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  • 1. Boman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Westerholm, R.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Evaluation of a constant volume sampling setup for residential biomass fired appliances: Influence of dilution conditions on particulate and PAH emissions2005Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 258-268Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased concerns about particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions from residential biomass combustion and their potential health effects, motivates detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. Traditional sampling in raw flue gases can suffer from drawbacks mainly related to transient flows and the condensable nature of organic compounds. Whole flow dilution with constant volume sampling (CVS) is an alternative method but different sampling conditions may, however, influence the emission characteristics. The objective was to design a CVS system for emission measurements in residential biomass fired appliances and determine the influence of dilution sampling conditions on the characteristics and distributions of PM and PAH. Softwood pellets were combusted in a pellet stove with variations in; dilution ratio (3-7x), sampling temperature (45-75°C), dilution tunnel residence time (2-4 s) and fuel load (2.3 and 4.8 kW) according to a statistical experimental design. The sampling conditions did not influence either the emission concentrations of PM, CO and NO or the particle size distribution. Variations in residence time had no significant effect on any studied emission parameter. However, increased concentrations of organic gaseous carbon (OGC) and PAH were observed with increased dilution ratio. The distribution between particulate and semivolatile phase was influenced for 12 of the 37 analyzed PAH compounds, mainly by increased fractions of semivolatile material at higher sampling temperature. No influence of sampling temperature was observed for the concentrations of PAHtot or the dominating PAH compounds, i.e. phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The results together with practical considerations also suggest sampling at 50±5°C and 3-4 times dilution as robust and applicable conditions in the presently designed setup. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Boman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Westerholm, R.
    Bostrom, D.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Stove performance and emission characteristics in residential wood log and pellet combustion: Part 1: Pellet stoves2011Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 307-314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stove performance, characteristics, and quantities of gaseous and particulate emissions were determined for two different pellet stoves, varying fuel load, pellet diameter, and chimney draft. This approach aimed at covering variations in emissions from stoves in use today. The extensive measurement campaign included CO, NOx, organic gaseous carbon, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total particulate matter (PMtot) as well as particle mass and number concentrations, size distributions, and inorganic composition. At high load, most emissions were similar. For stove B, operating at high residual oxygen and solely with primary air, the emissions of PMtot and particle numbers were higher while the particles were smaller. Lowering the fuel load, the emissions of CO and hydrocarbons increased dramatically for stove A, which operated continuously also at lower fuel loads. On the other hand for stove B, which had intermittent operation at lower fuel loads, the emissions of hydrocarbons increased only slightly lowering the fuel load, while CO emissions increased sharply, due to high emissions at the end of the combustion cycle. Beside methane, dominating VOCs were ethene, acetylene, and benzene and the emissions of VOC varied in the range 1.1-42 mg/MJfuel. PAH emissions (2-340 μg/MJfuel) were generally dominated by phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The PM tot values (15-45 mg/MJfuel) were in all cases dominated by fine particles with mass median diameters in the range 100-200 nm, peak mobility diameters of 50-85 nm, and number concentrations in the range 4 × 1013 to 3 × 1014 particles/MJfuel. During high load conditions, the particulate matter was totally dominated by inorganic particles at 15-25 mg/MJfuel consisting of potassium, sodium, sulfur, and chlorine, in the form of K2SO4, K 3Na(SO4)2, and KCl. The study shows that differences in operation and modulation principles for the tested pellet stoves, relevant for appliances in use today, will affect the performance and emissions significantly, although with lower scattering in the present study compared to compiled literature data. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  • 3.
    Bräck, Thomas
    et al.
    Meva Energy, Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Sepman, Alexeu
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Replace fossil gas in industrial burners with renewable biogas2018Inngår i: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018: proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland , 2018, s. 73-73Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Grönberg, C.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Lidman, M.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Experimental investigation of an industrial scale black liquor gasifier: Part 1: The effect of a reactor operation parameters on product gas composition2010Inngår i: Fuel, Vol. 89, s. 4025-4034Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5. Eriksson, G.
    et al.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Bostrom, D.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Backman, Rainier
    Ohman, M.
