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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Hello Human, can you read my mind?2017In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 109, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For safety reasons, autonomous vehicles should communicate their intent rather than explicitly invitepeople to act. At RISE Viktoria in Sweden, we believe this simple design principle will impact howautonomous vehicles are experienced in the future

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Rizgary, Daban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    First encounter effects in testing of highly automated vehicles during two experimental occasions – The need for recurrent testing2021In: it - Information Technology, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Safety and experience of other drivers while interacting with automated vehicle platoons2021In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 10, article id 100381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is currently unknown how automated vehicle platoons will be perceived by other road users in their vicinity. This study explores how drivers of manually operated passenger cars interact with automated passenger car platoons while merging onto a highway, and how different inter-vehicular gaps between the platooning vehicles affect their experience and safety. The study was conducted in a driving simulator and involved 16 drivers of manually operated cars. Our results show that the drivers found the interactions mentally demanding, unsafe, and uncomfortable. They commonly expected that the platoon would adapt its behavior to accommodate a smooth merge. They also expressed a need for additional information about the platoon to easier anticipate its behavior and avoid cutting-in. This was, however, affected by the gap size; larger gaps (30 and 42.5 m) yielded better experience, more frequent cut-ins, and less crashes than the shorter gaps (15 and 22.5 m). A conclusion is that a short gap as well as external human–machine interfaces (eHMI) might be used to communicate the platoon's intent to “stay together”, which in turn might prevent drivers from cutting-in. On the contrary, if the goal is to facilitate frequent, safe, and pleasant cut-ins, gaps larger than 22.5 m may be suitable. To thoroughly inform such design trade-offs, we urge for more research on this topic. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 4.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Schrank, Andreas
    DLR German Aerospace Center, Germany.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Zhao, Lin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hermann, David
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Mharolkar, Sanat
    Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Vanzura, Marek
    George Mason University, USA.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Oehl, Michael
    DLR German Aerospace Center, Germany.
    A Roadmap Towards Remote Assistance: Outcomes from Multidisciplinary Workshop at the 2023 Intelligent Vehicles Symposium2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote operation of highly automated vehicles (HAVs) may include occasional assistance from a human remote operator that is located outside the HAVs. Remote assistance typically delegates only highlevel guidance tasks to the remote operators such as authorizing a driving maneuver or specifying a new driving path. As remote assistance is fairly unexplored, there are still several research challenges. These challenges were discussed by experts from academia and industry in a multidisciplinary workshop at the 2023 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. As a result of the workshop, this paper presents a list of most pressing research questions in the following areas: human-machine interaction and human factors, design of the remote station, design of the HAVs. It also outlines a roadmap for future research on remote assistance of HAV, thereby informing interdisciplinary studies and facilitating the benefits of HAVs before full autonomy can be reached.

  • 5.
    Bout, Martijn
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Böckle, Marc Philipp
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A head-mounted display to support teleoperations of shared automated vehicles2017In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, p. 62-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated driving systems will be severely challenged in the unpredictable conditions of mixed traffic. Consequently, some form of human support remains essential in the foreseeable future. This challenge is especially true for Shared Automated Vehicles (SAVs), as these vehicles will likely not include any human driver on-board. When an SAV will encounter a scenario it cannot handle, a remote human operator will need to intervene and help the vehicle and its passengers. In this study a user-centred design approach is used to study whether a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) interface can support such operators and provide them with additional spatial awareness. Two prototypes (an HMD and a computer display) are developed and evaluated using pre-recorded real-world scenarios. Twelve participants assessed three possible scenarios a remote operator may encounter. Among participants, the study found evidence of strong implicit spatial awareness when using an HMD interface.

  • 6.
    Böckle, Marc Philipp
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Bout, Martijn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    SAV2P - Exploring the impact of an interface for shared automated vehicles on pedestrians' experience2017In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, 2017, p. 136-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study future communication needs between pedestrians and shared automated vehicles (SAVs), an interface that communicates the intentions of SAVs to pedestrians was designed and implemented in a virtual reality (VR) environment. This enabled the exploration of behaviors and experiences of 34 pedestrians when encountering SAVs, both with and without the interface, in several street crossing situations. All pedestrians assessed the level of perceived safety and comfort directly after each encounter with the SAV. The results show that the pedestrians' level of perceived safety and comfort is higher in encounters with the interface than in encounters without the interface. This may have a positive influence on the acceptance of SAVs, and implies that future SAVs may gain from this, or similar interface.

