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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Value chains for integrated production of liquefied bio-SNG at sawmill sites – Techno-economic and carbon footprint evaluation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 206, p. 1590-1608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry's increasing demand for liquefied natural gas could be met in the future by liquefied methane produced from biomass feedstock (LBG - liquefied biogas). This study presents results from an investigation of value chains for integrated production of LBG at a generic sawmill site, based on gasification of sawmill waste streams and forest residues. The objective was to investigate the cost for, as well as the carbon footprint reduction associated with, production and use of LBG as a fuel. Five different LBG plant sizes were investigated in combination with three different sawmill sizes. The resulting cases differ regarding biomass feedstock composition, biomass transportation distances, LBG plant sizes, how efficiently the excess heat from the LBG plant is used, and LBG distribution distances. Pinch technology was used to quantify the heat integration opportunities and to design the process steam network. The results show that efficient use of energy within the integrated process has the largest impact on the performance of the value chain in terms of carbon footprint. The fuel production cost are mainly determined by the investment cost of the plant, as well as feedstock transportation costs, which mainly affects larger plants. Production costs are shown to range from 68 to 156 EUR/MW hfuel and the carbon footprint ranges from 175 to 250 kg GHG-eq/MW hnet biomass assuming that the product is used to substitute fossil LNG fuel. The results indicate that process integration of an indirect biomass gasifier for LBG production is an effective way for a sawmill to utilize its by-products. Integration of this type of biorefinery can be done in such a way that the plant can still cover its heating needs whilst expanding its product portfolio in a competitive way, both from a carbon footprint and cost perspective. The results also indicate that the gains associated with efficient heat integration are important to achieve an efficient value chain.

  • 2.
    Anheden, Marie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Wallinder, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Vamling, Lennart
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hjerpe, Carl Johan
    F Industri, Sweden.
    Fugelsang, Malin
    F Industri, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem, Sweden.
    Evaluation of alternative routes for production of bio-oil from forest residues and kraft lignin2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT , 2018, p. 85-89Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    de Jong, Sierk
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Hoefnagels, Ric
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Faaij, Andre
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Junginger, Martin
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 195, p. 1055-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations (i.e. supply chains with an intermediate pre-treatment step to reduce biomass transport cost). The model assessed biofuel production levels ranging from 1 to 150 PJ a−1 in the context of the existing Swedish forest industry. Biofuel was produced from forestry biomass using hydrothermal liquefaction and hydroprocessing. Simultaneous implementation of all cost reduction strategies yielded minimum biofuel production costs of 18.1–18.2 € GJ−1 at biofuel production levels between 10 and 75 PJ a−1. Limiting the economies of scale was shown to cause the largest cost increase (+0–12%, increasing with biofuel production level), followed by disabling integration benefits (+1–10%, decreasing with biofuel production level) and allowing unimodal truck transport only (+0–6%, increasing with biofuel production level). Distributed supply chain configurations were introduced once biomass supply became increasingly dispersed, but did not provide a significant cost benefit (<1%). Disabling the benefits of integration favors large-scale centralized production, while intermodal transport networks positively affect the benefits of economies of scale. As biofuel production costs still exceeds the price of fossil transport fuels in Sweden after implementation of all cost reduction strategies, policy support and stimulation of further technological learning remains essential to achieve cost parity with fossil fuels for this feedstock/technology combination in this spatiotemporal context. © 2017 The Authors

  • 4.
    Fagerlund, Göran
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    CONTECVET A validated users manual for assessing the residual service life of concrete structures: Lechning of concrete : a deliverable, relating to synergetic effects2000Report (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Fagerlund, Göran
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Porosity and specific surface of Portland cement paste: an analysis of experimental work performed by Åke Grudemo during the years 1973-19792006Report (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Heyne, Stefan
    et al.
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Well-to-tank data for advanced tailor-made biofuel alternatives2017In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2017, no 25thEUBCE, p. 1230-1236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is part of a cross-disciplinary Swedish research project on advanced tailor-made biofuels that aims at identifying drop-in biofuel options for the transport sector that combine excellent combustion properties with sustainable production pathways. The present paper addresses the methodology and primary results of the biofuel production pathway assessment for the diesel fuel alternatives identified within the project. The methodology is illustrated for 2-Ethylhexanol. Three alternative production pathways for 2-Ethylhexanol are analyzed: gasification-based, butanol-based and ethanol-based. The highest biomass to 2-Ethylhexanol conversion (33.9%, lower heating value basis) is achieved for the ethanol-based conversion pathway. The varying spectrum of by-products requires a sophisticated analysis necessary, as addressed in the present work. 2-Ethylhexanol as biofuel cannot outperform conventional biofuels such as e.g. ethanol from a well-to-tank energy performance perspective due to the additional conversion steps necessary. End-use phase benefits such as higher blend-in ratios or reduced pollutant emissions may change the well-to-wheel picture. 