    Combustion characterization of rapeseed meal and possible combustion applications2009Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 3990-3939Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A future shortage of biomass fuel can be foreseen. The production of rapeseed oil for a number of purposesis increasing, among others, for biodiesel production. A yproduct from the oil extraction process is rapeseed meal (RM), presently used as animal feed. Further increases in supply will make fuel use an option. Several energy companies have shown interest but have been cautious because of the scarcity of data on fuel properties, which led to the present study. Combustion-relevant properties of RM from several producers have been determined. The volatile fraction (74 ± .06%wt ds) is comparable to wood; the moisture content (6.2-11.8%wt) is low; and the ash content (7.41 ± 0.286%wt ds) is high compared to most other biomass fuels. The lower heating value is 18.2 ± 0.3 MJ/kg (dry basis). In comparison to other biomass fuels, the chlorine content is low (0.02-0.05%wt ds) and the sulfur content is high (0.67-0.74%wt ds). RM has high contents of nitrogen (5.0-6.4%wt ds), phosphorus (1.12-1.23%wt ds), and potassium (1.2-1.4%wt ds). Fuel-specific combustion properties of typical RM were determined through combustion tests, with an emphasis on gas emissions, ash formation, and potential ash-related operational problems. Softwood bark was chosen as a suitable and representative co-combustion (woody) fuel. RM was added to the bark at two levels: 10 and 30%wt ds. These mixtures were pelletized, and so was RM without bark (for durability mixed with cutter shavings, contributing 1%wt of the ash). Each of these fuels was combusted in a 5 kWfluidized bed and an underfed pellet burner (to simulate grate combustion). Pure RM was combusted in a powder burner. Emissions of NO and SO2 were high for all combustion tests, requiring applications with flue gas cleaning, economically viable only at large scale. Emissions of HCl were relatively low. Temperatures for initial bed agglomeration in the fluidized-bed tests were high for RM compared to many other agricultural fuels, thereby indicating that RM could be an attractive fuel from a bed agglomeration point of view. The results of grate combustion suggest that slagging is not likely to be severe for RM, pure or mixed with other fuels. Fine-mode particles from fluidized-bed combustion and grate combustion mainly contained sulfates of potassium, suggesting that the risk of problems caused by deposit formation should be moderate. The chlorine concentration of the particles was reduced when RM was added to bark, potentially lowering the risk of high-temperature corrosion. Particle emissions from powder combustion of RM were 17 times higher than for wood powder, and the fine-mode fraction contained mainly K-phosphates known to cause deposits, suggesting that powder combustion of RM should be used with caution. A possible use of RM is as a sulfur-containing additive to biomass fuels rich in Cl and K for avoiding ash-related operational problems in fluidized beds and grate combustors originated from high KCl concentrations in the flue gases © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 6. Gabra, M.
    et al.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Backman, Rainier
    Kjellstrom, B.
    Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue: Part 1: Gasification of bagasse2001Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 351-369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for avoiding excessive amount of alkali compounds and carryover particles in producer gas from gasification of sugar cane residue has been studied and evaluated. The cane sugar residue is gasified in a two-stage combustor at atmospheric pressure, where the first stage is a cyclone gasifier. The cyclone works as particle separator as well. This paper covers the results obtained for gasification of bagasse. Bagasse powder was injected into the cyclone with air and steam as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and 52 kg/h. Seven experiments were conducted with the equivalence ratio being varied. The heating values of the producer gas are sufficient for stable gas turbine combustion. About 60-70% of the alkali input with fuel was separated from the producer gas in the cyclone. However the total alkali contents of the producer gas was found to be higher than in ABB Stal PFBC gas turbines and at least an order of magnitude higher than what is required by most gas turbine manufacturers for operation of a gas turbine. The carryover particles concentrations in the producer gas were found to be in the range of that for PFBC gas turbines, but higher than what is required by most gas turbine manufacturers for operation of a gas turbine. Samples studied with scanning electronic microscope give indication that most of the carryover particles are below 10 μm in size. Fly ash-melting tests have not shown any major ash melting up to 1200°C, but it was found that some of the particles entrained with producer gas were partially melted. Integrated experiments with a gas turbine need to be done for accurate evaluation of the possibilities to use the producer gas from the gasification of bagasse to run a gas turbine without problems of hard deposits and corrosion on the turbine blades. In part 2 of this two-part paper the results from cane trash gasification tests are reported. © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 7. Gabra, M.
    et al.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Backman, Rainier
    Kjellstrom, B.
    Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue: Part 2: Gasification of cane trash2001Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 371-380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and 46 kg/h at two equivalence ratios of 0.25 and 0.20 and the gasification temperature ranging from 820°C to 850°C. It was found that the heating value of the producer gas is in the range of 4.5-4.8 MJ/Nm3(dry gas), which is sufficient for stable gas turbine combustion. Significant alkali separation has been achieved in the cyclone stage. However, the alkali levels and carryover particle concentrations in the producer gas were found to be higher than allowable in a gas turbine. Despite high ash melting temperatures found by the TGA-DTA, deposition problems cannot be excluded since some carryover panicles in the producer gas seem to have been melted and since some gasification of K and Na compounds is indicated. As an overall assessment, cane trash appears as a more problematic fuel than bagasse for this application. Integrated experiments with a gas turbine need to be done for accurate evaluation of the possibilities to use the producer gas from the gasification of cane trash to run a gas turbine without problems of hard deposits and corrosion on the turbine blades. © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 8.
    Gebart, Rikard
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Carlsson, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Grönberg, C.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Lidman, M.
    Influence from varying operating parameters on the syngas composition from a black liquor gasifier.2011Inngår i: The International Conference on Thermochemical Conversion Science(tcbiomass), 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Gebart, Rikard
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Öhrman, Olov G.W.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Risberg, M.
    Carlsson, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Turning a pulp mill into a biorefinery: A possible outcome from the 2nd black liquor gasification program2008Inngår i: 2008 Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, NWBC 2008 - Proceedings, 2008, s. 56-61Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Iisa, Kristiina
    et al.
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    French, Richard
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US.
    Orton, Kellene
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Chemical and physical characterization of aerosols from fast pyrolysis of biomass2019Inngår i: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass fast pyrolysis vapors contain a significant quantity of persistent aerosols, which can impact downstream processing by e.g. fouling of surfaces and deposition on downstream catalysts. In this study, aerosol concentrations and size distributions were measured by an impactor in two pyrolysis systems, a bench-scale fluidized-bed pyrolyzer and a pilot-scale cyclone pyrolyzer. In both units, the mass-based mode aerosol diameter was approximately 1 μm before aerosol collection devices in cooled vapors of 300–370 K but the number-based median was < 0.1 μm. Aerosols < 1 μm were formed and aerosols > 1 μm deposited during cooling of pyrolysis vapors from 620 to 370 K in the fluidized-bed pyrolysis system. The oil fraction collected from the aerosols constituted approximately 40 wt% of the total oils collected in both systems. Compared to the total collected oil, the oil fraction from the aerosols was enriched in lignin-derived components and anhydrosugars and had lower concentrations of low molecular weight cellulose derived oxygenates, such as hydroxyketones. 

  • 11.
    Johansson, A.C.
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Öhrman, Olov G.W.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Sweeney, D.
    Tar and trace element measurements in synthesis gas from a pressurized black liquor gasifier.2013Inngår i: Proceedings 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12. Lundgren, J.,
    et al.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Combustion of horse manure for heat production2009Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 100, nr 12, s. 3121-3126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objectives of this paper have been to evaluate the use of horse manure and wood-shavings as a fuel for heat production and to provide sets of data on the chemical composition, ash characteristics and ash forming elements of the fuel. Another objective has been to investigate the possibility to use the ash as fertiliser by analysing the heavy metal and nutrient contents. The results showed that the fuel is well suited for combustion for heat production causing low emissions of products of incomplete combustion. The emissions of NOx were however high due to the high content of fuel bound nitrogen. Emissions of CO and NOx were typically in the range of 30-150 mg/Nm3 and 280-350 mg/Nm3 at 10 vol% O2, respectively. The analysis of the ash showed on sufficiently low concentration of heavy metals to allow recycling. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13. Olwa, Joseph
    et al.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Boström, Dan
    Okure, Mackay
    Kjellström, Björn
    Potassium retention in updraft gasification of wood2013Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 27, nr 11, s. 6718-6724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of compounds of K with producer gas during biomass gasification is known to play significant roles in fouling and high-temperature corrosion in boilers and high-temperature heat exchangers as well as blades in gas turbines that use producer gas as fuel. These phenomena are a major setback in the application of biomass fuel in combination with advanced process conditions. Updraft gasification provides gas filtering by the fuel bed with a gas cooling effect, conditions anticipated to create an avenue for K retention in the gasifier. The objective of this study was to determine the K retention potential of such gasifiers during wood gasification. Samples for the determination of the fate of K compounds included in the feedstock were collected from the generated producer gas using Teflon filters and gas wash bottles and also from wall deposits and ash residues. Analyses of samples were carried out using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction methods. The finding was that about 99% of K was retained in the gasifier. K was found in the ash samples as a crystalline phase of K 2Ca(CO3)2(s) (fairchildite). A possible reaction mechanism leading to the formation of K2Ca(CO 3)2 is discussed in the paper. The 1% K understood as released, equivalent to 1200 ppbw content of K entrained in the producer gas stream, exceeds a known limit for application of the gas in conventional gas turbines. This would suggest application of the gas in an externally fired gas turbine system, where some limited K and other depositions in the heat exchanger can be relatively easy to handle. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  • 14.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Westerholm, R.