  • 7.
    Charisi, Vicky
    et al.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Li, Jamy
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Evers, Vanessa
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Children's views on identification and intention communication of self-driving vehicles2017In: IDC 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 2017, p. 399-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major reasons behind traffic accidents is misinterpretation among road users. Self-driving vehicles are expected to reduce these accidents, given that they are designed with all road users in mind. Recently, research on the design of vehicle-pedestrian communication has emerged, but to our knowledge, there is no research published that investigates the design of interfaces for intent communication towards child pedestrians. This paper reports the initial steps towards the examination of children's views and understandings about the appearance and intention communication of self-driving vehicles. It adopts a design inclusive methodological approach for the development of a prototype for the communication of two basic intentions: "I am going to stop" and "I am going to proceed". The initial results indicate children's need to be aware about the autonomy of the vehicle and the use of their previous experience with traffic signs for the interpretation of communicative signs of the vehicle.

  • 8.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Walter, Anders
    Swedish Road Administration, Sweden.
    Coordinating Dangerous Goods Vehicles: C-ITS Applications for Safe Road Tunnels2015In: 2015 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2015, p. 156-161, article id 7225679Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the existing regulation efforts and measures, vehicles with dangerous goods still pose significant risks on public safety, especially in road tunnels. Solutions based on cooperative intelligent transportation system (C-ITS) are promising measures, however, they have received limited attention. We propose C-ITS applications that coordinate dangerous goods vehicles to minimize the risk by maintaining safe distances between them in road tunnels. Different mechanisms, including global centralized coordination, global distributed coordination, and local coordination, are proposed and investigated. A preliminary simulation is performed and demonstrates their effectiveness.

  • 9.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Gråsjö, Mikael
    Carmenta AB, Sweden.
    Adebahr, Martin
    CEVT China Euro Vehicle Technology AB, Sweden.
    King, Philip
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Cloud-based traffic control: a system of systems for accelerating c-its deployment and autonomous vehicle integration2020In: Proceedings of Virtual ITS European Congress, 2020, article id Paper number ITS-TP18522Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic system is transforming into a highly complex system of systems with increasing connectivity and automation. Engineering such a system of systems requires close interaction between related stakeholders including authorities, car manufacturers, and the service and technology providers, both from the organizational and technical perspective. This paper describes a cloud-based traffic control system that provides a platform to support cross-sector interoperable information sharing, and data intelligence for future connected and autonomous vehicle integration. The system is engineered from a system of systems perspective with multi-stakeholder engagement and is designed to be cloud-native for stakeholder and service scalability. The paper discusses the motivation of the system, followed by a detailed description on the system architecture and the constituent systems. Supported services are presented with their working process, information flow, as well as their public demonstrations.

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  • 10.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Torstensson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    System of Systems for emergency response: the case with CAVs on highways2022In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC. Volume 2022-October, 2022, Pages 839-844, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 839-844Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency response system is a complex system of systems (SoS). The introduction of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) introduces an extra dimension into the complexity. Future emergency response must be able to take into account of the autonomous vehicles with different automation levels and leverage the increasing connectivity and automation for efficient emergency response. Architecture frameworks have long been used for system engineering for large complex systems. The emerging unified architecture framework converges previous architecture frameworks for a unified one towards both military and civilian use. Based on the scenario of emergency response with CAVs on highways, this paper motivates an enterprise architecture for emergency response system of systems (ERSoS) with identification of the key challenges and opportunities in addition to a proposal of required capabilities. The work is a first iteration of an enterprise architecture for ERSoS with CAVs and forms part of the overall ERSoS architecture development process. 

  • 11.
    Dey, Debargha
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Lundgren, Victor Malmsten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Schieben, Anna
    Institute of Transportation System, Germany.
    Workshop on Methodology: Evaluating Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Other Road Users—What Works in Practice?2018In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, 2018, p. 17-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods and metrics for studying interactions between automated vehicles and other road users in their vicinity, such as pedestrians, cyclists and non-automated vehicles, are not established yet. This workshop focuses on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies that could potentially be used to study such interactions. The objective lies in determining the proper experimental design, sensitivity of metrics for measuring user behavior, ecological validity, generalizability of findings, extraction of insights regarding how findings can be translated into actionable requirements, and the alternatives for conducting longitudinal field studies. It will be of an interactive nature and involve hands-on activities. The workshop will consolidate existing knowledge, identify recurring issues, and explore the path towards resolving these issues. The outcome will be compiled into a paper to share this valuable knowledge with a broader research community.

