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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Hello Human, can you read my mind?2017In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 109, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For safety reasons, autonomous vehicles should communicate their intent rather than explicitly invitepeople to act. At RISE Viktoria in Sweden, we believe this simple design principle will impact howautonomous vehicles are experienced in the future

  • 2.
    Bout, Martijn
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Böckle, Marc Philipp
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A head-mounted display to support teleoperations of shared automated vehicles2017In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, p. 62-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated driving systems will be severely challenged in the unpredictable conditions of mixed traffic. Consequently, some form of human support remains essential in the foreseeable future. This challenge is especially true for Shared Automated Vehicles (SAVs), as these vehicles will likely not include any human driver on-board. When an SAV will encounter a scenario it cannot handle, a remote human operator will need to intervene and help the vehicle and its passengers. In this study a user-centred design approach is used to study whether a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) interface can support such operators and provide them with additional spatial awareness. Two prototypes (an HMD and a computer display) are developed and evaluated using pre-recorded real-world scenarios. Twelve participants assessed three possible scenarios a remote operator may encounter. Among participants, the study found evidence of strong implicit spatial awareness when using an HMD interface.

  • 3.
    Böckle, Marc Philipp
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Bout, Martijn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    SAV2P - Exploring the impact of an interface for shared automated vehicles on pedestrians' experience2017In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, 2017, p. 136-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study future communication needs between pedestrians and shared automated vehicles (SAVs), an interface that communicates the intentions of SAVs to pedestrians was designed and implemented in a virtual reality (VR) environment. This enabled the exploration of behaviors and experiences of 34 pedestrians when encountering SAVs, both with and without the interface, in several street crossing situations. All pedestrians assessed the level of perceived safety and comfort directly after each encounter with the SAV. The results show that the pedestrians' level of perceived safety and comfort is higher in encounters with the interface than in encounters without the interface. This may have a positive influence on the acceptance of SAVs, and implies that future SAVs may gain from this, or similar interface.

  • 4.
    Charisi, Vicky
    et al.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Li, Jamy
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Evers, Vanessa
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Children's views on identification and intention communication of self-driving vehicles2017In: IDC 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 2017, p. 399-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major reasons behind traffic accidents is misinterpretation among road users. Self-driving vehicles are expected to reduce these accidents, given that they are designed with all road users in mind. Recently, research on the design of vehicle-pedestrian communication has emerged, but to our knowledge, there is no research published that investigates the design of interfaces for intent communication towards child pedestrians. This paper reports the initial steps towards the examination of children's views and understandings about the appearance and intention communication of self-driving vehicles. It adopts a design inclusive methodological approach for the development of a prototype for the communication of two basic intentions: "I am going to stop" and "I am going to proceed". The initial results indicate children's need to be aware about the autonomy of the vehicle and the use of their previous experience with traffic signs for the interpretation of communicative signs of the vehicle.

  • 5.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Walter, Anders
    Swedish Road Administration, Sweden.
    Coordinating Dangerous Goods Vehicles: C-ITS Applications for Safe Road Tunnels2015In: 2015 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2015, p. 156-161, article id 7225679Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the existing regulation efforts and measures, vehicles with dangerous goods still pose significant risks on public safety, especially in road tunnels. Solutions based on cooperative intelligent transportation system (C-ITS) are promising measures, however, they have received limited attention. We propose C-ITS applications that coordinate dangerous goods vehicles to minimize the risk by maintaining safe distances between them in road tunnels. Different mechanisms, including global centralized coordination, global distributed coordination, and local coordination, are proposed and investigated. A preliminary simulation is performed and demonstrates their effectiveness.

  • 6.
    Dey, Debargha
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lundgren, Victor Malmsten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Schieben, Anna
    Institute of Transportation System, Germany.
    Workshop on Methodology: Evaluating Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Other Road Users—What Works in Practice?2018In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, 2018, p. 17-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods and metrics for studying interactions between automated vehicles and other road users in their vicinity, such as pedestrians, cyclists and non-automated vehicles, are not established yet. This workshop focuses on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies that could potentially be used to study such interactions. The objective lies in determining the proper experimental design, sensitivity of metrics for measuring user behavior, ecological validity, generalizability of findings, extraction of insights regarding how findings can be translated into actionable requirements, and the alternatives for conducting longitudinal field studies. It will be of an interactive nature and involve hands-on activities. The workshop will consolidate existing knowledge, identify recurring issues, and explore the path towards resolving these issues. The outcome will be compiled into a paper to share this valuable knowledge with a broader research community.