    Bostrom, D.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Stove performance and emission characteristics in residential wood log and pellet combustion: Part 2: Wood stove2011Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 315-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics and quantities of a large number of gaseous and particulate emission components during combustion in a residential wood log stove with variations in fuel, appliance and operational conditions were determined experimentally. The measurement campaign included CO, NOx, organic gaseous carbon (OGC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total particulate matter (PMtot) as well as particle mass and number concentrations, size distributions, and inorganic composition. CO varied in the range of 1100 to 7200 mg/MJ fuel, while OGC varied from 210 to 3300 mg/MJfuel. Dominating VOCs were methane, followed by ethene, acetylene, and benzene. Methane varied from 9 to 1600 mg/MJfuel. The nonmethane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions were in the range of 20-2300 mg/MJ fuel. The PAHtot emissions varied from 1.3 to 220 mg/MJfuel, in most cases dominated by phenantrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. PMtot were in all cases dominated by fine particles and varied in the range 38-350 mg/MJfuel. The mass median particle diameters and the peak mobility diameters of the fine particles varied in the range 200-320 and 220-330 nm, respectively, and number concentrations in the range of 1-4 × 1013 particles/MJfuel. Air starved conditions, at high firing intensity, gave the highest emissions, especially for hydrocarbons. This type of condition is seldom considered, though it may occur occasionally. The emissions from Swedish wood stoves, comparing a Swedish field study, are covered fairly well with the applied methodology, but other field studies report considerably higher emissions especially for diluted particle sampling. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  • 15.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Lindmark, F.
    Ohman, M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Westerholm, R.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Design changes in a fixed-bed pellet combustion device: Effects of temperature and residence time on emission performance2010Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 1333-1340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood fuel pellets has proven to be well-suited for the small-scale market, enabling controlled and efficient combustion with low emission of products of incomplete combustion (PIC). Still, a potential for further emission reduction exists, and a thorough understanding of the influence of combustion conditions on the emission characteristics of air pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulatematter (PM), is important. The objective of the present work was to determine the effect of design changes, i.e., increasing the temperature and/or residence time, on the emission performance and characteristics for a pellet combustion device using a laboratory fixed-bed reactor (850 °C) in the bed zone with intensive, air-rich, and well-mixed conditions was illustrated forwood pellets combustion with almost a total depletion of all studied PIC. The importance of the residence time was shown to be limited, and the results emphasize the need for further verification studies and technology development work. Copyrigh © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  • 16.
    Simonsson, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bladh, Henrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Marcus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Sepman, Alexey
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Ögren, Yngve
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Bengtsson, Per-Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Soot Concentrations in an Atmospheric Entrained Flow Gasifier with Variations in Fuel and Burner Configuration Studied Using Diode-Laser Extinction Measurements2016Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 2174-2186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soot concentration measurements were performed using diode-laser extinction in an atmospheric air-blown entrained flow gasifier at two vertical levels. The gasifier was operated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios and with variations in fuel and burner configurations. Two fuels were investigated: wood powder and peat powder. These were burned using two burner configurations, one giving a rotating flow inside the gasifier (swirl), and one where the fuel and air were injected parallel with the gasifier axis (jet). The diode-laser measurements were performed at the wavelength 808 nm from which the soot concentrations were estimated, and additionally at 450 nm in order to gain insight into the spectral dependence of the extinction to estimate measurement quality. Additional diagnostic techniques were used, such as an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) for soot size distributions and gas chromatography for species concentration measurements. The results show that wood powder produces higher soot concentrations than peat powder, especially at lower air-fuel equivalence ratios. Furthermore, the burner configuration had in general much less impact than the choice of fuel on the soot concentration.