  • 12.
    Dey, Debargha
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Löcken, Andreas
    Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Wintersberger, Philipp
    Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Pfleging, Bastian
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; LMU Munich, Germany.
    Riener, Andreas
    Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Martens, Marieke
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; TNO, Netherlands .
    Terken, Jaques
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Taming the eHMI jungle: A classification taxonomy to guide, compare, and assess the design principles of automated vehicles' external human-machine interfaces2020In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 7, article id 100174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research in the field of interaction between automated vehicles and other road users in their vicinity. To facilitate such interactions, researchers and designers have explored designs, and this line of work has yielded several concepts of external Human-Machine Interfaces (eHMI) for vehicles. Literature and media review reveals that the description of interfaces is often lacking in fidelity or details of their functionalities in specific situations, which makes it challenging to understand the originating concepts. There is also a lack of a universal understanding of the various dimensions of a communication interface, which has impeded a consistent and coherent addressal of the different aspects of the functionalities of such interface concepts. In this paper, we present a unified taxonomy that allows a systematic comparison of the eHMI across 18 dimensions, covering their physical characteristics and communication aspects from the perspective of human factors and human-machine interaction. We analyzed and coded 70 eHMI concepts according to this taxonomy to portray the state of the art and highlight the relative maturity of different contributions. The results point to a number of unexplored research areas that could inspire future work. Additionally, we believe that our proposed taxonomy can serve as a checklist for user interface designers and researchers when developing their interfaces. © 2020 The Authors

  • 13.
    Dey, Debargha
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Pfleging, Bastian
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Martens, Marieke
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Terken, Jacques
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Color and Animation Preferences for a Light Band EHMI in Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Pedestrians2020In: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report user preferences regarding color and animation patterns to support the interaction between Automated Vehicles (AVs) and pedestrians through an external Human-Machine-Interface (eHMI). Existing concepts of eHMI differ – among other things – in their use of colors or animations to express an AV’s yielding intention. In the absence of empirical research, there is a knowledge gap regarding which color and animation leads to highest usability and preferences in traffic negotiation situations. We conducted an online survey (N=400) to investigate the comprehensibility of a light band eHMI with a combination of 5 color and 3 animation patterns for a yielding AV. Results show that cyan is considered a neutral color for communicating a yielding intention. Additionally, a uniformly flashing or pulsing animation is preferred compared to any pattern that animates sideways. These insights can contribute in the future design and standardization of eHMIs.

  • 14.
    Duran, Boris
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Modeling vehicle behavior with neural dynamics2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling the interaction of vehicles during certain traffic situations is the starting point for creating autonomous driving. Data collected from field trials where test subjects drive through a single-vehicle intersection was used to create behavioral models. The present work describes two implementations of models based on the dynamical systems approach and compares similarities and differences between them. The proposed models are designed to closely replicate the behavior selection in the intersection crossing experiment.

  • 15.
    Fabricius, Victor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Rizgary, Daban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Interactions Between Heavy Trucks and Vulnerable Road Users—A Systematic Review to Inform the Interactive Capabilities of Highly Automated Trucks2022In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 9, article id 818019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates interactive behaviors and communication cues of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and vulnerable road users (VRUs) such as pedestrians and cyclists as a means of informing the interactive capabilities of highly automated HGVs. Following a general framing of road traffic interaction, we conducted a systematic literature review of empirical HGV-VRU studies found through the databases Scopus, ScienceDirect and TRID. We extracted reports of interactive road user behaviors and communication cues from 19 eligible studies and categorized these into two groups: 1) the associated communication channel/mechanism (e.g., nonverbal behavior), and 2) the type of communication cue (implicit/explicit). We found the following interactive behaviors and communication cues: 1) vehicle-centric (e.g., HGV as a larger vehicle, adapting trajectory, position relative to the VRU, timing of acceleration to pass the VRU, displaying information via human-machine interface), 2) driver-centric (e.g., professional driver, present inside/outside the cabin, eye-gaze behavior), and 3) VRU-centric (e.g., racer cyclist, adapting trajectory, position relative to the HGV, proximity to other VRUs, eye-gaze behavior). These cues are predominantly based on road user trajectories and movements (i.e., kinesics/proxemics nonverbal behavior) forming implicit communication, which indicates that this is the primary mechanism for HGV-VRU interactions. However, there are also reports of more explicit cues such as cyclists waving to say thanks, the use of turning indicators, or new types of external human-machine interfaces (eHMI). Compared to corresponding scenarios with light vehicles, HGV-VRU interaction patterns are to a high extent formed by the HGV’s size, shape and weight. For example, this can cause VRUs to feel less safe, drivers to seek to avoid unnecessary decelerations and accelerations, or lead to strategic behaviors due to larger blind-spots. Based on these findings, it is likely that road user trajectories and kinematic behaviors will form the basis for communication also for highly automated HGV-VRU interaction. However, it might also be beneficial to use additional eHMI to compensate for the loss of more social driver-centric cues or to signal other types of information. While controlled experiments can be used to gather such initial insights, deeper understanding of highly automated HGV-VRU interactions will also require naturalistic studies. Copyright © 2022 Fabricius, Habibovic, Rizgary, Andersson and Wärnestål.