  • 7.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Betongkonstruktioners livslängd i kloridmiljö1996Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish the effects of various factors in order to assess the remaining service life of existing structures and the service life of new structures. We chose to study the effects of various factors on the diffusion coefficient of chloride, the threshold value for chloride and the corrosion rate once the threshold value had been reached. _x000D_ _x000D_ Decreasing water cement ratio. _x000D_ Decreasing water cement ratio has a positive effect on all three parameters. _x000D_ Decreasing RH. _x000D_ If the relative humidity of the concrete is in the range of 80-96% then a decrease in RH results in a higher threshold value and a lower corrosion rate. If however the RH value decreases in saturated concrete (RH 100%) then the chloride threshold value falls and the corrosion rate rises. _x000D_ _x000D_ Increasing micro silica content. _x000D_ In most cases increasing the concentration of micro silica results in a reduction in chloride penetration. If large amounts of micro silica (>10%) are added to the concrete this can have a negative effect on the threshold value. The corrosion rate is always reduced when micro silica is added. _x000D_ _x000D_ Increasing fly ash content. _x000D_ In most cases increasing the fly ash content leads to a reduction in chloride penetration. The threshold value can be negatively affected due to the chemical composition of the fly ash. The corrosion rate is always reduced when fly ash is added to concrete.´ _x000D_ _x000D_ Increasing age. _x000D_ When concrete is aged there is continuous hydration of the cement. This means that the concrete becomes denser with age, which in turn has a positive effect on chloride penetration, i.e. it proceeds less rapidly. The passive layer around the steel grows with age in a marine environment, which means that the longer it takes the chloride to reach the steel, the more difficult it is to break through the passive layer. If carbonization takes place, ageing has a negative effect on the threshold value since the passive layer is broken down. _x000D_ _x000D_ Decreasing cover. _x000D_ Decreasing cover has a negative effect on all parameters. The diffusion coefficient remains unchanged but the initiation time is reduced. _x000D_ _x000D_ Of all the factors investigated it has been found that decreasing water cement ratio has an overall positive effect on service life. Decreasing cover often leads to a shorter service life. The remaining factors have positive effects on service life in some cases and negative effects in other cases. _x000D_

  • 8.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Corrosion threshold value and corrosion rate in reinforced concrete1992Report (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Elektrokemisk realkalisering av betong1994Report (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Olika faktorers inverkan på kloriddiffusion i betongkonstruktioner1994Report (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Olika faktorers inverkan på korrosionshastigheten.: Mätning på betongkonstruktioner i fält.1993Report (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Service life of concrete structures in a chloride environment1997Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish the effects of various factors in order to assess the remaining service life of existing structures and the service life of new structures. We chose to study the effects of various factors on the diffusion coefficient of chloride, the threshold value for chloride and the corrosion rate once the threshold value had been reached. _x000D_ _x000D_ Decreasing water cement ratio. _x000D_ Decreasing water cement ratio has a positive effect on all three parameters. _x000D_ Decreasing RH. _x000D_ If the relative humidity of the concrete is in the range of 80-96% then a decrease in RH results in a higher threshold value and a lower corrosion rate. If however the RH value decreases in saturated concrete (RH 100%) then the chloride threshold value falls and the corrosion rate rises. _x000D_ _x000D_ Increasing micro silica content. _x000D_ In most cases increasing the concentration of micro silica results in a reduction in chloride penetration. If large amounts of micro silica (>10%) are added to the concrete this can have a negative effect on the threshold value. The corrosion rate is always reduced when micro silica is added._x000D_ _x000D_ Increasing fly ash content. _x000D_ In most cases increasing the fly ash content leads to a reduction in chloride penetration. The threshold value can be negatively affected due to the chemical composition of the fly ash. The corrosion rate is always reduced when fly ash is added to concrete.´_x000D_ _x000D_ Increasing age. _x000D_ When concrete is aged there is continuous hydration of the cement. This means that the concrete becomes denser with age, which in turn has a positive effect on chloride penetration, i.e. it proceeds less rapidly. The passive layer around the steel grows with age in a marine environment, which means that the longer it takes the chloride to reach the steel, the more difficult it is to break through the passive layer. If carbonization takes place, ageing has a negative effect on the threshold value since the passive layer is broken down. _x000D_ _x000D_ Decreasing cover. _x000D_ Decreasing cover has a negative effect on all parameters. The diffusion coefficient remains unchanged but the initiation time is reduced. _x000D_ _x000D_ Of all the factors investigated it has been found that decreasing water cement ratio has an overall positive effect on service life. Decreasing cover often leads to a shorter service life. The remaining factors have positive effects on service life in some cases and negative effects in other cases. _x000D_ _x000D_