  • 17.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Carlsson, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Grönberg, C
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Lidman, M
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Experimental investigation of an industrial scale black liquor gasifier: Part 2: Influence of quench operation on product gas composition2012Inngår i: Fuel, Vol. 93, s. 117-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Öhrman, Olov .G.W
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Carlsson, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Stjernberg, J.
    Characterisation of submicron particles produced during oxygen blown entrained flow gasification of biomass2014Inngår i: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 161, nr 7, s. 1923-1934Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper submicron particles sampled after the quench during 200kW, 2bar(a) pressurised, oxygen blown gasification of three biomass fuels, pure stem wood of pine and spruce, bark from spruce and a bark mixture, have been characterised with respect to particle size distribution with a low pressure cascade impactor. The particles were also characterised for morphology and elemental composition by a combination of scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy/selected area electron diffraction pattern (HRTEM/EDS/SAED) techniques. The resulting particle concentration in the syngas after the quench varied between 46 and 289mg/Nm3 consisting of both carbon and easily volatile ash forming element significantly depending on the fuel ash content. Several different types of particles could be identified from classic soot particles to pure metallic zinc particles depending on the individual particle relation of carbon and ash forming elements. The results also indicate that ash forming elements and especially zinc interacts in the soot formation process creating a particle with shape and microstructure significantly different from a classical soot particle. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  • 19.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Wennebro, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Gullberg, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Pure oxygen fixed-bed gasification of wood under high temperature (>1000 °C) freeboard conditions2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 191, s. 153-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the performance (syngas composition, syngas production and gasification efficiency) of an 18 kW atmospheric fixed bed oxygen blown gasifier (FOXBG) with a high temperature (&gt;1000 °C) freeboard section was compared to that of a pressurized (2–7 bar) oxygen blown entrained flow biomass gasifier (PEBG). Stem wood in the form of pellets (FOXBG) or powder (PEBG) was used as fuel. The experimentally obtained syngas compositions, syngas production rates and gasification efficiencies for both gasification technologies were similar. Efficient generation of high quality syngas (in terms of high concentration and yield of CO and H2 and low concentration and yield of CH4, heavier hydrocarbons and soot) is therefore not specific to the PEBG. Instead, efficient gasification seems to be linked to high reactor process temperatures that can also be obtained in a FOXBG. The high quality of the syngas produced in the FOXBG from fuel pellets is promising, as it suggests that in the future, much of the cost associated with milling the fuel to a fine powder will be avoidable. Furthermore, it is also implied that feedstocks that are nearly impossible to pulverize can be used as un-pretreated fuels in the FOXBG.

  • 20.
    Öhrman, Olov G. W.
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Gebart, Gebart
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Benzene removal from black liquor derived synthesis gas.2011Inngår i: The International Conference on Thermochemical Conversion Science(tcbiomass), 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Öhrman, Olov G. W.
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Gullberg, M.
    Westbom, U.
    Quality control of BioDME produced via black liquor gasification.2011Inngår i: 7th Asian DME Conference, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Öhrman, Olov .G.W
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    Dewatering of Biomass Using Liquid Bio Dimethyl Ether2013Inngår i: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 31, nr 11, s. 1267-1273Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An interesting integrated configuration in a thermochemical conversion biorefinery that is producing dimethyl ether (DME) is to use a small fraction of the BioDME for dewatering of the solid biomass feedstock. Therefore, the use of liquid BioDME was investigated in this study for pressurized dewatering of biomass at room temperature. Water was removed in liquid form from wet sawdust and wet wood chips using liquid DME in a laboratory-scale batch unit. Both the sawdust and the wood chips could be dewatered in a short time (minutes) to a moisture content of 15% (w/w) from an initial content of approximately 55% (w/w). Longer DME treatment times (hours) lowered the moisture content even further down to 8% (w/w), indicating that the transport phenomena in the porous biomass and the solubility of DME in water influence the dewatering characteristics. The DME dewatering performance, 12-22 g DME per g water removed, was similar to literature data on coal dewatering using liquid DME. The present study showed that DME dewatering of the solid biomass feedstock has potential as an energy-efficient dewatering process, especially in an integrated thermochemical conversion biorefinery. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 23.
    Öhrman, Olov G.W.
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    Johansson, A.J.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Leijenhorst, E. J.
    Assink, A.
    van de Beld, L.
    Pressurized oxygen blown entrained flow gasification of pyrolysis oil.2013Inngår i: Proceedings 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 2013, s. 441-445Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
1 - 23 of 23
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