  • 16.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Larsson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Let’s communicate: How to operate in harmony with automated vehicles2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With autonomous cars on the road, not only will occupants need to communicate with their cars: pedestrians and autonomous vehicles will need to understand each other too. This article examines the vehicle HMI for road users other than the driver and passengers. 

  • 17.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, V
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Staf, H
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Sundberg, N
    Stoneridge Electronics AB, Sweden.
    Replacing side-view mirrors in trucks with integrated digital system to improve safety (DREAMS)2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Replacing rear-view mirrors on trucks by rear-view camera monitoring systems and in-vehicle monitors is expected to increase safety and reduce fuel consumption. This project generated knowledge on how such systems operate, if truck drivers find them useful and appealing, and to what extent they can improve traffic safety. Stoneridge’s camera-based rear-view mirror prototype mounted on a Scania truck served as a use case. The prototype includes cameras mounted close to the front corners of the truck cabin and in-vehicle monitors mounted in Apillars showing videos of the surroundings to truck drivers. An evaluation methodology has been developed and applied in tests at the test track AstaZero and on public roads. The evaluations involved both controlled and naturalistic experiments, as well as real-world use of the platform. These were conducted under various light and weather conditions and captured various traffic environments including urban, rural and highway driving. The evaluations showed that a high-level of safety and usability could be achieved, and provided valuable insights on further improvements of the prototype, which were later implemented within the project. A majority of the drivers found the prototype desirable and easy to get used to. The major safety advantages that they identified as compared to the conventional mirrors include: a) larger field of view, especially at intersections and roundabouts, b) direct visibility significantly improved, c) dirt from windshield does not affect visibility, and d) there is no need for body and head movements to increase field of view. Some of the drivers found that objects were too small on the monitors, especially on the passenger side, and that cameras reacted differently to different light sources. Some of the drivers expressed also a general anxiety for technical failures that may occur over the lifespan of the prototype. The project has also identified how expand the functionality of the prototype regarding driver support and automated driving. Several different concepts were suggested including: detection of vulnerable road users and other potential hazards in blind spots, free lane indication, estimation of distance to other vehicles and objects, and platoon monitoring. Examples of future research include further improvement of the prototype in terms of e.g., monitor placement and camera adaptability to different light sources, as well as further development and evaluation of the concepts providing additional functionality. The project was conducted by Stoneridge Electronics AB, Scania CV AB, and RISE Viktoria AB. It has increased technical maturity of Stoneridge’s camera-based rear-view mirror prototype and brought it closer to the market launch that is scheduled for 2018. It has also led to a general growth in innovation capacity in Sweden, and empowered strategic R&D activities and manufacturing in the country.

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  • 18.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    External vehicle interfaces for communication with other road users2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Larsson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    External Vehicle Interfaces for Communication with Other Road Users?2019In: Road Vehicle Automation 5 / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker, 2019, p. 91-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to ensure trust and societal acceptance of automated vehicles (AVs) is a widely-discussed topic today. While trust and acceptance could be influenced by a range of factors, one thing is sure: the ability of AVs to safely and smoothly interact with other road users will play a key role. Based on our experiences from a series of studies, this paper elaborates on issues that AVs may face in interactions with other road users and whether external vehicle interfaces could support these interactions. Our overall conclusion is that such interfaces may be beneficial in situations where negotiation is needed. However, these benefits, and potential drawbacks, need to be further explored to create a common language, or standard, for how AVs should communicate with other road users.