  • 13.
    Pettersson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Valeria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Fuglesang, Malin
    ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    Systems analysis of different value chains based on domestic forest biomass for the production of bio-SNG2018In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 2117-2140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares value chains based on domestic forest biomass for the production of bio-synthetic natural gas (SNG) with respect to economic performance, GHG emissions, and energy efficiency. Value chains in which raw material is upgraded to intermediate products before transportation to an SNG plant integrated with a district heating system for further upgrading are compared with a chain in which the raw material is transported directly to the SNG plant. The intermediates considered are either dried biomass from forest residues, or bark, upgraded at pulp mills, or pellets from sawdust upgraded at sawmills. The findings show that the difference in performance between the studied value chains is generally small. The highest cost and significantly lowest energy efficiency are associated with the value chain with pellets, which leads to the conclusion that more pretreatment than what is required by the SNG process, to lower transport costs, is not profitable. Drying forest residues at pulp mills before further transportation to and upgrading at an SNG plant leads to somewhat higher transportation costs because of the relatively high fixed costs associated with transportation. However, the benefit of drying the biomass using excess heat at pulp mills is that heat is "moved" from a location, where it can be hard to find profitable ways to use it, to the SNG plant, where the excess heat can be used for district heating. With these two factors working in opposition, the total cost is similar if forest residues are transported directly to the SNG plant or via a pulp mill. The lowest cost is achieved when falling bark from pulp mills is used because the first transportation step is avoided and no additional investment for biomass handling at the mill is required. However, there is a technical uncertainty regarding how much bark can be used in the SNG process.

  • 14.
    Pettersson, Karin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ehn, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Integration of next-generation biofuel production in the Swedish forest industry - A geographically explicit approach2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 154, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geographic locations of biofuel production facilities should be strategically chosen in order to minimise the total cost of using biofuels. Proximity to biomass resources, possibilities for integration, and distance to biofuel users are aspects that need to be considered. In this paper, the geographically explicit optimisation model BeWhere Sweden was used to investigate the future production of next-generation biofuels from forest biomass in Sweden. A focus was placed on the integration of biofuel production with the existing forest industry, as well as on how different parameters affect biofuel production costs, the choice of technologies and biofuels, and the localisation of new biofuel plants. Six examples of different biofuel routes were considered. A methodology was developed considering detailed, site-specific conditions for potential host industries. The results show that the cost of biomass and the biofuel plant capital cost generally dominate the biofuel cost, but the cost for biomass transportation and biofuel distribution can also have a significant impact. DME produced via black liquor gasification (naturally integrated with chemical pulp mills) and SNG produced via solid biomass gasification (mainly integrated with sawmills), dominate the solutions. The distribution of these technology cases varies depending on a number of parameters, including criteria for sizing biofuel plants, the electricity price, the biofuel distribution cost and the cost of biomass, and is sensitive to changes in these parameters. Generally, plants with low specific investment costs (i.e., high biofuel production) and/or plants with low specific biomass transportation costs occur most frequently in the solutions. Because these properties often vary significantly among biofuel production facilities at different host industry sites of the same type, the results show the advantage of including site-specific data in this type of model.

  • 15.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Resource efficiency or economy of scale: Biorefinery supply chain configurations for co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 912-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries for the production of fuels, chemicals, or materials can be an important contributor to reducing dependence on fossil fuels. The economic performance of the biorefinery supply chain can be increased by, for example, industrial integration to utilise excess heat and products, increasing size to improve economy of scale, and using intermediate upgrading to reduce feedstock transport cost. To enable a large-scale introduction of biorefineries it is important to identify cost efficient supply chain configurations. This work investigates a lignocellulosic biorefinery concept integrated with forest industry, focusing on how different economic conditions affect the preferred supply chain configurations. The technology investigated is black liquor gasification, with and without the addition of pyrolysis liquids to increase production capacity. Primarily, it analyses trade-offs between high biomass conversion efficiency and economy of scale effects, as well as the selection of centralised vs. decentralised supply chain configurations. The results show the economic advantage for biomass efficient configurations, when the biorefinery investment is benefited from an alternative investment credit due to the replacement of current capital-intensive equipment at the host industry. However, the investment credit received heavily influenced the cost of the biorefinery and clearly illustrates the benefit for industrial integration to reduce the cost of biorefineries. There is a benefit for a decentralised supply chain configuration under very high biomass competition. However, for lower biomass competition, site-specific conditions will impact the favourability of either centralised or decentralised supply chain configurations.

  • 16.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Evaluation of value chain configurations for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass - Integration, feedstock, and product choice2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 144, p. 564-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass constitutes a promising technology to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The product, pyrolysis liquids, can either substitute heavy fuel oil directly, or be upgraded via e.g. hydroprocessing to diesel and petrol. This study presents a systematic evaluation of production costs and CO2 mitigation potentials of different fast pyrolysis value chain configurations. The evaluation considers types of localisations, emissions from electricity and hydrogen production, biomass feedstocks, and final products. The resulting production costs were found to be in the range of 36–60 EUR/MWh for crude pyrolysis liquids, and 61–90 EUR/MWh upgraded to diesel and petrol. Industrial integration was found to be favoured. The CO2 mitigation potential for the pyrolysis liquids was in the range of 187–282 t-CO2/GWh biomass. High variations were found when upgraded to diesel and petrol –best-case scenario resulted in a mitigation of 347 t-CO2/GWh biomass, while worst-case scenarios resulted in net CO2 emissions. Favourable policy support, continued technology development, and/or increased fossil fuel prices are required for the technology to be adapted on an industrial scale. It was concluded that integration with existing industrial infrastructure can contribute to cost reductions and thus help enable the transformation of traditional forest industry into biorefineries.

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