53Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Klippel, Michael
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Frangi, Andrea
    Comparison of the fire resistance of timber members in tests and calculation models2013In: p. 365-378Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Klippel, Michael
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Frangi, Andrea
    Review and analysis of fire resistance tests of timber members in bending, tension and compression with respect to the Reduced Cross-Section Method2014In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 68, p. 81-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Reduced Cross-Section Method (RCSM) provides a popular method for the design of timber members exposed to fire, using an effective cross-section and mechanical properties at normal temperature. The RCSM was adopted from a single publication and was originally developed for single-span beams exposed to bending load. It has been introduced in Eurocode 5 for a large range of timber members, including columns under compression and members under tension. Recently, the applicability of the method and its extended applications were called into question on the basis of limitations and contradictions found by advanced simulations. This paper analyses a total of 153 fire resistance tests (117 members in bending, six members in compression and 30 members in tension) with respect to the RCSM. The analysis shows that (i) most of the references are of too poor quality, or are incomplete, to validate a design model, (ii) results with adequate information content showed a significant deviation from the RCSM, and (iii) that the RCSM may lead to a non-conservative design. For members in tension, results fit well with the RCSM, while significant deviations were found for members in compression. Members in bending show very large scatter. It is therefore recommended that the existing design approach inEurocode 5 should be revised in order to include the results of advanced calculations and appropriate tests.

  • 50.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Tiso, Mattia
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Simulation of the Fire Resistance of Cross-laminated Timber (CLT)2018In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 1113-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber, typical abbreviations CLT or XLAM, is currently one of the most innovative product in building with wood. This solid engineered timber product provides advantages compared to other solid timber slabs as the dimension stability, i.e. swelling and shrinkage, is controlled by the crosswise laminations. As for other components, the fire resistance has to be verified for this type of product. While fire testing is time consuming and costly, simulations provide flexibility to optimize the product or to develop simplified design models for structural engineers. In this paper, a simulation technique is presented which can be used to determine the fire resistance of CLT. The technique was then used to develop simplified design equations to be used by engineers to predict the behavior of CLT in fire resistance tests and verify its fire resistance. Following existing models, the simplified design model aims for a two-step process whereby in a (i) first step the residual cross section and in (ii) a second step the load bearing capacity of the partly heated residual cross section is determined. The presented simulations consider the effective thermal–mechanical characteristics of wood exposed to standard fire and perform an advanced section analysis using a temperature profile corresponding to the actual protection and the location of the centroid together with the possibility of plasticity on the side of compression. It was shown that simulation results agree well with test results and that they can be used to determine layup specific modification factors used by the reduced properties method or zero-strength layers used by the effective cross section method. It was shown that the use of the zero-strength layers is favorable compared to the modification factors to calculate the resistance of the residual cross section. This is due to the large range of modification factors answering the typical layup of CLT comprising layers with their fiber direction cross the span direction. Subsequently, the methodology was used to determine design equations for initially unprotected and protected three-, five- and seven-layer CLT in bending and buckling. While the zero-strength layer for glulam beams in bending is assumed to be 7 mm (0.3 in), for CLT the corresponding value is in most of the cases between 5 mm and 12 mm but is different for other loading modes such as buckling (wall elements) and depending on the applied protection.

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