  • 20.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Command-based driving for tactical control of highly automated vehicles2017In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 499-510Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicles become highly automated, their drivers become more passive. A concern is it may take drivers out of the control loop, causing reduced satisfaction and perceived control. The study explores whether or not drivers feel the need to control tactical decisions when operating highly automated vehicles. An experiment involving 17 drivers was carried out in a driving simulator. Each driver tested two different tactical controllers, allowing him/her to give various tactical commands to the vehicle (e.g., overtake, park). The results indicate that the drivers experienced a need to affect tactical decisions of highly automated vehicles. Several of the tactical commands were found useful, especially on rural roads and highways. It also gave them a feeling of being in control of the vehicle, suggesting that command-based driving might be a way to keep drivers in the control loop.

  • 21.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Nilsson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, J.
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Evaluating interactions with non-existing automated vehicles: three Wizard of Oz approaches2016In: 2016 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2016, p. 32-37, article id 7535360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated test vehicles are rare today, and (independent) researchers have often limited access to them. Also, developing fully functioning system prototypes is time and effort consuming. In this paper, we present three adaptions of the Wizard of Oz technique as a means of gathering data about interactions with highly automated vehicles in early development phases. Two of them address interactions between drivers and highly automated vehicles, while the third one is adapted to address interactions between pedestrians and highly automated vehicles. The focus is on the experimental methodology adaptations and our lessons learned.

  • 22.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Connected Automated Vehicles: Technologies, Developments, and Trends2021In: International Encyclopedia of Transportation / [ed] Roger Vickerman, Elsevier, 2021, p. 180-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. SAFER, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. SAFER, Sweden.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Current gaps, challenges and opportunities in the field of road vehicle automation2014In: Proceedings of FISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to identify current research gaps, challenges, and opportunities in the field of vehicle automation. The study is based on a literature review. The review shows that the current research focuses mainly on improvements in sensing, actuation, and navigation systems. However, this study acknowledges a range of challenges in other areas that need to be addressed to facilitate possible benefits that vehicle automation may bring. In particular, the following challenges are highlighted: 1) understanding the transfer of control between the vehicle and the driver, and vice versa, 2) defining behavior of automated vehicles in relation to other road users (e.g., pedestrians), 3) identifying how to communicate the system reliability information to the drivers, and 4) clarifying the impact on societal values, i.e. what driver behaviors that will be considered as appropriate, or even acceptable. The work presented here is a part of the ongoing project Boundary Conditions for Vehicle Automation, co-financed by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) and carried out by SAFER-Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers.

  • 24.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Lagström, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Sirkka, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Cars Group, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Autoliv AB, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania AB, Sweden.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo Group AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Volvo Group AB, Sweden.
    Communicating Intent of Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians.2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While traffic signals, signs, and road markings provide explicit guidelines for those operating in and around the roadways, some decisions, such as determinations of "who will go first," are made by implicit negotiations between road users. In such situations, pedestrians are today often dependent on cues in drivers' behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With the introduction of more automated functions and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, pedestrians cannot rely on such non-verbal cues anymore. To study how the interaction between pedestrians and automated vehicles (AVs) might look like in the future, and how this might be affected if AVs were to communicate their intent to pedestrians, we designed an external vehicle interface called automated vehicle interaction principle (AVIP) that communicates vehicles' mode and intent to pedestrians. The interaction was explored in two experiments using a Wizard of Oz approach to simulate automated driving. The first experiment was carried out at a zebra crossing and involved nine pedestrians. While it focused mainly on assessing the usability of the interface, it also revealed initial indications related to pedestrians' emotions and perceived safety when encountering an AV with/without the interface. The second experiment was carried out in a parking lot and involved 24 pedestrians, which enabled a more detailed assessment of pedestrians' perceived safety when encountering an AV, both with and without the interface. For comparison purposes, these pedestrians also encountered a conventional vehicle. After a short training course, the interface was deemed easy for the pedestrians to interpret. The pedestrians stated that they felt significantly less safe when they encountered the AV without the interface, compared to the conventional vehicle and the AV with the interface. This suggests that the interface could contribute to a positive experience and improved perceived safety in pedestrian encounters with AVs - something that might be important for general acceptance of AVs. As such, this topic should be further investigated in future studies involving a larger sample and more dynamic conditions.