  • 7.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Larsson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Let’s communicate: How to operate in harmony with automated vehicles2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With autonomous cars on the road, not only will occupants need to communicate with their cars: pedestrians and autonomous vehicles will need to understand each other too. This article examines the vehicle HMI for road users other than the driver and passengers. 

  • 8.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    External vehicle interfaces for communication with other road users2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Larsson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    External Vehicle Interfaces for Communication with Other Road Users?2019In: Road Vehicle Automation 5 / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker, 2019, p. 91-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to ensure trust and societal acceptance of automated vehicles (AVs) is a widely-discussed topic today. While trust and acceptance could be influenced by a range of factors, one thing is sure: the ability of AVs to safely and smoothly interact with other road users will play a key role. Based on our experiences from a series of studies, this paper elaborates on issues that AVs may face in interactions with other road users and whether external vehicle interfaces could support these interactions. Our overall conclusion is that such interfaces may be beneficial in situations where negotiation is needed. However, these benefits, and potential drawbacks, need to be further explored to create a common language, or standard, for how AVs should communicate with other road users.

  • 10.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Command-based driving for tactical control of highly automated vehicles2017In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 499-510Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicles become highly automated, their drivers become more passive. A concern is it may take drivers out of the control loop, causing reduced satisfaction and perceived control. The study explores whether or not drivers feel the need to control tactical decisions when operating highly automated vehicles. An experiment involving 17 drivers was carried out in a driving simulator. Each driver tested two different tactical controllers, allowing him/her to give various tactical commands to the vehicle (e.g., overtake, park). The results indicate that the drivers experienced a need to affect tactical decisions of highly automated vehicles. Several of the tactical commands were found useful, especially on rural roads and highways. It also gave them a feeling of being in control of the vehicle, suggesting that command-based driving might be a way to keep drivers in the control loop.

  • 11. Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    Challenges and Opportunities in the Field of Road Vehicle Automation2014In: Proceedings of FISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lagström, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sirkka, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Cars Group, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Autoliv AB, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania AB, Sweden.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo Group AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Volvo Group AB, Sweden.
    Communicating Intent of Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians.2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While traffic signals, signs, and road markings provide explicit guidelines for those operating in and around the roadways, some decisions, such as determinations of "who will go first," are made by implicit negotiations between road users. In such situations, pedestrians are today often dependent on cues in drivers' behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With the introduction of more automated functions and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, pedestrians cannot rely on such non-verbal cues anymore. To study how the interaction between pedestrians and automated vehicles (AVs) might look like in the future, and how this might be affected if AVs were to communicate their intent to pedestrians, we designed an external vehicle interface called automated vehicle interaction principle (AVIP) that communicates vehicles' mode and intent to pedestrians. The interaction was explored in two experiments using a Wizard of Oz approach to simulate automated driving. The first experiment was carried out at a zebra crossing and involved nine pedestrians. While it focused mainly on assessing the usability of the interface, it also revealed initial indications related to pedestrians' emotions and perceived safety when encountering an AV with/without the interface. The second experiment was carried out in a parking lot and involved 24 pedestrians, which enabled a more detailed assessment of pedestrians' perceived safety when encountering an AV, both with and without the interface. For comparison purposes, these pedestrians also encountered a conventional vehicle. After a short training course, the interface was deemed easy for the pedestrians to interpret. The pedestrians stated that they felt significantly less safe when they encountered the AV without the interface, compared to the conventional vehicle and the AV with the interface. This suggests that the interface could contribute to a positive experience and improved perceived safety in pedestrian encounters with AVs - something that might be important for general acceptance of AVs. As such, this topic should be further investigated in future studies involving a larger sample and more dynamic conditions.