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  • 25.
    Klingegård, Maria
    et al.
    Folksam Insurance Group, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Volvo, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rydström, Annia
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Drivers’ ability to engage in a non-driving related task while in automated driving mode in real traffic2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 221654-221668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engaging in non-driving related tasks (NDRTs) while driving can be considered distracting and safety detrimental. However, with the introduction of highly automated driving systems that relieve drivers from driving, more NDRTs will be feasible. In fact, many car manufacturers emphasize that one of the main advantages with automated cars is that it “frees up time” for other activities while on the move. This paper investigates how well drivers are able to engage in an NDRT while in automated driving mode (i.e., SAE Level 4) in real traffic, via a Wizard of Oz platform. The NDRT was designed to be visually and cognitively demanding and require manual interaction. The results show that the drivers’ attention to a great extent shifted from the road ahead towards the NDRT. Participants could perform the NDRT equally well as when in an office (e.g. correct answers, time to completion), showing that the performance did not deteriorate when in the automated vehicle. Yet, many participants indicated that they noted and reacted to environmental changes and sudden changes in vehicle motion. Participants were also surprised by their own ability to, with ease, disconnect from driving. The presented study extends previous research by identifying that drivers to a high extent are able to engage in an NDTR while in automated mode in real traffic. This is promising for future of automated cars ability to “free up time” and enable drivers to engage in non-driving related activities.

  • 26.
    Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Amanuel, Mahdere
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    ITS-solutions for the identification of dangerous goods and non-moving vehicles research within the Stockholm Bypass project2014In: The 6th International symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS), 2014, p. 613-620Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Lindström, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Bui, Thanh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Clasen, Henrik
    Aptiv, Sweden.
    Drakeskär, Hugo
    Aptiv, Sweden.
    Designing HMIs for an active safety system on bicycles2019In: Adjunct Proceedings - 11th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2019, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2019, p. 125-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radar sensors have been used for active safety in cars for many years. An ongoing research project explores how radar sensors and technology common in automotive vehicles can be transferred for use on bicycles. Workshops have been used to generate ideas. A bicycle simulator is planned to be used for test and evaluation. Tests on a test track has been used to simulate high-risk scenarios. This paper describes the design process of this project, with focus on the user interface. High-risk scenarios and requirements are identified, followed by identified design challenges and design activities, including evaluation. Ideas for a dual HMI approach, directed towards the bicyclist and towards surrounding traffic are presented. 

  • 28.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Lagström, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Sirkka, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Autoliv Research, Sweden.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo Group, Sweden.
    Will There Be New Communication Needs When Introducing Automated Vehicles to the Urban Context?2017In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2017, Vol. 484, p. 485-497Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s encounters with vehicles, pedestrians are often dependent on cues in drivers’ behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With an increased level of automation, and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, the pedestrians cannot rely on such cues anymore. The question is: will there be new communication needs to warrant safe interactions with automated vehicles? This question is addressed by exploring pedestrians’ willingness to cross the street and their emotional state in encounters with a seemingly automated vehicle. The results show that pedestrians’ willingness to cross the street decrease with an inattentive driver. Eye contact with the driver on the other hand leads to calm interaction between vehicle and pedestrian. In conclusion, to sustain perceived safety when eye contact is discarded due to vehicle automation, it could be beneficial to provide pedestrians with the corresponding information in some other way (e.g., by means of an external vehicle interface).

  • 29.
    Moore, Dylan
    et al.
    Stanford University, US.
    Currano, Rebecca
    Stanford University, US.
    Sirkin, David
    Stanford University, US.
    Dey, Dave
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands .
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Holländer, Kai
    LMU Munich, Germany .
    Wizards of WOZ: Using controlled and field studies to evaluate AV-pedestrian interactions2019In: Adjunct Proceedings - 11th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, AutomotiveUI 2019, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2019, p. 45-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between autonomous vehicles (AV) and pedestrians remain an ongoing area of research within the AutoUI community and beyond. Given the challenge of conducting studies to understand and prototype these interactions, we propose a combined full-day workshop and tutorial on how to conduct field experiments and controlled experiments using Wizard-of-Oz (WoZ) protocols. We will discuss strengths and weaknesses of these approaches based on practical experiences and describe challenges we have faced. After diving into the intricacies of different experiment designs, we will encourage participants to engage in hands-on exercises that will explore new ways to answer future research questions. © 2019 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  • 30. Olstam, J
    et al.
    Häll, CH
    Smith, Göran
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Dynamic bus lanes in Sweden – a pre-study2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dedicated bus lanes and bus streets have, in recent years, become common measures for prioritisation of public transport. By ensuring free path along routes, they increase average speed and travel time reliability of buses. However, a major drawback is that the total traffic capacities of the roads decrease. Hence, these measures are only suitable when the total traffic flow is low enough to allow for a reduction of lanes; if it is possible to reroute adjacent traffic; or if it is possible to extend the road with additional lanes. A supplementary priority measure could be to utilize dynamic bus lanes (also called intermittent bus lanes and bus lanes with intermittent priority). Dynamic bus lanes are only dedicated for buses when and where the buses need them, and otherwise open for all vehicles to use. At any given point, adjacent traffic is only permitted from using the dynamic bus lanes at the stretches where buses are in the vicinity. This report presents the results from a pre-study, investigating the potential that dynamic bus lanes could have as a priority measure for public transport in a Swedish context.

    Knowledge of situations in which dynamic bus lanes have the highest potential, and their implementation requirements is scarce. It is moreover uncertain how they would affect traffic safety, level of service and user experience. Two real world field tests have been conducted; one in Lisbon and one in Melbourne. The installation in Melbourne is now permanently applied for trams on one street. The field test in Lisbon was on the contrary not made permanent, although the results showed large benefits for buses and limited adverse effects on other vehicles. Dynamic bus lanes have also been investigated by means of traffic analysis and traffic simulation experiments. In general, these studies show that the effects on travel time for buses are in general positive and delays for other vehicles are limited. Results from example calculations in this pre-study show that this also could be true for a Swedish context. It has also been identified that the effects on travel times are highly dependent on factors such as: the total traffic flow; the bus flow, the capacity of roads and junctions; the distance between junctions and bus stops; the type of bus stops and the yielding rules at bus stops. The effects on travel time variations are unclear and need to be further investigated.

    Few rigorous research studies have in general been undertaken to measure the user experiences or road safety implications of bus priority schemes, and evidence from those that do exist are mixed. Anyhow, the experiences from Lisbon and Melbourne suggest that drivers in adjacent lanes in general understand and accept that they are deprived of the right to use the lane when the buses need it, and that they will behave appropriately. Neither of the field tests has observed any negative impact on road safety. A workshop was conducted within this pre-study in order to further investigate plausible user experiences. The results indicate that bus drivers’ stress levels could be reduced; the relative attractiveness of travelling by bus might rise; and that motorists probably would experience the introduction of dynamic bus lanes as neither good nor bad, as long as the system is fairly intuitive.

    Technical solutions for implementing dynamic bus lanes exist. A dynamic bus lane system would require development of a system control unit and integration with bus sensors, sensors for traffic flow measurement, variable message signs (to inform road users of the current status of the dynamic bus lane) and traffic signals. It is moreover, in Sweden, possible to develop a local traffic rule that regulates dynamic bus lanes. However, the rule needs to be properly specified, designed, communicated, signed and marked on the road.

    The overall conclusion form the pre-study is that dynamic bus lanes could be a useful complementary priority measure for public transport vehicles in Sweden, especially when dedicated bus lanes are not feasible or desirable. However, a real world installation in Sweden, including pre implementation traffic analysis, is needed, in order to further investigate the potential and consequences. Thus, the next step is to plan for an implementation on a specific road stretch. That would include both estimation of costs, and generate input to further studies of effect on level of service and user experience. Driving simulators and traffic simulation experiments are applicable methods for investigating these issues. 

  • 31.
    Strandén, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Karlsson, Christer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Nilsson, Josef
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Jacobson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Habibovic, Azra
    Englund, Cristofer
    AstaZero - kommunikationsbehov V2X2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report shows the current need for wireless V2X communication equipment (vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure) for the evaluation of cooperative systems at the AstaZero proving ground. The work has been conducted within the project EQUIPP which is a collaboration between SP Technical Research institute of Sweden and Viktoria Swedish ICT and funded by RISE (Research institutes of Sweden).