  • 13.
    Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Amanuel, Mahdere
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    ITS-solutions for the identification of dangerous goods and non-moving vehicles research within the Stockholm Bypass project2014In: The 6th International symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS), 2014, p. 613-620Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Lindström, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Bui, Thanh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Clasen, Henrik
    Aptiv, Sweden.
    Drakeskär, Hugo
    Aptiv, Sweden.
    Designing HMIs for an active safety system on bicycles2019In: Adjunct Proceedings - 11th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2019, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2019, p. 125-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radar sensors have been used for active safety in cars for many years. An ongoing research project explores how radar sensors and technology common in automotive vehicles can be transferred for use on bicycles. Workshops have been used to generate ideas. A bicycle simulator is planned to be used for test and evaluation. Tests on a test track has been used to simulate high-risk scenarios. This paper describes the design process of this project, with focus on the user interface. High-risk scenarios and requirements are identified, followed by identified design challenges and design activities, including evaluation. Ideas for a dual HMI approach, directed towards the bicyclist and towards surrounding traffic are presented. 

  • 15.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lagström, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sirkka, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Autoliv Research, Sweden.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo Group, Sweden.
    Will There Be New Communication Needs When Introducing Automated Vehicles to the Urban Context?2017In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2017, Vol. 484, p. 485-497Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s encounters with vehicles, pedestrians are often dependent on cues in drivers’ behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With an increased level of automation, and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, the pedestrians cannot rely on such cues anymore. The question is: will there be new communication needs to warrant safe interactions with automated vehicles? This question is addressed by exploring pedestrians’ willingness to cross the street and their emotional state in encounters with a seemingly automated vehicle. The results show that pedestrians’ willingness to cross the street decrease with an inattentive driver. Eye contact with the driver on the other hand leads to calm interaction between vehicle and pedestrian. In conclusion, to sustain perceived safety when eye contact is discarded due to vehicle automation, it could be beneficial to provide pedestrians with the corresponding information in some other way (e.g., by means of an external vehicle interface).

  • 16.
    Moore, Dylan
    et al.
    Stanford University, US.
    Currano, Rebecca
    Stanford University, US.
    Sirkin, David
    Stanford University, US.
    Dey, Dave
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands .
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Holländer, Kai
    LMU Munich, Germany .
    Wizards of WOZ: Using controlled and field studies to evaluate AV-pedestrian interactions2019In: Adjunct Proceedings - 11th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2019, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2019, p. 45-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between autonomous vehicles (AV) and pedestrians remain an ongoing area of research within the AutoUI community and beyond. Given the challenge of conducting studies to understand and prototype these interactions, we propose a combined full-day workshop and tutorial on how to conduct field experiments and controlled experiments using Wizard-of-Oz (WoZ) protocols. We will discuss strengths and weaknesses of these approaches based on practical experiences and describe challenges we have faced. After diving into the intricacies of different experiment designs, we will encourage participants to engage in hands-on exercises that will explore new ways to answer future research questions. © 2019 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  • 17. Olstam, J
    et al.
    Häll, CH
    Smith, Göran
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Dynamic bus lanes in Sweden – a pre-study2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dedicated bus lanes and bus streets have, in recent years, become common measures for prioritisation of public transport. By ensuring free path along routes, they increase average speed and travel time reliability of buses. However, a major drawback is that the total traffic capacities of the roads decrease. Hence, these measures are only suitable when the total traffic flow is low enough to allow for a reduction of lanes; if it is possible to reroute adjacent traffic; or if it is possible to extend the road with additional lanes. A supplementary priority measure could be to utilize dynamic bus lanes (also called intermittent bus lanes and bus lanes with intermittent priority). Dynamic bus lanes are only dedicated for buses when and where the buses need them, and otherwise open for all vehicles to use. At any given point, adjacent traffic is only permitted from using the dynamic bus lanes at the stretches where buses are in the vicinity. This report presents the results from a pre-study, investigating the potential that dynamic bus lanes could have as a priority measure for public transport in a Swedish context.