  • 32.
    Söderman, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Use cases and high-level requirements for safe interactions between automated delivery vehicles and human operators in a terminal2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small electric Autonomous Delivery Vehicles (ADV) can play an important role in future logistic chains under the last mile deliveries. In terminals where ADV are loaded with goods it is important that the interactions between the ADVS and the goods handling personnel is safe. Two workshops with developers of self-driving vehicles, researchers in the area of human-machine interaction and goods handling personnel form Postnord were conducted to identify challenges, needs and requirements regarding the design of ADV and the terminals för ADV. Due to COVID19, the workshops were carried out online and a video was shown to the participants demonstrating an ADV operating in a location representing a terminal. The two main objectives for this study were to gain understanding of the interactions between the ADV and human operators in the terminal and to identify high-level functional requirements for safe and efficient deployment of ADVs in terminals. The identified use cases related to (i) the ADV’s operations in the terminal, from entering to leaving the terminal and (ii) use cases where human operators interacted with the ADV, e.g. for loading/unloading goods. For each use case a high-level functional requirement was formulated. Human operators will most likely have important roles in delivery chains with ADV, such as loading and unloading of goods, as well as managing problems the ADV cannot solve. Consequently, how to design the human - ADV interactions will be critical from safety and efficiency points of view.

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  • 33.
    Tabone, Wilbert
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    de Winter, Joost
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ackermann, Claudia
    Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
    Bärgman, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Baumann, Martin
    University of Ulm, Germany.
    Deb, S.
    University of Texas at Arlington, USA.
    Emmenegger, Colleen
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Hagenzieker, Marjan
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Hancock, P A
    University of Central Florida, USA.
    Happee, Riender
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Krems, Josef
    Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
    Lee, John
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
    Martens, Marieke
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Merat, Natasha
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Norman, Don
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Sheridan, Thomas
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Stanton, Neville
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Vulnerable road users and the coming wave of automated vehicles: Expert perspectives2021In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 9, article id 100293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated driving research over the past decades has mostly focused on highway environments. Recent technological developments have drawn researchers and manufacturers to look ahead at introducing automated driving in cities. The current position paper examines this challenge from the viewpoint of scientific experts. Sixteen Human Factors researchers were interviewed about their personal perspectives on automated vehicles (AVs) and the interaction with VRUs in the future urban environment. Aspects such as smart infrastructure, external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs), and the potential of augmented reality (AR) were addressed during the interviews. The interviews showed that the researchers believed that fully autonomous vehicles will not be introduced in the coming decades and that intermediate levels of automation, specific AV services, or shared control will be used instead. The researchers foresaw a large role of smart infrastructure and expressed a need for AV-VRU segregation, but were concerned about corresponding costs and maintenance requirements. The majority indicated that eHMIs will enhance future AV-VRU interaction, but they noted that implicit communication will remain dominant and advised against text-based and instructive eHMIs. AR was commended for its potential in assisting VRUs, but given the technological challenges, its use, for the time being, was believed to be limited to scientific experiments. The present expert perspectives may be instrumental to various stakeholders and researchers concerned with the relationship between VRUs and AVs in future urban traffic. © 2020 The Authors

  • 34.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Driver adherence to recommendations from support systems improves if the systems explain why they are given: A simulator study2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 56, p. 420-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a large-scale simulator study on driver adherence to recommendations given by driver support systems, specifically eco-driving support and navigation support. 123 participants took part in this study, and drove a vehicle simulator through a pre-defined environment for a duration of approximately 10 min. Depending on the experimental condition, participants were either given no eco-driving recommendations, or a system whose provided support was either basic (recommendations were given in the form of an icon displayed in a manner that simulates a heads-up display) or informative (the system additionally displayed a line of text justifying its recommendations). A navigation system that likewise provided either basic or informative support, depending on the condition, was also provided. Effects are measured in terms of estimated simulated fuel savings as well as engine braking/coasting behaviour and gear change efficiency. Results indicate improvements in all variables. In particular, participants who had the support of an eco-driving system spent a significantly higher proportion of the time coasting. Participants also changed gears at lower engine RPM when using an eco-driving support system, and significantly more so when the system provided justifications. Overall, the results support the notion that providing reasons why a support system puts forward a certain recommendation improves adherence to it over mere presentation of the recommendation. Finally, results indicate that participants’ driving style was less eco-friendly if the navigation system provided justifications but the eco-system did not. This may be due to participants considering the two systems as one whole rather than separate entities with individual merits. This has implications for how to design and evaluate a given driver support system since its effectiveness may depend on the performance of other systems in the vehicle.

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