    Knowledge of situations in which dynamic bus lanes have the highest potential, and their implementation requirements is scarce. It is moreover uncertain how they would affect traffic safety, level of service and user experience. Two real world field tests have been conducted; one in Lisbon and one in Melbourne. The installation in Melbourne is now permanently applied for trams on one street. The field test in Lisbon was on the contrary not made permanent, although the results showed large benefits for buses and limited adverse effects on other vehicles. Dynamic bus lanes have also been investigated by means of traffic analysis and traffic simulation experiments. In general, these studies show that the effects on travel time for buses are in general positive and delays for other vehicles are limited. Results from example calculations in this pre-study show that this also could be true for a Swedish context. It has also been identified that the effects on travel times are highly dependent on factors such as: the total traffic flow; the bus flow, the capacity of roads and junctions; the distance between junctions and bus stops; the type of bus stops and the yielding rules at bus stops. The effects on travel time variations are unclear and need to be further investigated.

    Few rigorous research studies have in general been undertaken to measure the user experiences or road safety implications of bus priority schemes, and evidence from those that do exist are mixed. Anyhow, the experiences from Lisbon and Melbourne suggest that drivers in adjacent lanes in general understand and accept that they are deprived of the right to use the lane when the buses need it, and that they will behave appropriately. Neither of the field tests has observed any negative impact on road safety. A workshop was conducted within this pre-study in order to further investigate plausible user experiences. The results indicate that bus drivers’ stress levels could be reduced; the relative attractiveness of travelling by bus might rise; and that motorists probably would experience the introduction of dynamic bus lanes as neither good nor bad, as long as the system is fairly intuitive.

    Technical solutions for implementing dynamic bus lanes exist. A dynamic bus lane system would require development of a system control unit and integration with bus sensors, sensors for traffic flow measurement, variable message signs (to inform road users of the current status of the dynamic bus lane) and traffic signals. It is moreover, in Sweden, possible to develop a local traffic rule that regulates dynamic bus lanes. However, the rule needs to be properly specified, designed, communicated, signed and marked on the road.

    The overall conclusion form the pre-study is that dynamic bus lanes could be a useful complementary priority measure for public transport vehicles in Sweden, especially when dedicated bus lanes are not feasible or desirable. However, a real world installation in Sweden, including pre implementation traffic analysis, is needed, in order to further investigate the potential and consequences. Thus, the next step is to plan for an implementation on a specific road stretch. That would include both estimation of costs, and generate input to further studies of effect on level of service and user experience. Driving simulators and traffic simulation experiments are applicable methods for investigating these issues. 

  • 18.
    Strandén, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Karlsson, Christer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Nilsson, Josef
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Jacobson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Habibovic, Azra
    Englund, Cristofer
    AstaZero - kommunikationsbehov V2X2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report shows the current need for wireless V2X communication equipment (vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure) for the evaluation of cooperative systems at the AstaZero proving ground. The work has been conducted within the project EQUIPP which is a collaboration between SP Technical Research institute of Sweden and Viktoria Swedish ICT and funded by RISE (Research institutes of Sweden).

  • 19.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Driver adherence to recommendations from support systems improves if the systems explain why they are given: A simulator study2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 56, p. 420-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a large-scale simulator study on driver adherence to recommendations given by driver support systems, specifically eco-driving support and navigation support. 123 participants took part in this study, and drove a vehicle simulator through a pre-defined environment for a duration of approximately 10 min. Depending on the experimental condition, participants were either given no eco-driving recommendations, or a system whose provided support was either basic (recommendations were given in the form of an icon displayed in a manner that simulates a heads-up display) or informative (the system additionally displayed a line of text justifying its recommendations). A navigation system that likewise provided either basic or informative support, depending on the condition, was also provided. Effects are measured in terms of estimated simulated fuel savings as well as engine braking/coasting behaviour and gear change efficiency. Results indicate improvements in all variables. In particular, participants who had the support of an eco-driving system spent a significantly higher proportion of the time coasting. Participants also changed gears at lower engine RPM when using an eco-driving support system, and significantly more so when the system provided justifications. Overall, the results support the notion that providing reasons why a support system puts forward a certain recommendation improves adherence to it over mere presentation of the recommendation. Finally, results indicate that participants’ driving style was less eco-friendly if the navigation system provided justifications but the eco-system did not. This may be due to participants considering the two systems as one whole rather than separate entities with individual merits. This has implications for how to design and evaluate a given driver support system since its effectiveness may depend on the performance of other systems in the vehicle.

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